How Long Does it Take Cow Manure to Compost- A Ultimate Guide?

Cow manure typically takes a month or more to compost fully. Temperature, aeration, and composting methods can impact the duration. Regular turning and maintaining the right moisture levels can speed up the process.

For ages, people have been into the idea of using manure to make soil better. Nowadays, it’s getting even more trendy. But, because of germs, diseases, or pesky weeds, it’s important to turn that manure into compost at just the right temperatures. 

To kick off the composting process, making a compost pile and letting it warm up can span from a few days to several weeks. It’s important to maintain a steady temperature within the pile, ideally between 130 to 150 degrees F, for a minimum of 21 days. This period ensures the elimination of potential pathogens and weed seeds. After the manure has undergone composting, move it to a curing bin. 

What is Composting?

Composting involves combining biological and organic leftovers, containing food scraps, leaf clippings, and animal excrement. These residual materials are collected, stacked or piled, and then mixed and slightly moistened to undergo the decomposition process.

Composting is a method that eliminates pathogens present in animal manure, ensuring safety when directly applied to food crops.

Why Composting?

1. Nutrient-rich soil – Composting is a powerful method of converting organic waste into nutrient-rich soil. 

2. Eliminate Pathogen – Composting is a reliable way to eliminate pathogens and harmful bacteria found in raw organic materials, particularly in animal manure. 

3. Eco-Friendly Gardening – Choosing compost over synthetic fertilizers reduces dependence on chemical intakes. 

4. Cost-Effective Solution – Composting is a cost-effective alternative to purchasing commercial fertilizers. It provides a low-cost, high-level solution for improving soil fertility and supporting healthy plant growth.

How long does it take cow manure to compost?

Composting cow manure typically takes one month or more which can depend upon different aspects. This can include turning compost piles, achieving the correct balance of carbon and nitrogen content, good moisture levels and more.

1. Initial Decomposition Stage

The first step is initiating the composting process, where fresh cow manure is collected and combined with other organic materials. This initial stage, known as the decomposition phase, can take anywhere from a few days to several weeks. 

2. Temperature Matters

Achieving the right temperatures is essential in composting cow manure effectively. The compost pile needs to reach and maintain temperatures between 130 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature range is essential as this effectively eliminates potential pathogens and weed seeds.

3. Pile size

A bigger pile has the advantage of retaining more heat, leading to increased warmth. The higher temperature boosts the process of decomposition of manure. 

4. Turning

When you regularly turn your compost pile, you’re giving tiny organisms the air they need to break things down. But, be careful not to turn it too much, or it might get too dry for seeds to grow.

Also Read: Is Cow Manure Good For Chili Plants?

5. Pile Moisture Level

Increasing the moisture in a compost pile accelerates decomposition, as microorganisms thrive in a moist environment. As the compost becomes wetter, it generates heat, further accelerating the decomposition process.

With consistent turning carefully every week or two, your compost pile might transform into rich compost within just one or two months. On the flip side, if the pile is left neglected without any turning or proper care, be prepared for a lengthier journey – it could take anywhere from six months to two years to complete composting. The level of mixing and turning directly influences how fast your manure grows into compost.

How to Make Cow Manure Compost?

Transforming cow manure into nutrient-rich compost is a rewarding experience. Here’s your step-by-step guide on how to turn cow manure into nutrient-rich manure for your plants –

1. Collect Materials

Collect fresh cow manure and ensure it’s well-mixed with bedding material. Include other organic materials such as straw, leaves, and kitchen scraps to balance the compost.

2. Build the Compost Pile

Find a spot where you can create a square pile measuring 3 to 4 feet and still have ample space to turn it around. Begin by covering the area with three inches of dry organic material. Over this, distribute two inches of manure. Repeat this layering process until the pile reaches a height of 4 feet. While constructing the pile, sprinkle it lightly with water to maintain moisture. Finish it by adding a layer of soil on top.

3. Turn and Mix

Turn the compost pile every three days and the pile should not be overly moist. This aerates the mix, promoting microbial activity. Do an even blend of green and brown materials.

4. Check Temperature

Use a thermometer to check the internal temperature. It should ideally reach 50-70 degrees C for effective composting.

5. Transfer to the Curing Bin

Once the composting process is complete, transfer the material to a curing bin. This allows for further decomposition and stabilization.

How to Apply Cow Manure Compost?

Cow manure contains a high N-P-K value and is enriched with essential microorganisms that enhance soil health and encourage robust plant growth. 

Composted cow manure introduces a significant amount of organic matter to the soil, offering numerous advantages for plantations and farming. When applying composted manure to the garden, opt for smaller amounts, typically one-fourth to one-half inch deep. In soils with low organic content, thicker applications, up to 1 inch deep, can be good. 

Benefits of Cow Manure

Cow manure is not just your garden’s ordinary waste but it’s a powerful manure that can work wonders. Let’s see what benefits it is having – 

1. Rich Nutrient Source – Cow manure is packed with essential nutrients. It has nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, it provides plants with the nourishment they need for strong growth.

2. Soil Enhancement – The organic matter in cow manure works wonders for soil structure. It improves soil texture, promotes water retention, and enhances drainage.

3. Microbial Boost – The tiny microbial break down organic matter, releasing nutrients and promoting a healthy soil ecosystem. This microbial activity contributes to disease suppression.

4. Weed Suppression – When applied as compost, cow manure acts as a natural weed suppressor. The dense and rich compost layer helps smother weed growth, reducing the competition for nutrients and sunlight.

5. Cost-Effective Fertilizer – Compared to commercial fertilizers, cow manure is a cost-effective solution. It’s often readily available, either from your own livestock or local farms, making it an affordable and efficient fertilizer option.

6. Safe for Plants – Composted cow manure eliminates the risk of burning plants. Unlike fresh manure, composted cow manure provides a gentle and slow release of nutrients.

Also Read: How to Use Cow Manure for Tomatoes?

How to Know if Cow Manure is Composted?

The completed compost has a rich, crumbly texture and an earthy smell. The pile shrinks by about half, and the original organic items are no longer visible. In hot composting, the pile should stop generating heat when it’s ready.

When Should You Apply Cow Manure?

To ensure safety, fresh manure should be prepared at least four months before harvesting crops that have direct contact with the soil. For other edible crops, applying fresh manure should be done a minimum of three months before harvest. 

Additionally, it’s important to note that fresh manure is suitable for application only in the fall, not during the spring or growing season, especially in areas planted with food crops. This method helps reduce health risks and ensures the safe and responsible use of manure in agricultural practices.

Can you use Fresh Cow Manure directly on soil?

Avoid using fresh cow manure directly on soil, especially for crops consumed raw or in direct soil contact. Instead, compost the manure to eliminate pathogens. If applying fresh manure, do so at least four months before harvesting root crops and three months before other edibles. Apply in the fall, not during the growing season, to minimize health risks.

Check this: Is Cow Manure Good for Potatoes?


Turning cow manure into compost can take a month to a year. Well, this can vary as already mentioned above and this will rely upon various factors as well as your right techniques. From building the pile to letting it mature, each step adds nutrients to the soil for healthier plants. So, in a few months, your cow manure transforms into garden gold.

Is Composted Sheep Manure Safe for Vegetables?

Yes, composted sheep manure is safe for vegetables. It gives beneficial nutrients and improves soil structure too. Ensure proper composting to eliminate pathogens. Use it as a natural fertilizer for healthy vegetable growth.

Growing a lively vegetable garden at home is great for fresh produce, but ensuring its good growth requires proper nourishment. Luckily, there’s an ideal organic solution that is sheep manure as fertilizer. This natural option provides exactly what a vegetable garden needs for strong growth and abundant harvests.

People worldwide have long used sheep manure in gardens—it’s a tried-and-true organic method. Known as “cold manure” for its low nitrogen, it’s a great boost for any garden.

Nutrients in Sheep Manure

Sheep manure is a nutrient-dense organic material that provides the below essential elements for plant growth –

1. Nitrogen (N) – Sheep manure is a good source of nitrogen, a crucial nutrient for leafy green growth. Nitrogen helps the formation of proteins and enzymes, playing a vital role in various metabolic functions within plants.

2. Phosphorus (P) – Phosphorus is essential for root development, flowering, and fruiting. Sheep manure contributes phosphorus to the soil, promoting strong root systems and encouraging strong reproductive processes in plants.

3. Potassium (K) – Potassium is important for overall plant health and resilience. It aids in disease resistance, water uptake, and the regulation of various physiological processes. Sheep manure adds potassium to the soil, enhancing the overall well-being of plants.

4. Calcium (Ca) – Calcium is crucial for cell wall formation and structural integrity in plants. Sheep manure gives a source of calcium, contributing to the strength and health of plant cell walls.

Other nutrients include sodium, magnesium, phosphate and chloride.

Benefits of sheep Manure

Sheep manure is a great way to give veggies the nutrients they need. Here are some benefits of using sheep manure for vegetables – 

1. Rich in Nutrients 

Sheep manure is a powerhouse of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These nutrients are crucial for plant growth, flowering, and fruiting.

2. Soil Improver 

When combined with the soil, sheep manure enhances its structure. It helps in creating well-aerated and loose soil, promoting better root growth and nutrient absorption by plants. The organic matter in the manure also improves water retention in the soil.

3. Organic and Sustainable

Opting for sheep manure aligns with organic gardening practices. It provides a natural alternative to synthetic fertilizers, reducing the environmental impact and promoting sustainability in gardening.

