How to Do Watermelon Farming?

Watermelon is a highly cultivated vine-like flowering plant present in more than thousands of varieties. A fleshy sweet Plantae helps to relax blood vessels with high nutrition and low in calories. 

Watermelon has its fondness among the people by its sauce preferences among the varieties of fruits. The presence of potassium, vitamin A and C make it mealier and provide multiple health benefits i.e., prevent stroke, control blood pressure, obesity, and overweight as well. 

Watermelon farming needs a temperature higher than 25-degree Celcius. They have an extended, delicate, and climbing stem throughout his farming life cycle through germination to growing into a whole fruit. 

In the early stage of farming, watermelon has highly dense fleecy hair which is muddy in color and vanishes in the passing time. 

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit

Watermelon Cultivation 

Watermelon seeds implant in a pot and relocate in the loamy soil for mid-level of nitrogen for enhancing the growth of the fruit. In an excess humid climate, watermelon suffers from pests like root-knot nematodes, fruit flies, and aphids.

Watermelon requires more than 85 days becoming a full-grown fruit than the other melon. Horticulture in Japan grows cubic watermelons for their convenience to store as they use metal and glass boxes for improving grain.

Due to present in the variety of cubic, square, and pyramid shape, they are pricy to purchase rather than the original shaped one. This shaped type of watermelon only belongs to the wealthy class of the consumer or buyers.

Watermelon cultivation can be done in numerous ways according to its harvest time and weight.     

The Carolina cross produced the heaviest watermelon 29to 68 kilograms in about 90 days.

The little golden person takes 70 days from sowing to harvest. 

Orangelo weight 9 to 14 kilogram and take 90 to 100 days till the fruit harvest 

Cream of Saskatchewan grows in cold climate and harvest in 80 to 85 days

Moon and star are weighing 9 to 23 kilograms and harvest in 90 days 

Densuke watermelon is firstly harvest and weighing 11 kgs

Melitopolski is highly cultivated in the region of Russia and take 95 days to harvest

watermelon farming

Watermelon farming in horticulture shows a variety of improvements for the production of watermelon. Its hard crust made it more accessible to transport it from one place to another due to its oblong shape as well. Improvement in geographical conditions also provides to get an elastic environment for the cultivation of watermelons.

Watermelon is the garden-variety fruit that every grocery sells more often. China is the largest producer, and more than 40 states of the United States are cultivating watermelons. It is a smaller shaped variety of melons known as icebox melons as they have red and yellow color flesh. 

Some of the groups are also seen in the variety of watermelon, which shows the variation in taste and texture of its flesh.

·        Citroides group is a fleecy melon cultivated in the world for fodder with sweet yellow flesh.

·        The Lanatus group is food for the traveler in the Kalahari Desert. Seeds are edible in this group and having juicy white meat. 

·         Vulgaris group is widely cultivated for the consumption of human and cattle feed as well.

Watermelon is mainly consumed in summer; it contains water more than 85%, and the rest is sugar with low-fat properties. It mixes with other fruit juices, wine, or pickles. Watermelon seeds are also consumed by a human after the roast and dried up.

In China, people consume seeds of watermelon on the eve of china new year, and in Vietnamese, people consume seeds as a snack on the Vietnamese New Year holiday.

Watermelon zest has vile flavors, which is used in making pickles, and people were making vegetables by stewing and stir-frying. Watermelon zest produces Amino acid citrulline.

Only vitamin c present in a significant amount and a low amount of nutrients with 30 calories per 100 grams of serving. It is also known as state vegetable or fruit in Oklahoma State due to its versatility of consumption. 

Watermelon Farming Through Seeds

Watermelons grow from seed. You might be tempted to use seed from a melon you purchased, but it would just be time wasted. There are chances of it being a hybrid one. Hybrid is somewhat different from crosses not true to nature. Then, you would probably end up cultivating what is generally termed as pig-melons, which is nice to feed pigs only and not human beings. 

What Kind Of Seeds To Buy For Watermelon Farming?

