Bitter Gourd Farming: Basic Process And Diseases

Bitter gourd farming or bitter melon farming has become very popular these days. Bitter gourd is popular for its medicinal advantages mainly and some people are in love with its bitter taste also.

Bitter gourd (Carantia Momordica) is an essential crop that has a distinct bitter taste and bitter gourd yield per acre spread. It has been cultivated for its unripe, tubercular fruits. It is a luscious, slightly smooth, climbing vine, covered in dark green leaves and deeply lobed dioeciously yellow flowers. 

Bitter gourd farming has a drug worth and is used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, and blood disorders. Naturopaths are advised to drink fresh bitter gourd milk. In many ayurvedic remedies, roots and wild bitter gourd stems are used.

The fruit is considered a rich vitamin and mineral source and 88 mg per 100 g of vitamin C. After cooking, the fruit is used and after stuffing and frying, delicious preparations are made. Fruits are partly cut, salted, and dried under direct sunlight during times of glut on the market and processed for months. During the glut phase. After baking, this is used. 

Things to Consider Before You Start Bitter Gourd Farming:

The Right Climate Requirment:

It is a mild seasonal plant mostly cultivated in hot and subtropical regions. They are vulnerable to mild frost and are partially protected when grown in the winter months. The 24o- 27oC temperature range is considered optimal for wine growth. When the temperature is above 18oC, the seed germinates best. The crop is sensitive to various fungal diseases due to its high moisture level during vegetative growth.

The Proper Soil

Bitter gourd yield per acre, on well-drained sandy to sandy loam, bitter gourd can be grown; medium-black soils rich in organic matter. Alluvial soil is fine to make bitter gourds in the river beds. An optimum number of pHs between 6.0 and 7.0.

Must Read: Snake Gourd Farming Guide

Planting Method

Land Preparation:

The ground is plucked and tilt-up by 1-2 tilting and flattening cross-sections. Depending on the support scheme to be followed, the furrows are opened at a distance of 1,5-2,5 m.

Method of Planting:

The plant is planted in the plains in autumn, from January to February, while the planting in the rainy season is planted in May. 4-5 kg of seed is needed for the plantation of 1 hectare. Thiram is handled (3 g/kg of seed) before planting.

Plant Support:

As a slow climber Bitter Gourd requires its growth boost. When ploughed without protection, the seedlings traced on the support (bower) still yield for 6-7 months vs 3-4 months.

These vines are less vulnerable to plague and diseases because they are not directly related to the soil. The planting is performed at an interval of 2.5 x 1m in the bower method.

Furs are opened at 2.5 m and canals of drainage are laid at a depth of 5-6 m. On both ends of alternative furrows at a distance of 5 meters are placed timber poles (3 m high). The cables are connected to these poles.

The wires along the furrows are further attached to a network of wires at a 45cm distance. Seminars are sprayed around the furrow at a distance of 1 m and slightly coated in dirt. 

The vines last approximately 1.5 to 2 months to the bower, so the vines are roped until they bower in the first phases of development. If the grapes exceed the height of the bower, the fresh vines travel to the bower.

Manuring and fertilization

The dose of fertilizer to be used would depend on soil variety, soil fertility, temperature, and planting season. The FYM (15-20 t/ha) is generally decomposed well and is mixed during ploughing with the dirt.

The suggested dosage is 50-100 kg N of P2O5 (40-60 kg) and 30-60 kg 25 K2O per hectare. Until planting, half of the N and whole P & K should be included. At the time of flowering, N balance is given. In a 6-7 cm ring from the base of the trunk, the fertilizer is added. Production technology of bitter gourd covers both fertilizer applications should be completed shortly before the fruit is placed.

Irrigation Process

Bitter gourd planting distance or Irrigation may not be required in rainy season crops, where precipitation is well spread between July and September. Bitter gourd planting distance Usually, the ridges are irrigated a day or two before seeds are planted, and, ideally light, they are irrigated for 4 or 5 days after seeds are planted. The irrigation is then conducted weekly. How to grow bitter gourd, To encourage rapid taproot growth, it is important to conserve moisture in the root zone.

Harvesting Tips

How to harvest bitter gourd most common question asked by our audience so here is the answer to it. It takes between 55-60 days to achieve the first harvest for the grapes of it as a bitter gourd growing time. More pickings can be completed 2-3 days after bitter gourd fruits ripen and turn red very quickly.

Fruit selection at the right level of edible maturity depends on individual types and species. Usually, the selection is performed particularly if the fruits are tender and green, so that during transportation the fruits will not turn yellow or yellowish. The harvest should take place in the morning and after harvesting the fruit should be kept in the shade.

Also Read: Ivy Gourd Farming: Planting,Care, and Harvesting


Depending on the crop system, variation, season, and various others, the yield of production technology of bitter gourd varies. Fruit yields vary between 8 and 10 t/ha on average.

Post-Harvest Management

Grading: The fruits are classified according to their size and colour. Usually, the green fruits are 20-25 cm long with short neck and tuberculosis.

Packaging: The fruits are bought in baskets of bamboo or crates of wood. Neem leaves or newspapers are spread as lining material on the bottom until they are packaged. Until shipment to the market, the fruits are carefully collected and sealed with gunny sacks.

Storage: The fruit is eaten fresh and is kept briefly in the shade until it is packed and transported.


Powdery Mildew: This illness is favoured by high moisture and occurs first on older plants. Symptoms occur mainly on the top surface of the leaf as white powdery dust. Circular patches or streaks occur on the bottom surface of the leaves. In serious situations, these stretch out, coalesce and spread to the surfaces, stems, and so on. Severe attacks can lead to brown leaves and shrillness and defoliation. The fruits are not completely developed by the infected plants and are thin.

In the Cercospora leaf spot disease, there should be brown spots on the older leaves of the plant. Gummy stem blight is another serious issue for these plants. The symptoms are v-shaped yellow or brown area at the stem portion and also lesions at the stem. The symptoms of scab disease are brown lesions on leaves. 


Bitter gourd farming is not only beneficial for your health and taste but also your pocket. As the veggie has a good market value, large scale bitter gourd farming can help you make money also. 

You just have to focus on the factors important to keep your bitter gourd plants safe and healthy so that they can bear good fruits. Hope the above-mentioned information is going to help you in the way of bitter gourd farming. Stay healthy, stay blessed.

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