4. Low Odor

Compared to some other manures, sheep manure has a milder smell. This makes it a more pleasant option for those concerned about the odour related to fertilizing their gardens.

5. Microbial Activity

Sheep manure encourages beneficial microbial activity in the soil. These tiny organisms break down organic matter, freeing up nutrients in a form that plants can easily take in.

6. Slow Release of Nutrients

Often referred to as “cold manure,” sheep manure releases nutrients gradually over time. This slow-release quality provides a steady and continuous supply of nutrients to plants, reducing the risk of over-fertilization.

7. Pests and Diseases Resistance

Vegetable gardens are prone to pests and diseases, but using the correct fertilizer can significantly minimize or prevent these challenges. Sheep manure proves quite beneficial as it is rich in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, and calcium. These elements strengthen the plant’s natural immune defences, reducing the chance of pest attacks or diseases.

Also Read: How Much Does a Sheep Farmer Make a Year?

How to Compost Sheep Manure?

Sheep manure waste usually composts in a few days. When placed in long open piles, it typically takes about two weeks to fully mature. Here are the essential steps to create nutrient-rich compost from sheep manure –

1. Start by drying the fresh sheep manure, aiming for a 50-65% water content. Two methods can be used to decrease moisture: use a manure drying machine for large-scale compost preparation or add straw to the manure.

2. After drying the sheep manure, pile it into the groove and mix in additional raw materials like bulking agents(wood chips, wood shavings, sawdust or dry leaves). Normally, the temperature of sheep manure reaches 50°C in the initial week, indicating the successful progress of the composting. Also, regularly mixing the sheep manure mixture will boost the composting process.

3. Wait for a few weeks as the temperature increases. When it rises above 60°C, thoroughly mix and turn the manure compost. Once the compost temperature falls below 40°C, it indicates the sheep manure is fully composted. Ensure that the temperature stabilizes without any fluctuations.

Is it safe to directly apply sheep manure to the garden?

Yes, it is safe to directly apply “well-composted” sheep manure to the garden. Composting is a key step in the process, as it helps eliminate potential pathogens and reduces the risk of burning plants due to excessive nitrogen. 

Below with these key points you will understand better – 

1. Composting – Ensure that the sheep manure has been properly composted before applying it to the garden. This process helps break down organic matter, reduces odours, and eliminates harmful pathogens.

2. Well-Aged – If possible, use well-aged or composted sheep manure, as this allows any excess ammonia or nitrogen to disappear, preventing potential harm to plants.

3. Mixing with Soil – Mix the composted sheep manure into the soil rather than applying it directly to the plant’s base. This ensures a more even distribution of nutrients and reduces the risk of nitrogen burn.

When to Apply Sheep Manure?

In spring, apply sheep manure before planting to allow the gradual breakdown of nitrogen and other nutrients, providing the best environment for plant growth.

During mid-summer, enhance the vigour of existing plants by adding a top dressing of sheep manure, encouraging strong growth throughout the growing season.

Late summer applications offer benefits by nourishing developing fruits or vegetables and improving soil health for the upcoming winter. Consider the timing of harvest for full nutritional content. 

Which Vegetables can grow in Sheep manure?

Sheep manure gives excellent nutrients for a variety of vegetables. Here are some vegetables that thrive when grown in soil enriched with sheep manure –

1. Leafy Greens – Spinach, kale, lettuce, and Swiss chard benefit from the nitrogen content in sheep manure, promoting lush and vibrant foliage.

2. Root Vegetables – Carrots, radishes, beets, and potatoes do well in soil amended with sheep manure. The added nutrients enhance root development.

3. Vegetables – Broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage benefit from the nutrient boost provided by sheep manure.

4. Tomatoes – Sheep manure contributes essential nutrients like potassium and phosphorus in tomato plants.

5. Peppers – Bell peppers and chilli peppers thrive in nutrient-rich soil, making sheep manure a beneficial addition to support their growth.

6. Beans and Peas – Legumes like green beans and peas benefit from the nitrogen content in sheep manure.


Composted sheep manure is a safe and helpful animal waste for vegetable gardens. Through the composting process, any potential risks are disappearing, making it an effective and natural fertilizer. 

Its nutrient-rich composition not only supports the growth of vegetables but also contributes to improved soil structure and overall garden health. So, feel confident in using the composted sheep manure to nurture your vegetable crops and foster a thriving, organic garden. So, go for it and try sheep manure in your vegetable garden now!

How to Cure Four Common Chicken Health Issues with Treats & Supplements

 Do you want to know about chicken keeper’s hidden fear of anything going wrong with their flocks? There are several health issues that chicken can experience.

You raise a few chickens, everything is fine in life. Then one day you walked to the street and saw a dead bird, a sick bird. At that moment, you are in awe of death and think that you have failed to raise chickens. The reality is that sick or injured flocks can affect almost anyone. Of course, there are ways to prevent disease and failure. Today we are going to talk about some of the most common diseases and injuries in chickens and how to treat them effectively.

How to Cure Four Common Chicken Health Issues

1. Digestive Issues

Chicken can suffer from various digestive issues, from feeding problem to ventilation problem. Prevention is a fundamental key to digestion, if you keep your chicken’s guts bacteria healthy, they are less likely to get sick. Feeding chicken with probiotic yogurt once a week is a very valuable treat!

Our flocks also add a tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to the water once a week to control their intestinal flora. If your herd has digestive problems, probiotics are really helpful. Just follow the instructions on the package to manage your flock, and the probiotics will help them heal everything that bothers them.

2. Weak eggshell

Sand is another preventive measure needed to keep chickens digested. Chickens naturally eat the sand in their stomachs to digest food. Chickens raised every day can find the sand they need to stay healthy. Chickens cannot develop freely and need to add sand to maintain their health. Provide sand as an additive of your choice, and then leave the bowl to the chicken. Weak or soft shell is a common problem in chickens. This is due to the lack of calcium in chicken feed. This problem is easy to diagnose and fix. To get a strong, tough eggshell, but if not, you can try some additives.

Ground oyster shells are ideal for most growers facing soft or weak eggs. Oyster shells are provided to their flock’s free choice and are not mixed with feed. Place the bowl in the feeding area and the hens will start to rise. There is also a free solution that works too! Every time you prepare breakfast, save the eggshells of the flock. if you have a dozen eggs, use a mortar and pestle to grind them into powder. Provide a dust-free option for your flock, just like using oyster shells. It has a high calcium content, which can help the eggshell obtain the energy it needs.

Also Read: Top 10 Tips to Keep Your Laying Hens Happy Through the Winter

3. Molting

Molting is a very difficult for your chickens. Not only are your chicken half naked, trembled, and confused, but they also need to quickly re-grow their lost feathers!

Feathers are mainly composed of proteins, so chicken need to add extra protein to their diet during molting so that they can grow healthy feathers. During molting is a great idea to feeding high protein chicken feeders like feather fixer, if you don’t have entry to that, the normal feed can be stick and supplement with protein instead.

 Our favorite Mealworms and grubs are rich in protein that is easy to treat. Mealworms are inexpensive and a long-time favorite for our flocks. It is especially helpful with rate and our birds can eat them frequently. Grubs are costly but it has a pack off with higher protein punch.

4. Behavioral & Stress problems

Stress will not only affect you, but also your flock. Over-stressed chickens suffer from various physical problems and can also be a source of frightening of their fellow flocks. Behavioral problems such as bullying, egg picking, and hiding can be the source of your herd’s overstress and lack of entertainment.

Chicken tends to get stress for the following reasons

  • Introduce a new person to the flock
  • Loose flock member
  • Adding light to the birdcage
  • Re-arrange the cage especially henhouse and nest boxes
  • Lacking of food and water
  • Deficient of roost or nesting box
  • Maximum heat or cold
  • Being caged up too long
  • Predators  hidden in the area
  • Pests like mites, lice or rodents cause destruction on your flocks.

If you observed any of those stressors will be affecting your flock, it’s crucial to address them proper away. Stress now no longer simplest ends in conduct troubles inside the flock however can result in illness, wounds, and death as well. One more good way to reduce stress in your flocks is to divert them with treats and supplement! Chickens which might be entertained are a long way probably to pick on each other. Chickens are very food encouraged creatures, and a number of the subsequent hen toys had been verified to bust that boredom so the flock is happier and healthier.

Ways to entertain your flocks with food

  • Hang a cabbage or head of lettuce from the roof
  • Fill the gift ball with vegetables and observe the chasing among your flocks
  • Fill the feed box with mealworms and observe the flocks play to get out of them.

If you work hard to provide your flocks with everything they need to prevent disease before the disease strikes, you will be fine! Make sure you stock up on the best hospitality, entertainment, and supplements to keep them happy and healthy.

Also Read: How to Start a Chicken Farm Business

Boosting Immunity

Improve the health of chicks through the use of feed additives and additives that optimize nutrient absorption. The use of high-quality food supplements can reduce the microbial load in feed and raw materials, improve digestion, and restore a healthy number of intestinal bacteria.

Top 10 Tips to Keep Your Laying Hens Happy Through the Winter

Do you think your flocks will be stressful during the first winter in the farmer’s shed?

You might be worry about unhappy hens, frozen water, lack of eggs and cold. With the help of few key details your hens will be laying eggs much of the winter, though the production may be slow. It’s important that you will take rest easily when you know your hens are warm and comfortable.