If possible, pick the open-pollinated heirloom variety of seed, if necessary. You will find far better and fascinating types in the heirlooms than in the regular collections at the local gardening center. 

Start your watermelon seeds in the field, where they will spread. To germinate, the soil should be at least 18 ° C.

 What Is The Right Approach To Watermelon Farming?

Do NOT plant your watermelon seed in a container or big bowl, unless you have an incredibly short growing season. Neither buys watermelon seedlings from a nursery. Watermelon seeds germinate within a few days, simply and rapidly. 

Watermelon plants quite quickly outgrow the seedling stage and do not like transplantation. You don’t save a great deal of time, and you end up with a poorer vine.

Avoid all this needless hard work and stick your seeds in the dirt, about 2 cm or an inch deep.

Watermelon Vines Need A Lot Of Care

The watermelons need soils that are dark, warm, and permeable. It allows the land to develop melons. There are some benefits of growing the soil: A slab or hill is free draining. If you have thick clay dirt, bring the bed certainly up.

Mounds are beautiful even when the soil is somewhat unfortunate. To raise watermelons, make a mound of healthy soil with plenty of compost in it. Often, after using much of the compost, farmers plant them in what’s remaining over from a compost pile.

When you want to grow stuff in tidy circles, or if you’re going to plant a broad field, raise watermelons on ridges, much as the growers do.

 The Benefit Of Mulching

Watermelon cultivation needs to be very diligently done. A few things like mulching that one needs to keep in mind. Melons have deep roots and require plenty of water. Therefore, you need to ensure that the field is never dry out, in case it dries, so mulch helps. 

Mulch holds weeds down. Weeding may disrupt the strong roots, so it’s best not to let them rise. Watermelons are starving animals. 

If your mulch is like compost or old animal manures, it’s excellent. Watermelons can tolerate relatively fresh manure and fertilizers. 

Otherwise, periodically feed the watermelons with anything like pelleted manure or other sustainable fertilizer.

Once the vines are two meters thick, pinch the ends. Encourage branching. When your watermelon vines get bigger, they seek to take up more space. Unless they start smothering specific stuff, you should warn them to keep to their region by smoothing the ends of the vines, so they develop in the right direction.

Watermelon Harvesting 

watermelon harvest

Watermelon is a summer delight fruit loved by all ages. In addition to its great taste, it provides lycopene refreshment in the hot summer. It requires relocation after the germination of seeds more than 75-degree F and for growth more than 65 degrees F. 

Throughout the watermelon cultivation, watermelon requires a warm season to grow as their sizes, shape and texture of zest vary from climate, so their best production came from the south and southwest regions of the United States.

Must Read: How to plant, grow, and harvest pumpkins correctly 

For cultivating watermelon, it requires a heavier feeder than the other fruits. Before planting, the soil has to be compost and manure was rotted in it to provide the warmness to the sown seeds. 

Sown seeds start growing in the form of fruit; then fertilizers were mainly starting dressing up side by side. It requires a ph scale of 6 to 6.5 and more than 80 days of the warm summer season to grow up.

It is a fragile fruit to time in sandy, muddy soil. The soil will be moist, and water needed in the field will be 1 to 2 inches per week. Watermelon farming soil contains a high amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, but after illuminating it into flowers, it needs less nitrogen for further growth. 

Watermelon elevates in a row sun-dried atmosphere, as they are not much sweeter as they are ripe, so the harvesting part plays a vital role in the life span of watermelon. The texture and color of a watermelon show whether the fruit is ripe or not.

Pests of Watermelon: 

The leading watermelon killer is leaf-eating beetles (also destroying the flowers), including painted and dotted flea beetles, pumpkin beetles with or without markings, whatever you call them.

They all look alike, all doing the very same: nibble away on your watermelon plants. However, if they are a significant concern, it’s just an indication that your watermelon is stressed.

In a safe climate and decent soil, stable watermelon does not draw so many beetles. A watermelon should also grow quickly enough to manage any beetles.

The other primary concern with rising watermelons is mildew, a disease that makes the leaves appear like white dust. Fungus thrives in wet environments.