Keep your Hens Happy in Winter

1. Chicken does not need a heater

You don’t think of putting fire or heater in your chicken coop for winter warmth and don’t seal up the coop completely ventilation is requires to prevent moisture build-up, they huddle together for warmth in the coop.

Also Read: How to Start a Chicken Farm Business

2. Use deep litter to keep warm

This deep litter method is one of the ways to give bedding material to chicken coop to build up in a spring, summer and fall. So, in winter you have the composting material on the floor of the coop and the bedding material both will gives the heat to the chicken coop naturally.

3. Don’t lie down unless you provide supplement lighting

The sunlight affects the reproductive cycle of the hen. In early spring, when the sun reaches 14 hours a day, the chickens begin to lay eggs. When the length of the day reaches 16 hours per day, the maximum egg laying appears. This is a biological miracle and the ideal design allows the chicks to hatch in the spring and mature in the warm summer.

The chicks that hatch in the warm spring and summer are more likely to survive than the chicks born in the harsh winter, which gives commercial egg producers and some backyards. Poultry farmers brought in to provide lighting for their houses in the dark winter to prevent chickens from laying eggs for as long as possible.

4. Feed them corns at night to keep them warm all night

Corns are the favourite food for the chicken. So, every evening time in winter feed them with cracked corns before bed and give them something with that digest their food, during the night keep it warmer and it will be happier with full bellies.

5. Hang a head of cabbage as a toy for the chicken

As like human beings chickens can be bored and stir crazy in winter. Make sure that seem to be enjoys a head of cabbage hang to string in between the coop. They go wild picking it with this simple trick you can make your chickens happy.

6. Make them nice sun room

Are you worried about your chicken they don’t have enough space in the coop, you can make the green house style structure cover it with a clear plastic. They will wander out with it and get a more space on nice days and you will take rest easy knowing they are not too restricted and getting some fresh air.

7. Combs and Wattles protects from frostbite through petroleum jelly

In winter season the combs and wattles are prone due to frostbite. So that protect them from this frostbite smear their combs and wattles with petroleum jelly. Hence, if you’re chicken can frostbite nothing serious only the tip of the combs will be affected and it can be look icky?

8. Chicken don’t like snow

In generally if the temperature decreases about the 20 degree Fahrenheit range chicken would not like to walk into the snow. You can disperse on the ground and it will make tastier for them. When the temperature increases nearly 30 degree Fahrenheit then they won’t be walk on the snow as much.

Also Read: The A to Z of Commercial Sheep Farming – A Step to Step Guide

9. Chicken don’t have to be put inside in bad weather

If the chickens are dont want to go outdoors, simply let them to do what they want. They head into their coops and there are harder than your thinking. They are not against the cold as the people assume. Don’t waste your precious time and energy trying to get inside during snow or rain.

10. Roosts are keys

The chicken sit curled together, this keeps them warm and also prevents them from cooling. The stall should be at least 2-3 feet off the ground. Therefore, please make sure that you have enough space for all the chickens to rest comfortably. Check with a flashlight at night when a bird is on the ground, there is not enough space.

Hope these tips can help you relax and make your chickens happy during the colder months. If you have not built a chicken coop before, be sure to visit other people in your area in winter to see with your own eyes how the birds adapt to colder temperatures.

Sheep Farming – A Step to Step Guide

Sheep farming is generally described as ‘commercial breeding of sheep for meat, milk and wool processing.’ It is a traditional business for the communities of several countries worldwide. However, sheep farming is not a successful choice for industrial milk processing. Sheep are ideal for the processing of meat and wool.

You must have adequate facilities such that both small and big Sheep can be raised. It should be acknowledged that the sector of sheep farming is a very lucrative venture. You can desire to earn handsome sheep farming profit within a short period, you can get your savings back. However, create a solid business plan and operate accordingly before beginning a sheep farming company.

Here we will tell you about the benefits of sheep farming. Why should you raise Sheep? What are the conventional sheep breeding methods? And the right ideas for sheep raising.

Also read; Biofloc Fish Farming – A Complete Guide

Sheep Farming Profit – Why Should You Go For It?


Sheep are primarily bred for their development of fur, meat, skin, and manure. Sheep meat is not only quite tasty; it is healthy and famous among all styles of people worldwide. If you decide to find the most successful business then sheep farming may be an outstanding idea as it is a decent source of revenue and for eradicating deprivation from the dry, desert, semi-arid, and mountainous regions.

Look at some of the points below that are must know before you dream to accumulate sheep farming profit.

  • Sheep farming needs less labor than any other cattle growing business.
  • You don’t have to have significant capital to start this venture.
  • An expensive sheep’s house is not needed since they require lesser living space. Sheep should be fed like other cattle.
  • Sheep ingest different kinds of vegetables, just like any other animal group. The good thing about them is that they can survive on low-quality grass. It means that you don’t need to do anything extensive to feed them.
  • One more great thing about the Sheep is they are so adaptable that they can survive in almost all sorts of environments. Be it sheep farming in the USA or somewhere else.
  • Some unemployed young people may even create a reliable source of income and education by growing sheep farming businesses.
Steps To Start Sheep Farming Business

To begin learning to start the first-ever successful sheep farming business, you need to know about the various steps involved in it. No matter whether you do sheep farming in New Zealand, or USA. So, without any ado, let’s quickly dive in. 

1. Plan It The Right Way

The exciting news is that it is straightforward to start a profitable sheep farming venture. First, always make the right plan when starting up a business. And obey that and begin with a stepwise procedure.

2. Suitable location

Then choose a convenient place to start a rather valuable sheep farm. Take charge of the necessary sheep raising facilities. Good clean and freshwater must be available, adequate green areas, right medication, transport, and proper marketing are essential resources for beginning commercial sheep farming. Consequently, the following things must be held in mind when choosing a suitable location for sheep farming.

3.  Quality of breeds

You should try to buy quality breeds from renowned breeders. There are various sheep types worldwide. However, you must be mindful that not all such kinds are ideal for farming in all regions. On the one side, certain varieties are suitable for producing industrial meat and others to produce wool. Choose the appropriate breed according to your desired output. Local races should be taken into consideration.

4. Housing

Interestingly, sheep do not need expensive housing. They will be comfortable even if you meet the basic housing needs. You can also breed them on a small scale with other farm animals. However, if you want to rear them commercially, then you would require an appropriate place. You will also have to take care of their safety—the safety from adverse weather along with some dangerous animals.

An adult sheep needs roughly 20 square feet of space available. Like, you will make a house of 10×20 feet, if you want to raise ten goats. The roof will be at least 6 feet high from the ground with a strong airflow structure. It should be clean and dry, with ample light and air inside the room. It will be helpful if you have a drainage system inside the building. 

5. Feeding the Sheep

Healthy nutrition of Sheep is a must for proper growth and optimum output. High-quality food makes them safe, active, and free from diseases. Therefore, always consider feeding your Sheep with good food of high quality. Usually, all grasses, plants, and maize are their favorite. In addition to the above, please offer your Sheep enough fresh and clean water on demand.

6. Fencing

You must fence around the field if you allow them to graze on the ground. The fence must be sturdy enough to keep them from escaping and remaining securely inside. This can serve to keep all sorts of animals away if the fencing is secure. It is best to construct a wire or a woven fence.

7. Caring   

To ensure maximum benefit from your sheep farming venture, you must care and manage your Sheep properly. It is recommended to buy quality and productive cattle, feed them nutritious meals. Also, make a comfortable house for them. 

8. Vaccinate the Sheep

Vaccinate the pets properly. It will protect them from different disease forms. One ought to have a good relationship with the veterinarian, so you can always ask for support.

9. Marketing Hack

For marketing, try your nearest livestock market. Identify marketing tactics before starting a business. Also, a foreign exchange may be regarded if you have enough facilities. Sheep goods have strong international demand. Therefore, foreign currency can be gained by selling sheep products. It will also boost national income directly. Poor people can win extra money by rearing small-scale goats.

Look at some popular sheep breeds

As mentioned above, there are various sheep breeds. So, you need to be very choosy when it comes to making this business profitable. Here we are only going to discuss some of the most famous sheep breeds concerning the USA and New Zealand.

Sheep farming in the USA: Breeds

More than 60 sheep species are recognized by the American Sheep Industry Association (ASI). A few were recently added through semen and embryos. Others have been introduced to the American colonies with early settlers and helped to develop trade. Katahdin, Berkshire, Essex, Dorper, Dorset, and Southdown are the six groups with the most ethnic records. While not in the top six breeds, the Rambouillet is perhaps the most significant breed in the United States, as it forms the basis of most Western flocks. The Livestock Conservancy categorizes fewer common species, whose aim is to prevent the disappearance of endangered animals and breeds of poultry.


It is one of the prominent breeds when it comes to sheep farming in the USA. It is a fat-tailed sheep, which is also the highest milk producing cattle, too. Awassi has heads and legs in white and brown colors. So, it won’t be wrong to call them multicolored. Its long and drooping ears are what make them even more attractive. Rams are horned, and the ewe is pounded. It has excellent adaptability for even poor feeding. In 2012, Awassi was first introduced in the USA via embryos.

American Blackbelly

The American Blackbelly is indeed the result of the Mouflon and Rambouillet crossing of the Barbados Blackbelly mainly to raise rams for trophy hunting. And is very popular when talking about sheep farming in the USA. Rams exhibit impressive horns usually, whereas ewes are polled. Without it, American Blackbelly has characteristics identical to Barbados Blackbelly.

Babydoll Southdown

The Babydoll Southdown is a smaller variant of Southdown, created by breeders who decided to return the Southdown to the roots until selective breeding. To apply for the entry, sheep must weigh shorter than 24 inches (during shearing). Babydolls are also marketed for the field and vineyard farming because of their limited size. They are mostly born as poultry.

Black Welsh Mountain

The Black Welsh Mountain is a little sheep generating a thick black fleece. Ewes are polled. Nevertheless, rams have incredible horns. In 1973, this breed was founded in the United States. Semen imports introduced genetic variation to these flocks in the late 1990s. The protection of livestock implies that this sheep breed is threatened.

Sheep farming in New Zealand

New Zealand, too, has a wide range of sheep breeds. Knowing about them may help you in exploring some more productive sheep breed.


Since its roots, sheep farming in New Zealand has been strongly associated with this flock. Export revenue stemmed mostly from wool purchases, but early in the century, a booming export meat trade with the United Kingdom (which was quite diversified), with the introduction of cooling meat transportation and meat processing, became significant.

There is also a vast region of New Zealand between the sparser grass that fits the Merino and the more fertile grasslands that are the ideal for the Romney and another British longwool. Crosses of these two forms were regarded early in the pastoral tradition of New Zealand.

Border Leicester

This breed is Dishley Leicesters’ linear descendants. In 1767, Matthew and George Culley, who were disciples of the English geneticist Bakewell, started to bring them to Northumberland and eventually became popular in England and southern Scotland.

The Border Leicester offers the crossbred progeny with healthy fertility and reasonable mothering consistency and is used for growing reproduction in commercial flocks such as Romney, Corriedale, and Merino. The Leicester Line was used to create the Border-Romney crossing and the Border-Corriedale hence also called Borderdale in New Zealand.


The South African Department of Agriculture agreed in the 1930s to grow a new breed of sheep that had a decent portion of lambing and created a good quality carcass. The Dorper is a cross between the Dorset Horn and the Persian Blackhead. The breeding system led to the Black and the White Dorper. The breed is set to give the features and characteristics a robust replication.

Keep these vital functions of sheep farming in mind:

  • Sheep collection and purchasing
  • lamb feeding, weaning,
  • housing and shelter maintenance,
  • culling, record keeping, marking

Bonus Tip:

To run any business competitively, every owner needs to update him to the latest changes in the sheep rearing industry and technology. In this case, reading journals, newspapers, or sheep farming webpages may be handy. You can even visit some farms in your town, gather experience and finally do it.


It is not, so that sheep farming business is risk-free. There are so many issues that need more significant consideration on the owner’s part. Many questions come up in sheep farming, such as defending the Sheep from threats, housing arrangements, cold weather protection, diseases, etc.

Among these issues, sheep suffer most from diseases and predators. Create adequate fencing to cover your goats. Vaccinate diseases early to avoid goats. They are safe from various forms of diseases, which are the most dangerous challenge.

Know Everything About Cow Farm – A Comprehensive Guide

Cow farm implies “commercial raising of high-milk cows for the processing of milk. It is a part of agriculture or husbandry. Dairy cow raising is not a new idea. People breed dairy cows from ancient times for milk processing. Dairy cow raising appears to be a lucrative industry worldwide. 

There are several modern and quite well-established cow farms worldwide. Here we explain more about the benefits of dairy cow farming and how this thriving sector can be established.

Dairy farming calls for the experience to thrive. The selection of a strong cow race is one of the significant factors for productive dairy farming anywhere in the world. It is an enormous task and challenge to select the right cattle for commercial dairy farms. 

What Are The Advantages Of Dairy Farming?

cow farming

The launch of a thriving dairy cow farming venture has many advantages. Here we describe the significant benefits of the business.

  • Milk and dairy products are in high demand worldwide. This is one of the first and most important benefits of starting a cow farm.
  • Today, the dairy farm is one of the most in-demand businesses as the demand for milk is always going to be there. It may never die as milk is a part of daily life.
  • You don’t have to think about marketing. Since it is one of the traditional business models so you can rest assured to sell your goods quickly.
  • The dairy farm doesn’t pollute the environment, unlike other manufacturing industries. So, it’s eco-friendly.
  • You can start milk production with your family members. Isn’t it great flexibility that most of the other business models don’t offer? And it’s always a great idea, to begin with, the minimum investment. In this case, starting a dairy farm with your family members won’t force you to push on your budget.
  • Proper strategic plans and good management and care will ensure maximum benefit. For the unemployed trained young people, it can be a great income source and employment opportunity as well. 

Starting A Dairy Farm Business

It is not so easy to start a dairy cow farming business. You must proceed step by step to make high-profit margins from this venture. Here we will identify the critical steps towards starting a successful dairy cow farm. The cycle begins with the collection of proper races, houses, feeds, treatment & administration, and marketing. Consider the follow-up during the start of this project.

Steps To Start A Dairy Farm:

Great. You are all set to begin your first ever venture into cow farming. But keep these things in mind beforehand to avoid any sort of trouble. 

1. Ask Yourself Some Questions

Try first to decide your business aim. Ask yourself a few prominent questions. To say, why would you like to start milk cow farming? Will you have enough cow-raising facilities? Would you have the time to care for your cows? Will you handle all the cows’ facilities? 

2. Take Some Idea

It’s great if you can visit any of your local dairy cow farms. Try to understand the techniques, processes, and business models. So that you may apply them to creating a successful business. It’s indeed an effective way to do it in the right direction.

3. Spend A Few Days In Cow Farm

If you can invest a few days in an existing farm, it will be better. You will be capable of learning more from farmers about this sector. There is one more thing. You can consult the veterinarian and talk about dairy cow farming possibilities in your locality.

4. Feeding Cattle

 Be sure that ‘you can feed cows nutritiously all year round.’ To learn more about feeding prices, visit your local market. If you want to make your food, consider reserving certain products for hot or rainy seasons.

5. Cow For Dairy Farm

Not all the cows are good, to begin with. Each race of the cows has its pros and cons. Some cow races are known for their excellent milking potential, whereas some might be good to save you some dime. So, it’s always better to do some research on the best cow for a dairy farm, before you make any choice.

6. Training Of The Dairy And Farm Workers

In large commercial farms, professional people are working. The point is you can learn their way of working and then replicate the same when you train your workers.

7. Selling Strategy

Seek to sell your goods on the local market in the event of marketing. This reduces the expense of advertisement or transport.

Also read; Biofloc Fish Farming – A Complete Guide

What Kind Of Dairy Cow Breeds Are The Best?

Many dairy cow breeds are available all over the world. You can choose something according to your location, local facilities, and production. Below are a few most popular cow breeds for the farm.

  • Ayrshire
  • Brown Swiss
  • Guernsey
  • Holstein Friesian
  • Jersey
  • Milking Shorthorn

Apart from the kinds mentioned above, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, are also some of the most prominent and popular dairy cattle breeds. So first, Consider the environment, local facilities, and demand on the market for dairy products and choose races for your dairy cow farming accordingly. Okay, let’s discuss a few of the cow breeds one by one.

Cow Farming: Holstein Breed

The Holstein or Holstein-Friesians are the most identifiable breed of the dairy cow breeds. In the 1850s, they were introduced from Holland and became a common cow in the dairy farm of America. Many of them have black and white color but are recognized in red and white. Some are mainly white and often all-black cows. The Holstein cows are known for their sweetness, gentleness, and good instincts. 

Brown Swiss

Raised in Switzerland, Brown Swiss is one of the popular dairy cow breeds. The Brown Swiss is not only perfect; they are quick to mature, which means that their age at first is much older than Holstein. Brown Swiss has good milk production ability, which is right for your business.

It is a big race with a grayish color called a brown swiss. In the late 1800s, Brown Swiss was introduced to the dairy farm of America. Brown Swiss are about 1500 pounds. The average milk production per year is 2200 pounds, with 919 pounds of butterfat and 750 pounds of protein.

It is a successful breed and is frequently sought after for the agriculture of cheese. As the race fits well in many different climates, it is a strong race for many farm types.


Guernsey came from Guernsey Island next to Jersey Island. The creamy golden milk provided by the cows was a famous race in the early 1900s. Unfortunately, the Guernsey race had neither the development nor the construction to adapt to the commercial milk business.

Guernseys are one of America’s rarest dairy cow breeds. The competition is excellent for hand milking, and several small family farms love the race. Fourteen thousand pounds of milk per year with high butterfat and protein content differentiates Guernsey.

The milk also contains significant amounts of beta carotene. The cows eat less feed per pound of milk than the larger milk cows. The breed standards have been carefully maintained since their introduction in the late 1800s. This race is reviving in the dairy sector.

What’s Next On The Cow Farming Guide?

Until now, you might have gotten a decent idea about the various types of cow breeds. Advantages of cow farming and the steps to set the best foot forward to start your first ever venture. Now you need to know about the ways you can grow this business and make the maximum out of it. Also, you would know some other requirements to get into the business of cow farming.


The first on the list is housing. Decent housing is essential to keep your cows healthy, competitive, and ailments free. Provide space for your cows inside the house according to the breeds. Usually, 80 square feet of room and 40 square feet of house space are needed for each cow. It can vary according to the size of the cattle. Make an appropriate ventilation system and ensure ample fresh air and light flow into the room. The concrete house is healthy for cows.