In the tropics, you may not be able to avoid beetles or mildew until the rainy season build-up starts. And it’s not worth it anyway… 

The unbearable heat and humidity aren’t healthy produced watermelon conditions. Develop anything that needs rain, waiting for another dry season to produce watermelons.


In this guide on how to do watermelon farming, we have tried to explain all those steps and techniques that are required to produce a quality crop. However, you are solely responsible for crop failure for any reason. Don’t worry, this is not a kind of alarming signal. It’s just a precautionary statement. In the end, we would like to advise you to take any watermelon farming-related decisions at your discretion.  

Growing Cucumber – How to Plant, Grow & Harvest?

Cucumbers are worthy of each salad courtesy it’s health benefits. Cucumbers have a mild, refreshing flavor and a high amount of water. You will also feel dehydrate and enjoy eating them in hot weather. Generally, most of the diet conscious people use cucumber in their diets.

Moreover, it has a variety of applications in several beauty products due to its richness of vitamins and minerals.

Growing Fresh and Crunchy Cucumbers

Cucumbers farming

The fresh cucumbers have a special crunch with every bite. Cucumber farming would be a different experience.

Whatever the space you have, you can grow cucumbers. They can be cultivated in pots, bags or directly on the field successfully.

Also Read: Sweet Potato Farming Information Guide

Two main types of cucumber are outdoor and greenhouse. Plants of greenhouse cucumber make long, smooth fruit similar to those sold in the supermarket. 

On the other hand, others are called ridge cucumbers. It’s usually shorter and covered with red skin. 

Crunchy cucumbers, fresh from the garden are in a league of their own, so if you’re wondering whether to grow them or not, the answer should be a resounding yes.

Some of the cucumber varieties are more suitable for cucumber farming in the UK, either outdoors or in the greenhouse. 

Generally, the outdoor cucumbers also called ‘ridge cucumbers’ have resistance to the cooler climates and are often spiked or rough to the touch. Greenhouse cucumbers are a bit smoother fruits but do need that extra warmth to grow to the full capacity.

Some varieties prefer sheltered environments just like a greenhouse and others mature better out, in a sunny environment.

How to Sow Cucumbers

The mid-spring is the ideal time to sow the cucumber seeds into small pots with a general-purpose potting mix. Sowing depth of cucumber seeds is about an inch 3 cm deep.

Cucumbers germinate at least 20 degrees. This usually takes 7-10 days. Thus, you have to wait for a launch at the end of the spring.

 After germination, you should transfer seedlings to the place which has good sunlight and put them there until these are sufficiently large to transplant it. 

Once the seedlings start to appear, for better growth of a healthy plant remove the weakest from the pot and leave one per pot.

The liquid fertilizer is better for cucumber farming. Thus, a liquid fertilizer high in potassium is the initial diet plant within every two weeks that keep these hungry plants moist most of the time.

Must Read: How to harvest onions?

Growing Greenhouse Cucumbers

Greenhouse cucumbers can be transplanted into beds, large containers of potting soil. The other way to set the plant to grow is by setting two cucumbers per bag into bottomless pots set on top of the growing bag.

These will help to trap moisture and ensure cucumber plant care every time you water, instead of it running off over the surface.

Put in place supports such as bamboo canes, vertical wires, strong netting or trellis. Train vines up their supports then pinch out the growing tips when they reach the top to encourage side shoots. Take out the tips of side shoots to leave two leaves beyond each fruit.

Feed plants every two weeks with a liquid fertilizer that’s high in potassium and keeps these thirsty plants moist at all times.

You can exclude all male flowers from greenhouse cucumbers. This prevents bitter-tasting fruits. It’s effortless to identify female flowers by the slight swelling of the embryonic fruit behind each bloom.

Growing Outdoor Cucumbers

When the soil warms in late spring or early summer, outdoor cucumbers should be planted. For the perfect plantation, accustom the plant to a newer climate for a week or two preparations slowly for a week or two.

On the other hand, you could sow seeds directly to their actual rising places in warmer climates.

Cucumber farming considers the healthy, fertile soil just like other plants. Thus before planting, you can collect plenty of well-rotted organic matter such as manure. 