Good food ensures good health and optimum production. Seek to provide your cows with high quality and nutritious food in adequate quantities to ensure healthy growth and well-being. The most popular form of feed used for growing dairy cows is foraging, which mainly refers to hay or straw. Apply cereal grains to the feed of the dairy cow to fulfill energy requirements.

Greens contribute to the overall production of milk. Add greens to their daily foods as much as possible. Greens also contribute to reducing the cost of food. Alfalfa, timothy, clover, etc. are healthy greens for milky cows. Build a pasture for your cows, if possible—provision of enough safe and freshwater in tandem with enough nutritious foods.

Dairy cows need more water than any animal. Since their milk is primarily increased, and their milk contains a lot of water. A milk cow typically needs approximately 5 liters of water to produce 1 liter of milk. Provide them with enough water to satisfy their demand.

Cow Needs Good Care & Management

The right treatment and proper management are a critical step to success in any livestock sector. So please seek to look after your cows well. Feed them with healthy food and supply them with ample fresh and clean water. Vaccinate them in time so you can keep them free of any illness or disease. Do store some necessary drugs if possible. Keep your house clean and frequently wash the cow.

Milking The Cow

Find a peaceful place to milk your cows. It’s safer if you can afford a separate milking room for the cow. You can both milk the cows by hand and use milking machines. Make sure you have a good practice to keep your cows happy during milking.

Marketing Dairy Farm Products

Set your marketing strategies before commencing your business. Ask why? To ensure that you wouldn’t have to struggle hard to set your foot as we have already discussed that dairy products are in huge demand across the world. But initially, you can’t target the world market. So, it’s better to give it a start from your local market. 


You are now aware enough about dairy farming and its various facets. Our aim in this guide about dairy farming, cow breeds, and kickstarting your first dairy farm business we have tried to keep the things as short and as concise as possible.

So, we hope that this guide may come handy, and you are able, to begin with, your dream project. However, we make no recommendations. All the facts have been presented as it is.

Goat Farming – Must-haves Before Embarking

The global population of goats continues to expand, now approaching one billion. The number of goats raised mainly for milk production is also increasing as demand grows. Much of the world’s dairy goat output and use are in Asia.

Still, a global perspective of the dairy goat industry provides valuable lessons to develop productive modern dairy goat industries. Europe, particularly France, considers the most regulated market for goat milk. 

The Extent Of Goat Farming Worldwide

goat farming

The European goat sector specializes in milk processing, mainly for commercial cheesemaking, though maintaining conventional on-farm growth. State participation is essential in governing, investigating, developing, funding local supplier associations and markets, and maintaining health and efficiency. Nonetheless, manufacturers often face demand volatility.

Also read: Sheep Farming – A Step to Step Guide

Modern dairy goat industries prove goat farming profitable

Advanced dairy goat industries are emerging in countries with no long goat milk tradition like China, the U.S., and New Zealand due to increasing market demand, high prices, and climate change. The strategy, management, and consumer mix vary greatly.

Still, irrespective of region, the dairy goat sector thrives when farmers have exposure to markets and tools and expertise to manage their livestock and natural resources sustainably.

Those are accomplished more readily by robust, equitable producer associations, access to professional support, and policies that allow vulnerable and disadvantaged communities to profit from through demand.

Evidence of why goat farming is profitable!

The global dairy-goat industry is increasingly growing. Besides safe and nutritious milk-based products provide sustainable livelihoods, particularly in resource-limited areas, and help smallholders to accumulate assets.

Well-managed goats may also support the ecosystem by weed management, fire protection, habitat conservation, and climate change mitigation. It is mainly attributed to their collection and feeding behaviors. In addition to milk, dairy goats have other incentives for owners, including leather hides, meat animals, and fertilizer manure. They can create income sources while grazing under trees on oil palm plantations.

Goat farming for meat

Goats that are farmed for meat processing comprise the bulk of the world population. In developed parts of the world, goats are generally considered as a specialty or exotic livestock. In contrast, in developing countries, particularly in South-East Asia and Africa, goats are the primary source of meat production (Dhanda et al. 2003).

South Africa’s Boer Goat is the only recognized breed chosen for meat processing. Other types include Anglo-Nubian (dual-purpose animals), Kiko of New Zealand, Damascus, and Spanish. There are various crosses between Boer bucks and dairy goats. Many local breeds have meat characteristics in different areas of the world.

Why would people buy goat meat and milk?

The answer to this question will be the answer to your question about why to do goat farming?  People will buy goat’s milk as it is a good source of nutrition and has several health benefits. It is due to these health benefits goat farming for milk is a lucrative business.

It was provided that it was eaten in adequate quantities. It has comparable protein, lower fat, higher calcium, magnesium, potassium, identical iron, and lower B12 and folate content. On the other side, goat meat produces weak saturated fatty acids and cholesterol and is a safer option to other red meat forms. Therefore, goat farming for meat is a good idea.

Leather production from goat

Goatskin leather is used for soft hide pockets, hats, gloves, and other items. Traditionally, leather bookbinding was favored. Untanned goat skins are used as containers for beer, kefir, food, etc. High-quality goat skins from Bangladesh Black Bengal breed.

Advantages of goat farming for milk and meat
  • The initial investment in goat farming is significantly less than dairy farming.
  • You can even start goat farming with one goat and then gradually increase to a herd.
  • Goats will, in no small degree, bear bitter tastes compared to other species. They also eat nearly all kinds of plants that other species do not consume.
  • Mutton and goat meat are much in demand, and there is also no religious, social taboo about it. It produces lean beef and has less cholesterol.
  • The small fat globules in the goat’s milk make it easily digestible. 
  • It’s dropping a vast amount of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus.
  • You start to get milk’s goat as soon as they grow 15 to 17 months older.

Goat Breeds

If you are still searching for the answer to your question, “Is goat farming profitable?”  read this and get the right answer.

1. Fainting Goat

The Fainting Goat is a domestic goat breed. It also has other names, including Myotonic Cup, Tennessee Fainting, Tennessee Meat, Anxious, Rigid, Texas Wooden Leg, Rigid Beet, and Scare Cups. A race trait known as myotonia congenita is referred to under the term “Fainting,” a condition in which the muscle cells are prolonged when the goat is shocked. The exact origin of this breed of goats is unknown.  

Characteristics of fainting goat

Fainting goat is smaller than the standard breeds of goat. The most common colors are black and white in this breed, but most potential colors are also present in this species. The Fainting goats have wide, distinctive eyes on high bases. The hair can be either short or thick, with some people grow a lot of cashmere in colder months. 

2. The British Alpine

The British Alpine Goat is a domestic goat breed mainly used for milking. It was produced by other breeds of Toggenburg goat in the early 1900s. The goat of Toggenburg has the same Swiss marks. The British alpine goat, native British goats, and Nubian goats were produced from the Toggenburg.

The breed is known for producing high-quality milk as well as prolonged lactations. The race was brought to Australia in 1958 and is spread throughout the world. Although maybe not as much as other milking goats like the Saanen horse.

Characteristics of British Alpine Goat

British Alpine Goat is a beautiful animal and looks pretty good. They typically have white Swiss markings in black paint. But at times, a black goat will appear, and the breed is sometimes referred to as ‘all black’ or ‘black Saanen goat.’

Although their slim black coat lights up because of the absence of copper in the diet (copper is one of the essential minerals for all goats, and its color may indicate its consumption of copper). The breed has a traditional ‘clover’ shape, typical in some other dairy goat breeds.

Like many other milk-based goats, British Alpine goats are often distributed. You have hair, ears upright, and a straight muzzle line. The perfect bucks height is 95 cm and 83 cm.

3. Arapawa Goat Characteristics & Breed Information

The Arapawa goat is a dual-purpose domestic goat raised for the production of meat and milk. Arapawa goat is simply a wild race of a local goat and one of the rare species of goat in the nation. The breed was found isolated in the Marlborough Sounds of New Zealand on the Island of Arapawa.  

Characteristics of Arapawa Goat

Arapawa goat is a comparatively small breed of goat. It is smaller than modern dairy breeds. The goats of Arapawa come in different colors and patterns. Brown, black, fawn and white are typical colors and patterns.

Must Read: Dairy Farming

The race typically has distinct faces and several goats and bowl stripes. They have bright labels and black and brown patchwork.

4. Aspromonte Goat 

The Aspromonte goat is a domestic goat raised for the production of meat and milk. It is also called Aspromonte or Capra dell’Aspromonte. The species is named after the Aspromonte mountain range in the province of Reggio Calabria, in southern Italy.

Aspromonte goat is only grown in Reggio Calabria, mostly in Aspromonte, on the plateau of Zomaro (Altipiano Dello Zomaro) in the north-east and on the province’s ionic coastlines, and in the Germanic areas in particular.

Characteristics of Aspromonte Goat

The goat Aspromonte is a medium-sized dual-purpose goat breed. Their head is tiny and their face is straight. They have horizontal or upright ears. Their abdomen is relatively broad, with a straight back and a sloping rump, for the size of the animal. The udders with medium size teats have been firmly attached.

Both bucks and bucks are barbed and have horns typically. The head and bucks’ antlers are more significant than the deer. The bucks have more muscular extremities and more robust fur. The Aspromonte goat’s coat is long with a ruddy cassava-like undercoat.

Their color varies. Red and white, black and white, blue, orange, orange, and gold are the most common colors. Aspromonte’s average height is about 69 cm and the bucks about 73 cm.  