It is ideal to set the plants at about 18 inches apart when you raise your cucumbers upward using supports like a trellis. Alternatively, position them about three feet from each other if you let them scatter over the soil surface.

The outdoor cucumber needs insect pollination. Therefore, the plant needs the involvement of male and female flowers. Thus, you should not remove the male flowers.  There is no need to remove male flowers as greenhouse cucumbers. It is important to have this marriage for better and high yields.

Feeding to the cucumber

Cucumbers are typically grown at the same location as other vegetables in the case of a greenhouse. And, in this case, farmers usually use the same feed for all vegetables. 

In the case of the cucumbers are provided the more effective and balanced fertilizer. The yield is higher.

High nitrogen requirement in cucumber feed

A small cucumber plant has a larger leaf that is even greater than the leaves of other plants. 

As nitrogen is the fuel for flower growth. Cucumbers need more nitrogen than other major nutrients such as magnesium, calcium, iron, and manganese. 

 In the case of organic, the high liquid nitrogen feed would benefit cucumber farming to the full capacity.

Cucumber Plant Diseases

1. Powdery Mildew

The fungus emerges first as several white spots on the cucumber leaves and grows quickly as very small, threadlike powdery areas. It seems like a cotton-dumpling demon that absorbs plant nutrients, so if you don’t handle it, it can contribute to a serious infestation. The yield will be greatly affected, even if they mature.

When you just begin to see the mold on the leaves of the cucumber or if you had previous problems and want the chance of powdery mildew to be reduced, milk is an all-natural effective barrier to funguses. Dilute and spray the milk on the plants in the ratio of 10 parts water to 1 part milk.

Baking soda has solid household applications and can be applied to this list as “treating powdery mildew.” A 1 tablespoon soda solution in a gallon of water is adequate to be successful, but a soap or dish soap would need as an additive. Some growers often add oil, neem or standard cooking oil.

Sprinkle the mixture again early in the day, and then rinse in the evening. The persuasive mildew requires a very favorable pH to survive and baking soda is enough essential to render the leaves desolate. 

2. Bacterial Wilt

Bacterial wilt affects the fruits in cucumber farming more intensely. Infection is recognized with often witty and dried branches, often even overnight. 

One simple way to prevent bacterial wilt is by cutting off a wilted stem at the base and rubbing the cut with your fingertip.

 If you take off your finger gradually, the plants have bacterial wilting threads out of the cut. There is no remedy for this cucumber decay.

3. Fusarium wilt 

Fusarium wilt is another issue with the cucumber plant which is a difficulty to treat and overcome. In dry climates, the pathogen is much more widespread and can damage, in addition to cucumber, a wide variety of vegetables.

The dropping leaves is the beginning of this disease. This can be identified by the slicing the main trunk of an infected fusarium wilt vine. If it’s the base is spotted with dark stripes. The fungicidal soil drenches the remedy of this infection while treating the soils before plantation can prevent the unfortunate loss. 

4. Cucumber Mosaic

At any stage, this disease will invade cucumber plants and the virus spreads systemically in the plant once the plant is infected.

Symptoms appear 7 to 14 days after infection and develop most quickly at low temperatures.

 A pale or dark green mosaic or mottling develops first on the youngest leaves. The outer borders curl inward. New leaves are stunted and twisted.

Flowers can exhibit strange properties like green petals. The fruit of contaminated plants is often smaller and somewhat skewed, and display light and dark green mosaic patterns on the surface.

In this case, it is important to buy the treated seeds for cucumber farming that often highlighted at the label.

Harvesting the right cucumber

The cucumbers are best plucked before their seeds become hard as they are preferred eating as immature.

While a yellow and mature cucumber is of the highest quality when it is uniformly green, firm, and crisp. 

Cucumbers that are left on the vine for a longer period would get tough skins and eventually lower plant productivity.

You should collect fruits during the cucumber cultivation every few days at full harvest time as they grow rapidly once at the peak.

Storage of Mature Cucumber

Although a fresh cucumber has the highest level of water content and crunchiness.

Cucumbers are over 90 percent water. This is ideal to store them wrapped tightly in plastic wrap to retain moisture. if there is a need to store them for a longer time, you will keep them for a week to 10 days when stored properly in the refrigerator.

Also Read: Growing the Avocado

How to Plant, Grow Okra Step by Step Guide?

The okra, a long prickly vegetable, is often known as a lady’s finger. Okra can be eaten in several ways, for instance,raw, pickled, or stir-fried, etc.The greengage of okra is mind-blowing and the taste is amazing though. 

The skin of okra could prickle your fingertips at just a gentle touch. And, slicing it exposes nothing more than seeds and slime. Are you wondering how to grow okra?

During the heat and humidity of a heated summer, just a few plants have real tolerance against the scorching sunlight and choking humidity. But, the okra loves heat and warm weather. The okra likes to flourish with the increment in temperature. And, of course, the warm weather eventually prolongs their green dark leaves and notably vivid flowers.

Okra is just different from the other plants in terms of sunlight. Keeping in the mind that the okra thrives in a warm climate, it is ideal to plant okra in early summer once the frost starts to disappear. 

As part of the process, the soil should have a temperature level of not less than 65 degrees Fahrenheit to encourage the germination of seeds which turns into healthy seedlings. 

How to Grow Okra Guide?

Okra Plant
Picking an ideal place

When picking a place to plant okra, it is recommended that the area that has a warm climate throughout the summer is appropriate to grow okra and eventually higher yield.

Also Read: How to Grow Pumpkin

However, okra is known to grow in poor soils. It is better produced on healthy soils that are rich with plenty of organic material. But it is noteworthy that the excessive nitrogen contributes to better development of the plant, but adversely affects the growth of blooms.

So, it will be a wise decision to have a soil test if you have a plan to grow okra commercially. Also, the soil test usually provides a clear and authentic ratio proportion of the essential nutrients.

Sowing of okra seeds

It works great for the growers that have extended cold season to sow the okra seeds in pots indoor. They can propagate the plants once seedling starts to appear and frost disappears entirely. The germination for seeds takes about four to five weeks to become a seedling.

To get the quality results for okra farming, you can use the fresh seed that is soaked overnight. And, it is worth to sow two seeds per pot in case of indoor sowing as later you can remove any weak seedling from the pot if there is any.

Besides, you can sow the seeds directly where the okra plant is to grow for the rest of the season.

Soil preparation for okra cultivation

It is worth preparing the soil and allowing it to age before planting. During this process, this can be done by applying directly more organic compost to the soil. Like any crop, the okra often needs strong water retention and proper drainage.

Moreover, to germinate the seeds properly, you should sow the seeds half an inch below in light soil and one inch deep in hard soil. While it is appropriate to give three inches of space between the plants and approx three feet between the rows.  

Caring the okra plants

The okra plant needs a lot of space around it. In okra farming, the plants sometimes develop six feet high and can spread to a large degree. Thus, planting the seed with enough space is always worth the higher yield. 

Once the okra is around 4 inches high, try to keep weeds away and hold moisture around the roots. Furthermore, it is recommended to water every three or four weeks during dry periods as well as serve the compost on the side of plant roots.

1. Watering

The okra is a plant for the warm weather. Still, it is noteworthy to take care of the irrigation of plants so that they can grow to the full capacity and can produce a higher yield. In this exercise, if a plant has gained considerable height, it should be watered once in a week at least or more frequently if there are severe dry conditions in your local. While okra can survive a brief period of dryness, but it is worth to ensure that the dry period should not extend long.

2. Fertilizer

In case the soil is well prepared, okra would only require light compost dressings for the optimum results throughout the season. 

Besides, the powerful foliar sprays would be beneficial to make sure that each okra plant can give a higher yield. Also, fluid seaweed spray can be used two to three times in the growing season of okra farming.

The early growth of okra is always lazy, but as summer begins to settle, the plants grow much faster. As soon as the temperature rises the plant starts to grow in height. During this process, the okra leaves begin to develop, which are accompanied by tender seeds, to produce a yellow flower. 