5. Appenzell Goat

The Appenzell Goat is a dairy goat breed raised primarily for the production of milk. The race comes from Switzerland’s Appenzell region. It was named after its place of origin. Some other names like French are given to Appenzell Goat. It is a relatively old breed of goats and has been recorded for more than 100 years. The Appenzell was founded in Innerrhoden in February 1902.  

Characteristics of Appenzell Goat

The goats of Appenzell are medium-sized creatures. It is pure white with medium-length hair and a healthy, harmoniously formed body. Appenzell goats have connections with the Saanen goat, but their body is a little broader than those of Saanen goat and, therefore, significantly smaller.

What to consider making goat farming profitable

  • Location: The best places for a goat farm are far from cities because urban congestion is bad for animal safety. As goats eat a lot of grass every day. You must also ensure that your food supply is very convenient and not too far from the breeding area.
  • Land: Goats can be intensively grown on small acres with additional feed. If you use a comprehensive scheme, 2 to 8 goats per acre would be a rough guide for grass and brush supplies.
  •  Veterinarian: Simple access to a veterinarian is a significant factor. If you start a goat farm, your goats are likely to contract diseases. A veterinarian can, therefore, help reduce losses in disease control and management. They help you diagnose diseases or advise on supplements to keep your pets safe, particularly in stressful situations such as weaning.
  • Transportation: A market close to the farmland is best, as it allows you to sell your commodities and buy the goods required simply.
  • Care: Always try to care for your goats properly. Do not feed them with tainted food or water. Keep your home as tidy and safe as you can. You must frequently clean your room. Take extra care of the children and the pregnant. Keep the kids some weeks after their birth with their mother.

What to consider making goat farming profitable

  • Location: The best places for a goat farm are far from cities because urban congestion is bad for animal safety. As goats eat a lot of grass every day. You must also ensure that your food supply is very convenient and not too far from the breeding area.
  • Land: Goats can be intensively grown on small acres with additional feed. If you use a comprehensive scheme, 2 to 8 goats per acre would be a rough guide for grass and brush supplies.
  •  Veterinarian: Simple access to a veterinarian is a significant factor. If you start a goat farm, your goats are likely to contract diseases. A veterinarian can, therefore, help reduce losses in disease control and management. They help you diagnose diseases or advise on supplements to keep your pets safe, particularly in stressful situations such as weaning.
  • Transportation: A market close to the farmland is best, as it allows you to sell your commodities and buy the goods required simply.
  • Care: Always try to care for your goats properly. Do not feed them with tainted food or water. Keep your home as tidy and safe as you can. You must frequently clean your room. Take extra care of the children and the pregnant. Keep the kids some weeks after their birth with their mother.


That’s all about goat farming. So, whether you do goat farming for milk or meat, you can make it a profitable business.


How Many Months Does it Take Turkey to Grow?

Rising animals for different purposes is not a very new idea. People have been raising various kinds of animals and birds for multiple purposes. It is ultimately a magic of science that has given us different techniques to raise and use different organisms for mankind.

Turkey is commercially very profitable and excellent to raise birds. These birds are very easy to raise and don’t require a lot of specific care. Even the numbers can be very good at a time and same as broiler chicken people do love to have turkey for an excellent evening.

They are famous for basically two reasons, eggs and the meat they produce. If you talk of poultry business and if you are a newcomer, Turkey can be the best one to start with.

How to start Turkey Farming?

If you think that Turkey will need a specific environment or some tough handling, then you completely have got wrong. These birds are very friendly and like to interact with humans. They are very similar to chickens and ducks, and hence one can find it very easy to maintain them. Tukey likes to be social, and the interaction often is great.

One should keep in mind that Turkey needs easy care, and hence we have some basic steps you should follow before raising them.

  • Choosing the best breed, you need to raise-

Turkey is a very diverse genus, and hence you need to select properly the breed you want to go for. Many breeds of Turkey are hard to raise, and they don’t have that much profit commercially. The time is taken to raise, and the amount of care and feeding one has to provide the bird really does matter. You should keep in mind that in Turkey Farming you will have to be selective and will have to go with the one that can bring profit to your Business.

There are many breeds that are not that efficient in meat to price ratio. Many of these birds don’t have a lot of edible meat, and hence the profit margin comes down. Even the gestation period or the period in which these birds lay eggs is an important fact to have a note upon.

Some of the breeds lay a good amount of eggs at a time while the others don’t. You need to study all the Tukey’s well for a good selection. Even the amount of the feed you are going to provide you becomes important as it can be an economic factor for the businessman.

  • Economic stability-

Another very important point to take care of is the Economic stability of the farmer. It completely depends on you and your financial status of how big and complicated your farm can be.

Everything which the Tukey’s do need can vary a lot depending on how you are approaching. It is a fact that the more you invest in a business, the bigger it is, but we will suggest going with a simple approach at first. Try doing it and managing it on a small scale and hence get an experience of how to approach Turkey farming.

Also Read: A Complete Business Guide to start Emu Farming

  • You will have to house them well- this means that the fencing and area where you will be keeping and growing birds should have good facilities. The fencing even matters a lot of Turkeys as these are very strong and big birds. They will require constant care to raise and hence the birds to require good housing facilities.

Even to get your Business on the road of commercialization, you will need to provide the birds with good facilities. You can have some points in your mind before going with anything to house them. New technologies such as electric fencing for poultry and wooden houses with good facilities are important in raising the bird. You must have good predator resistance as they are very prone with their strong smell to them.

On the other side, the birds are larger than the usual chickens and commercial birds so you will need even better protection and arrangements. Space and ventilation are very important to promote fast growth. Keeping the number of birds in your mind, you will have to pre-plan everything.

Cleaning the area of raising these birds is very necessary for a hygienic environment. Try keeping the fence as strong as possible and high above the ground, because once they are grown up they are strong birds and you don’t want to lose them because of such reasons.

  • Feeding and watering

Another aspect of poultry farming is feeding your bird. Turkey is a very big bird, and it needs a good amount of diet. Even the protein content is to be taken care of in the feed you will be providing. The least amount of protein which these birds need is 28 % of their daily intake, which gives you a lot to take care of. Even the quantity does increase with turkey.

The water needs to be good and pure. These birds easily catch diseases with water as an agent. You will have to provide them with gallons of water to make them stay hydrated and then also make sure there is no presence of any harmful pathogen in the water. Good food and water can make them grow faster and give you better results both with meats and eggs.

  • A good caring environment

It really does not matter if you’re opting for such a farming technique just for Business. The bird does need very good care. It will have to be in the good management of you and your team. You will have to take care of any type of contamination, space and other such factors. Even you will have to maintain hygiene with your veterinary doctor. All you need is to love them and raise them.

If we are talking about Business, we can’t forget the profit. So the next question up here will be-

How much turkey farmers make?

On average, a farmer with Turkey farming deals with more than $30,000. It completely depends on your way, and the meat you get that will make your profit. Mostly Turkey gives you 7-12 kg of meat. Eggs are also an important commercial factor. In India, Turkey is not a very common bird so the prices are high whereas in many countries, Turkey is very common and hence the consumption rate will give immense profit. Moreover, $15 in an hour is the most common price people get with this farming. It is a very good earning rate for a common farmer, and hence it’s great to have such a business.

Turkey Farming Facts

So in this section, we will take you into some of the most amazing facts about Turkey Farming. This will help you in raising a successful business.

  • They are not all vegetarian animals- there are not pure veg eating birds. It’s really great to notice that they are omnivores. They like to eat worms and other meats too. Isn’t it great as the bird can be fed on a good amount of protein in no time and even at very reasonable prices? It has both merits and demerits with this point, and hence you can have the edge over other types of birds.
  • Turkey is a very sensitive animal. Though these birds don’t need lots of demands, you will have to take care of them every day. You just can’t skip vacation for a few days from your farm as this might lead you in big trouble. Your birds can even die if left alone. A good survey and regular reports should be there to keep the check. The farmer needs to be very specific with these conditions before going for such a farm. Even the maintenance is sometimes high, so be ready to face the conditions.
  • Turkey is very different with hormones- if you contact a doctor for your flock of Turkey, you will get to know how different these birds are. One cannot store antibiotics and other tablets for future use with Turkey. They need new prescriptions every time. The animal is sensitive, and these birds easily get influence from others.
  • The young turkey can look sick- don’t worry and panic up if you see that the young turkeys in your farm have spots on their body that lack features. They’re very normal and can be due to the changes these birds go through. These birds do lose all their features during the development, and eventually, new features come up on the grown bird. It is just like humans losing the first set of deciduous teeth and further getting the permanent one.
  • They are best friends- Unlike any other bird, Turkey is very beautiful in colonizing. They really love each other a lot and hence are often seen in groups. They like to share their food, keep care of other mates and their babies and a lot more. They do like to be in a group just like a group of best friends do hang out.
How long will it take to raise a Turkey?

Talking on the point that what will be the time in which a Turkey can grow up fully so that one can use it commercially then this really depends on the selection and care. A Turkey on average does have a life span of 10 years and hence needs time to gain maturity enough to be profitable.

On the other side, a Turkey just needs 4-5 months to grow up and acquire the maximum size, so don’t be in the wrong thought that you will have to wait for years. Above 16 weeks it will get fully grown up, and hence a farmer can use it for his own commercial purpose. Six months can be enough to sell these birds in the market with meat aspects.