Once grown about four to six feet, the plant develops a central stem that gives it a slight appearance just like a short tree.

3. Pollination

The pollinations of the okra largely depend on the climate during the season. The conditions such as temperatures above 90 ° F or under 55 ° F have an adverse effect over the pollination. Inhibiting too little light, water stress and nitrogen overload also may have adverse effects. Thus, plant it in the pleasant light, high in manure, and hold the soil abundantly moist.

Problems with okra farming

1. Root-decaying

The stem rot or the Fusarium is a fungal disease that favors warm soil. It is recommended to drag contaminated plants and drop away from the field. To prevent the fungal disease, leave soil for sunlight in late spring or summer is the utmost necessity.

This fungal infection often results in the death of the young seedlings, which is quite a treat for the okra crop.

Besides, another fungal disease, anthracnose spreads through high moisture and condensation. This has a severe effect over the plant leave and in excess, the plant could deteriorate. If you identify such conditions, it is appropriate to remove contaminated plants and discard them away from the field.

It is recommended to spray at least once in a week with fungicide coated with copper or sulfur.

2. Issues with the pods

1. The fungal traces may occur over the leaves. These are recognized with powdery mildew. This occurs when the humidity is strong. These spores germinate on dry plant surfaces while spores do not sprout on wet plants.

In such conditions, try to toss out leaves and pods that have been decayed. And, keep waste of plants away from the field.

2. A brown caterpillar of up to 2 inches in length can make a tunnel into the pods. This requires picking each insect and destroying them completely.

3. South green bug is a half an inch thick bright green insect. The bug sucks leaves and sap of pod that results in twists and deformation of them. To prevent these insects from okra farming, you can spray the okra plant with insecticidal soap.

4. Aphids are little insects that colonize underneath leaves and look like an oval and yellowish pear. They can leave the oily excrement, termed as the honeydew, behind them which may become a sooty black mold. Spraying the insecticidal soap can turn them down effectively.

Once, the pods start to appear and grow towards maturity.

Harvesting okra

The perfect time for okra cultivation is within three to four days of developing pods. As they mature quickly, they tend to be tougher, stringier, and less adequate to eat. You can pluck the okra but in the meantime, you need to take care of a few things.

  1. The okra is ready as an edible vegetable after 2 months of planting
  2. Once the okra grows to the two to three inches, it can be harvested. It is better to harvest them daily to encourage reproduction from the plants.
  3. After the first harvest, trash the lower leaves to help speed up production.
  4. Okra is covered with the prickle that can hurt your hands while plucking them by bare hands. 
  5. The vegetable might be too hard, signifies that okra is probably too old and should not be used.

You can enjoy okra throughout the winter if it preserved under cold storage. Sufficient cooling conditions prevent them from withering or losing the original taste.

Can okra and tomatoes grow together?

Both okra and tomato have a tall plant once grown to maturity. These may grow up to six feet. If you try to grow both the vegetable all along, it is ideal to keep the distance around four feet between two plants. The tomatoes are a great source of food for the stink bugs. Thus, it is worth having these around your main crops in the case of okra. These practices can keep many insects away from your plant.

The seafood gumbo, a shellfish based dish, has the perfect use of the okra. Besides, young leaves, similar to spinach, are often used in salads. And, seeds may be pressed or roasted for the oil. Apart from this, this plant is commonly used as a thickening agent in soups and stews.


Bitter Gourd Farming: Basic Process And Diseases

Bitter gourd farming or bitter melon farming has become very popular these days. Bitter gourd is popular for its medicinal advantages mainly and some people are in love with its bitter taste also.

Bitter gourd (Carantia Momordica) is an essential crop that has a distinct bitter taste and bitter gourd yield per acre spread. It has been cultivated for its unripe, tubercular fruits. It is a luscious, slightly smooth, climbing vine, covered in dark green leaves and deeply lobed dioeciously yellow flowers. 

Bitter gourd farming has a drug worth and is used for the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, rheumatism, and blood disorders. Naturopaths are advised to drink fresh bitter gourd milk. In many ayurvedic remedies, roots and wild bitter gourd stems are used.