Turkey weight gain chart

This is a very important chart to maintain as you can get a very accurate data of how your birds are doing. The chart contains important data as the food intake, the medication that the bird ate and other such details. Everything gets a good measure of how the management is going which helps you to keep track of all your Turkeys. Isn’t it great to have such a chart? It really can help you to go swiftly with your farming.

Turkey Growth stages

Like any other bird, a turkey needs different nutritional requirements at different stages of their life cycles. In the beginning, when Turkey is just a small bird, it needs the most care. Even the heat which one has to provide in such a stage is very much specific. You can not provide more or less in this case. In the beginning, it does look the same as a small chick. Soon the features will start coming on the main body. This leads to ease in your work. The bird in this age starts taking care of itself and is well mature enough to be left in a more open environment.

The main point which makes a turkey different from all the other in the growth stages is the amazing size change the bird goes through. Just in 6-7 weeks, it grows up to a big strong bird, and this is not seen in any other such poultry animal.

Turkey farming profit

Sometimes the profit depends on the area of raising. In many countries, people don’t consume this bird a lot, and hence the sales get down. Also, it’s seen that the market gets boosts in different seasons or occasions. American do consume the normal amount of turkey during Thanksgiving thrice. The meat of turkey is very rich in lots of vitamins and is a portion of complete party food. The bird on an average expenditure of Rs200-300 gives a profit of more than Rs500. It might differ on size and the sex of the bird.


Turkey Farming doesn’t need a lot of complication. It is very swift and makes a good profit. The article was our effort to help people with Turkey Farming, and we hope it helps you out. Just keep stick up to the basics, and things are done.


Turkey Farming: Profitable Business Starting Plan For Beginners

How to start Emu Farming (Complete Business Guide)

Emu farming in USA is a very popular and productive business model. Emus are among the large-sized poultry birds having connections from the ratite group and play a very important role in economies around the world. They produce productive meat, eggs, oil, feathers, as well as skin. And the best part is, they adopt in almost all types of climates and agricultural conditions.

Farmers can raise these large-sized birds in both semi-intensive as well as extensive systems. Countries like the USA, Australia, and China are the leaders in emu farming.

And the climate in countries like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, etc. is also very favourable for emu farming. If you are planning for a profitable emu farming business, you are going in the right direction.

Starting an emu farming business in the US is very easy, and you can start it anytime, especially if you own some land. But before starting, you need to know the right emu farming information. Factors like housing, breeding, caring, feeding, disease management, and atmosphere can make a lot of difference in a successful, profitable, and wayward, fruitless farming.

Also Read: Quail Farming – A profitable business for farmers having small lands

Some interesting facts about emus

  • Emu comes from the species “DromaiusNovaehollandiae.”
  • They belong to the group of ratite families with other birds like Kiwi and Ostrich etc.
  • Birds from ratite are known for “not flying.”
  • These birds can adapt to almost all kinds of weather and conditions, from excessive cold to extreme heat. And hence, emu farming in the US is not a challenge from a weather point of view.
  • They survive for as many as 30 years.
  • These birds are known for their friendly nature and be raised easily on the dry open farm and grassy plains.
  • An adult eum’s average weight is 45 to 60 kgs, while the average height is 5 to 6 feet.
  • Female emus can reproduce for at least 25 years.

Advantages of Emu Farming

There are various advantages associated with emu farming. Some of the main highlights of commercial emu farming are:

  • Emu meat is always in demand because of its amazing taste and nutrition. It is high in energy and protein, and low in cholesterol and fat.
  • Almost all products, including emu eggs, meat, oil, and skin, are of great value in different industries.
  • Emus don’t require a lot of food. They can easily survive in different types of affordable foods. And can give you a lot in return.
  • It is very easy to raise them even with other poultry birds and pet animals.
  • Diseases are less common in emus, and they survive healthily in almost all types of climates and conditions.
  • Emu farming is full of profits and can be an excellent source of income and employment.
  • You don’t need vast management and technical knowledge to raise emus. Only basic knowledge about how to start emu farming is enough.

How to start farming with high chances of productivity

If you own spacious land with enough nature in the surroundings, setting up an emu business won’t take many efforts. Here is a step-by-step guide on everything you need to know about emu farming – yes, A to Z of emu farming!

Location for farming

Selecting a suitable location/land is important to start emu farming correctly. And if you have your own plot of land, then you are in a win-win situation. It would help if you can keep a few important factors in mind while selecting a location for emu farming. And one of them is to ensure proper availability of clean and fresh water, cheap labor, good sources of food and nutrition, proper transportation chain, medical system, and a market near the location.

Manging emu chicks

If you want to get decent emu farming profit, managing emu chicks becomes very important. The average weight of a newly born chick is around 370 to 450 grams i.e., about 67% of the total weight of emu egg. But the exact chick weight also depends on the size of the emu egg.

Manging emu chicks

Keeping the chick inside an incubator for 2 to 3 days is important. It will ensure proper absorption of egg yolk as well as drying of the chick. Then, place them in a house with a deep litter floor. You can easily prepare litter with paddy husk. Setting up a brooder for a batch of around 25 to 40 chicks. Each chick requires 4 square feet of space in the first three weeks of its life.

Set the brooding temperature at 900F for the first ten days, reduce it to 850F, and don’t change the temperature until they are 3-4 weeks old. If you want to raise them properly, taking care of temperature is massively important.

Place enough number of feeders and water pots inside the brooder. Build a chick guard of at least 2.5 feet to ensure the chicks don’t jump and stray outside the brooder. Hang a bulb inside the brooder, and keep it on all the time. A 100 square feet area needs a 40-watt bulb for proper lighting and temperature.

Once the chicks are of 3 weeks, increase the brooder area as well as the height of the chick guard. Keep them feeding with chick starter mash for 12 to 14 weeks or until their body weight touches the 10-kg mark.

Emu chicks need a lot of playing and running space for proper and healthy growth. So, provide them with as much floor space as possible. You can easily raise around 40 chicks in a floor space measuring 30×40 square foot. Space should be drained easily and is free from any dampness.

Grower management

This is the most important part of emu farming information. Unlike most of the poultry birds, emus are big. And naturally, they need large flooring space, large feeders, and big-sized water pots. Keeping male and female emus together is not a good idea, so keep them separately after identifying their sexes. Feed them with birds’ grower mash and 10% of green for 34 weeks of age or weight 25 kg. Never raise chicks with grown adult emus to ensure maximum safety.

Breeder management
  • Usually, emu birds attain maturity at 18th to 24th month of age.
  • Ensure male and female ratio as 1:1 for proper breeding.
  • Each pair requires 2500 square feet area for comfortable mating.
  • You can grow multiple shrubs and trees to induce mating with complete privacy.
  • Plan your breeding campaign properly, and increase the number of minerals and vitamins in their food to better breed. This will ensure healthy fertility.
  • An adult emu needs one kg of food per day, but the requirement reduces dramatically during mating.
  • You will get about 15 emu eggs in the first year. And unlike most of the other poultry birds, the number of eggs increases with every passing year.
  • A female emu usually lays its first egg at the age of one and a half years.
  • The average weight of a healthy egg is 470 grams to 650 grams. Eggs are slightly greenish and are fairly tough in appearance.
  • Usually, a healthy egg takes as many as 52 days of incubation to produce a healthy chick!
  • To ensure proper hatching of eggs, you must have to maintain proper temperature as well as moisture.
  • Proper care and management are very critical for producing healthy chicks. So, you will have to be extra careful throughout the breeding process.

Feeding emus

A balanced diet and nutrition are very important for emu birds, like all other poultry birds. Fresh, high-quality foods play a very important role in keeping them healthy and disease-free. So, for profitable emu farming in the USA, never compromise with the quality of food you provide to the emus. And don’t forget to give a sufficient amount of fresh and clean water at regular intervals!

  • Care and management

Emus are among the strongest birds, and they have a very long life. Issues related to health and mortality rate are also not common. Juveniles and chicks often suffer from a few health problems like clostridial infections, coli infections, leg abnormalities, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction, and starvation, etc.

Genetic disorders, improper brooding, caring, handling, and poor diet and nutrition, etc. are responsible for these diseases. Conditions like ascarid infestations, candidiasis, lice, salmonella infection, coccidiosis, aspergilla, etc. are less common but are noticed in emus.

Vaccinating them on time is a great idea to protect them from possible diseases. Veterinary experts recommend vaccines like Lasota, Lasota booster, and mukteswar strain for good immunity.

Marketing emus and their products

You can earn a lot of emu farming profit as you can sell almost everything! Start selling emu products when they attain the marketing age. Along with emu eggs, meat, skin, feather, and oil are in great demand. You can even sell them as day-old chicks or gown birds! Selling a chick for $50 to $60 won’t be a huge challenge. And you can sell growing emu at $300 to $400. First, explore your local market so that you don’t need to be worried about transport expenses. On a larger scale, you have the whole international market in front of you!

Emu farming is definitely an astoundingly profitable business. The USA’s weather is also not a big challenge, as they can grow in almost every condition. So, follow this detailed emu farming information, visit a few emu farms around your city/town, and start your own business today!

Reference Link:

Is Quail Farming a Profitable Business?

Raising and nurturing quails for commercial purposes, like many other poultry birds, is known as “quail farming.” It is an immensely profitable business, especially for small farmers struggling with their budgets. As a quail farmer, you can produce both eggs and meat and make decent money by selling them.

Raising quail is surprisingly easy, entertaining, and lucrative. You don’t have to do a lot of work to maintain your quail farm, because quails are one of the smallest poultry birds and are pretty easy to maintain.

Japanese scientists are known for starting the farming of quail birds, and the commercial quail farming gained a lot of property in Japan, and then almost all around the world. Like all other bird farming ventures, including chicken, duck, and turkey, quail farming is very profitable. You can start your quail farming business without thinking much about the area, conditions, and weather, etc. In this guide, we are trying to deal with various aspects of quail farming. Let’s discuss everything in detail.

Also Read: The A to Z of Commercial Sheep Farming – A Step to Step Guide

Why quail farming is a great business idea?

  • Quail eggs are considered as the most nutritious eggs, especially when compared to other poultry eggs.
  • These little eggs are even suitable for diabetic patients.
  • Quail eggs contain a decent amount of protein, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, B1, and B2.
  • The demand for food and nutrition is only increasing with time, and quail bird farming can play a crucial role in meeting that demand.
  • Farming of quail birds requires very small initial labour and capital.
  • Farmers can raise quail birds even with other poultry birds for egg and meat production.

Other interesting qualities of quail birds.

  • They are very small in size, and hence it is very easy to raise a lot of birds in a small area.
  • The average weight of an adult quail is between 150 to 200 grams, and the weight of eggs is around 7 to 15 grams.
  • Female quails usually start laying eggs at the 6th or 7th week of their life, and they can continuously lay one egg every day, of course, if they remain healthy.
  • A healthy female quail lays as many as 300 birds in the first year of its life. The production of eggs reduces gradually after the first year, and the bird produces almost half the number of eggs in the second year.
  • The Californian quail is considered as the most beautiful and handsome of all quail breeds around the world. It is California’s state bird since 1932 and is mainly raised as a pet or simply as a hobby.
  • Quail egg is very healthy for humans, as it contains 2.47% less fat than a chicken egg.
  • A lot of people also believe that quail egg helps prevent diabetes and blood pressure.
  • Like other birds, quail don’t incubate their eggs themselves. You will have to use brooder chickens or an incubator to hatch their eggs.

Life cycle and laying habits of quail birds

A healthy quail usually survives for 3 to 4 years. The average weight of a newly born quail chick is around 6 to 7 grams. They are very weak and sensitive in the beginning and become stronger after a couple of weeks. As mentioned earlier, they don’t incubate their eggs at all, and hence, you should keep one male quail for every five female quails. Quails generally lay their eggs in the afternoon, and the presence of decent light enhances the egg-producing capacity of quails. Eggs weighing around 9 to 11 grams having a hard and smooth shell are ready to hatch and produce chicks.

Starting a quail farming business

Quail bird farming is very easy and straightforward to start, as it doesn’t require a huge space. But having a proper business plan can make life very easy for you. Your plan should include breeding, feeding, caring, housing, and strong marketing strategies. Let’s have a look at the initial steps for a successful quail farming business.

Selecting from a wide range of quail breeds

Presently, there are as many as 18 quail species are available. It means the scope for profit is immense. Some of the species are suitable for meat production, while some are very good for producing eggs. So, if you are clear whether you will be raising quail for meat or eggs, it will be massively helpful for the future. Some of the most popular quail breeds for farming are mainly divided into two groups.

Layer Quail Breeds

  • British Range
  • English White
  • Pharaoh
  • Tuxedo
  • Manchurian Golden

Broiler Quail Breeds

  • American Bobwhite
  • Indian White-Breasted

Management Practice

  • Keep the cage clean

This is massively important if you want to keep your quails healthy. Clean the cage thoroughly at least every couple of weeks to prevent diseases due to bacteria and mites. Wash the water containers and feeders regularly, and refill them every day with fresh food and water.

  • Lighting

Ensure decent enough exposure of light to your quails. It doesn’t matter what types of quail you are raising; proper lighting is a must. Almost all quail breeds need at least 8 hours, but not more than 15 hours of lighting.

  • Keep the surrounding calm.

Avoid unnecessary noise around the quails. Try to keep the surroundings as calm as possible. A noisy atmosphere can be dangerous for quails like most of the other farming birds. Quails need proper sleep to stay active, funny, and healthy. Either transfer them in a dark room in the evening or adjust the place accordingly to balance enough light throughout the day and darkness after evening.

  • Don’t forget to collect eggs daily.

If you want to have fresh and healthy eggs, ensure collecting them at once every day, especially during summer. Try to keep eggs in a cool place; keeping them in a fridge is a great idea!

  • Ensure gentle taming

Taming is important, as well as a tough part of raising quail. It is pretty challenging to tam the fully-grown quail. But, if you know how to handle them, it can be fairly easy. Try grabbing them and playing with them occasionally. Offer them foods with your hands, visit them multiple times throughout the day. In short, always be very gentle while taming your quails.

  • Clipping

You wouldn’t want to do this, but you don’t have any other option either! Unlike chickens and ducks, quails are amazing flyers, and they can go a very long distance, especially if they are afraid. Clip their wings regularly to ensure they don’t fly easily. Sounds a bit harsh? But, that’s the part of bird farming business.

  • Feeding

If you want to gain decent profit through your quail farming business, feeding your quails adequately is very important. Provide them with healthy, nutritious, and well-balanced food. And they don’t require a lot of food either! A healthy quail munches on only 20 to 30 grams of food in a day! That’s it! Feed them with healthy and fresh foods to maintain their health and, in result, decent productivity.

Here is the age-wise diet chart for raising quail healthily

 0-3 Weeks4-5 WeeksAdult
Broken wheat485050
Sesame cake232222
Kipper fish201614
Rice Bran689
Broken oyster shell2.253.254.25
Mineral mix0.250.250.25
Total (percentage)100100100
  • Water

In addition to ensuring a healthy and nutritious diet, you will also have to maintain the availability of enough fresh and clean water for your quails. They won’t drink a lot of water, but there should be multiple pots of water every time so that they can drink whenever they want.

  • Egg Production

As already discussed earlier, quails need adequate light to produce eggs on time. Providing artificial heat and light is also a great idea.

To maintain the breeding process properly, keep one male quail for every five females.

Keep the surrounding very clean as well as dry.

Select highly productive breeds to ensure better egg production.

Different types of quail at different ages need different periods of light. You can understand this through this chart.

AgeTemperature (Celsius)Light (Hour)
1 Week3524
2 Week3024
3 Week2512
4 Week21-2212
5 Week2112
6 Week2113
7 Week2114
8 Week2115
9 Week2116
Beyond Ninth Week2116
Some essential equipment to keep your quails healthy and happy
  • Water container

Quails are pretty small in size. And hence, all types of quail need small containers of water. Avoid placing deep too deep containers to ensure they get water very easily, and to avoid the risk of drowning. Keep the container full of fresh, clean water.

  • Feeder

To ensure feeding all birds adequately, keep the number of feeders equal to the number of birds. Your aim should be to ensure all the birds can have easy access to both food and water.

  • Small plants

Quails love small plants, and if you can pot a few small plants around their housing, they will be very happy. Quails are very curious about their surroundings and love a little bit of nature around them. Just ensure that the plants are not toxic to your quails.

  • Provide enough hiding spots

Quails love small hiding spots. And you can provide those spots by placing a few large hamster huts inside the cages.

  • Sand Tub

Dust is a massively important part of quails’ survival. They need a dust bath on a daily basis to be happy and healthy. And dust can also play a key role in keeping parasites away. Place a few sand tubs around the quails, but away from water containers to make your quails feel comfortable.

  • Diseases affecting quails

Diseases are not very common in quails as compared to poultry birds like chickens and ducks. Proper care, clean atmosphere, and healthy nutrition, etc. are enough to avoid diseases while raising quail. Although diseases in quails are not common, a couple of diseases noticed in quails are:

  • Coccidiosis:

It is the most common condition affecting quail. Improper hygiene around the quails is responsible for this condition, as the protozoa invade the intestinal walls of quails. Some clinical signs of coccidiosis are diarrhea with a bit of blood, decreased feed and water consumption, sudden weight loss, ruffled feathers, and droopiness, etc. If you notice any of these signs, don’t waste any time and contact a qualified veterinarian.

TIP: You can mix two grams of coaxial 20 per two-liter of water and give them thrice a day to manage coccidiosis.

Must Read: Growing the Avocado – The Healthiest food

  • Ulcerative enteritis:

It is a highly contagious, acute condition affecting chickens and quails. Bacterium clostridium colinum causes this disease. There are ulcers in the caecae and intestines of the quails. Ulcerative enteritis is the biggest cause of quails’ death worldwide, with a mortality of 100%! Clinical signs may include drooping wings, listlessness, watery white feces, anemia, diarrhea, ruffled feathers, retracted necks. Ulcerative enteritis can completely derail your efforts of quail bird farming. Therefore, even in one bird, if you notice any of these symptoms, don’t waste any time and give proper treatment. Otherwise, it won’t take so long to affect all other birds!

TIP: One-gram streptomycin with a little amount of water is pretty effective against ulcerative colitis. But you should not forget to get in touch with a veterinarian.

So, that’s all about our guide for quail farming. Whether you are raising quail for meat or eggs, you should keep these basic but important points in mind. If you are smart enough, you can earn decent benefits from this low investment farming. Hopefully, you are now in a better space to start your own business. Both quail meat and eggs are a rich source of nutrients and are in demand from shop owners and the general public. Don’t think much about marketing scopes, as you will find it pretty easy to market your products. Good luck for the future!