The fruit is considered a rich vitamin and mineral source and 88 mg per 100 g of vitamin C. After cooking, the fruit is used and after stuffing and frying, delicious preparations are made. Fruits are partly cut, salted, and dried under direct sunlight during times of glut on the market and processed for months. During the glut phase. After baking, this is used. 

Things to Consider Before You Start Bitter Gourd Farming:

The Right Climate Requirment:

It is a mild seasonal plant mostly cultivated in hot and subtropical regions. They are vulnerable to mild frost and are partially protected when grown in the winter months. The 24o- 27oC temperature range is considered optimal for wine growth. When the temperature is above 18oC, the seed germinates best. The crop is sensitive to various fungal diseases due to its high moisture level during vegetative growth.

The Proper Soil

Bitter gourd yield per acre, on well-drained sandy to sandy loam, bitter gourd can be grown; medium-black soils rich in organic matter. Alluvial soil is fine to make bitter gourds in the river beds. An optimum number of pHs between 6.0 and 7.0.

Must Read: Snake Gourd Farming Guide

Planting Method

Land Preparation:

The ground is plucked and tilt-up by 1-2 tilting and flattening cross-sections. Depending on the support scheme to be followed, the furrows are opened at a distance of 1,5-2,5 m.

Method of Planting:

The plant is planted in the plains in autumn, from January to February, while the planting in the rainy season is planted in May. 4-5 kg of seed is needed for the plantation of 1 hectare. Thiram is handled (3 g/kg of seed) before planting.

Plant Support:

As a slow climber Bitter Gourd requires its growth boost. When ploughed without protection, the seedlings traced on the support (bower) still yield for 6-7 months vs 3-4 months.

These vines are less vulnerable to plague and diseases because they are not directly related to the soil. The planting is performed at an interval of 2.5 x 1m in the bower method.

Furs are opened at 2.5 m and canals of drainage are laid at a depth of 5-6 m. On both ends of alternative furrows at a distance of 5 meters are placed timber poles (3 m high). The cables are connected to these poles.

The wires along the furrows are further attached to a network of wires at a 45cm distance. Seminars are sprayed around the furrow at a distance of 1 m and slightly coated in dirt. 

The vines last approximately 1.5 to 2 months to the bower, so the vines are roped until they bower in the first phases of development. If the grapes exceed the height of the bower, the fresh vines travel to the bower.

Manuring and fertilization

The dose of fertilizer to be used would depend on soil variety, soil fertility, temperature, and planting season. The FYM (15-20 t/ha) is generally decomposed well and is mixed during ploughing with the dirt.

The suggested dosage is 50-100 kg N of P2O5 (40-60 kg) and 30-60 kg 25 K2O per hectare. Until planting, half of the N and whole P & K should be included. At the time of flowering, N balance is given. In a 6-7 cm ring from the base of the trunk, the fertilizer is added. Production technology of bitter gourd covers both fertilizer applications should be completed shortly before the fruit is placed.

Irrigation Process

Bitter gourd planting distance or Irrigation may not be required in rainy season crops, where precipitation is well spread between July and September. Bitter gourd planting distance Usually, the ridges are irrigated a day or two before seeds are planted, and, ideally light, they are irrigated for 4 or 5 days after seeds are planted. The irrigation is then conducted weekly. How to grow bitter gourd, To encourage rapid taproot growth, it is important to conserve moisture in the root zone.

Harvesting Tips

How to harvest bitter gourd most common question asked by our audience so here is the answer to it. It takes between 55-60 days to achieve the first harvest for the grapes of it as a bitter gourd growing time. More pickings can be completed 2-3 days after bitter gourd fruits ripen and turn red very quickly.

Fruit selection at the right level of edible maturity depends on individual types and species. Usually, the selection is performed particularly if the fruits are tender and green, so that during transportation the fruits will not turn yellow or yellowish. The harvest should take place in the morning and after harvesting the fruit should be kept in the shade.

Also Read: Ivy Gourd Farming: Planting,Care, and Harvesting


Depending on the crop system, variation, season, and various others, the yield of production technology of bitter gourd varies. Fruit yields vary between 8 and 10 t/ha on average.

Post-Harvest Management

Grading: The fruits are classified according to their size and colour. Usually, the green fruits are 20-25 cm long with short neck and tuberculosis.

Packaging: The fruits are bought in baskets of bamboo or crates of wood. Neem leaves or newspapers are spread as lining material on the bottom until they are packaged. Until shipment to the market, the fruits are carefully collected and sealed with gunny sacks.

Storage: The fruit is eaten fresh and is kept briefly in the shade until it is packed and transported.


Powdery Mildew: This illness is favoured by high moisture and occurs first on older plants. Symptoms occur mainly on the top surface of the leaf as white powdery dust. Circular patches or streaks occur on the bottom surface of the leaves. In serious situations, these stretch out, coalesce and spread to the surfaces, stems, and so on. Severe attacks can lead to brown leaves and shrillness and defoliation. The fruits are not completely developed by the infected plants and are thin.

In the Cercospora leaf spot disease, there should be brown spots on the older leaves of the plant. Gummy stem blight is another serious issue for these plants. The symptoms are v-shaped yellow or brown area at the stem portion and also lesions at the stem. The symptoms of scab disease are brown lesions on leaves. 


Bitter gourd farming is not only beneficial for your health and taste but also your pocket. As the veggie has a good market value, large scale bitter gourd farming can help you make money also. 

You just have to focus on the factors important to keep your bitter gourd plants safe and healthy so that they can bear good fruits. Hope the above-mentioned information is going to help you in the way of bitter gourd farming. Stay healthy, stay blessed.

Eggplant: Planting, Growing, and Harvesting Eggplants

Eggplant, Brinjal, Aubergine is an important crop of the tropical and subtropical regions. The name is derived from the shape of the fruit of some of its varieties.

Eggplant is grown mostly in the warmer regions. Its cultivation is very popular in countries of the far-east region, India, Pakistan Bangladesh, USA, Italy, France, and Egypt. Eggplant farming is very popular in lower altitude regions of India. Commonly known as Brinjal in the country, it is a principal, popular and common vegetable crop grown across the country. Due to its adaptation to various climatic conditions eggplants can be grown throughout the year. There are also many hybrid varieties that are being cultivated in the country.

Here are few tips that will help you in performing eggplant farming and in improving your crop yield.

How to grow eggplant?

In order to obtain desired and good growth of eggplant there are certain conditions to be followed. Despite being easy to grow and high temperature tolerance eggplant could be a little tricky plant to grow.

Here are the conditions that are to be kept in notice when growing eggplant.

Climatic conditions: 

eggplant is a hot weather crop highly intolerable to frost and snow weather. Short days and long cool nights are not suitable for growth of eggplant and tend to make the produce deformed. The desired temperature required is in the range around 13 – 21oc.

Also Read: Yellow and Curling Eggplant Leaves

Soil requirements and conditions:

eggplant can be grown in any type of soil be it light sandy or heavy clay. Soil rich in organic matter with a PH ranging from 6.5-7 is considered the best. To obtain a higher yield it is advised to start planting in heavy clay soil.

The soil should be well ploughed before transferring seedlings as eggplant remains in field for long time. Soil should be incorporated well with manure. Field should be irrigated well transferring seedlings.


self-fertilizing flowers of eggplant can be fertilized by the wind. But to obtain a good fruit size buzz pollination by bees is considered suitable. If you have a smaller field and few plants you could also for hand pollination.

Feed the plants timely:

when the plant bloom first set of flower, they can get benefitted from extra nutrients. You can give in extra nutrients by putting in additional organic fertilizers or compost manure. If you are growing eggplants in a container utmost care has to be taken, when putting the feed make sure you are not overfeeding the plant as it causes salt buildup which will cease the growth of the plant.

Battling the flea:

growing an eggplant although is easy, but with this ease comes the fleas. These tiny hoppers make holes in the leaves of the plants. In order to protect plants from these fleas and other insects grow your plants in pots on a raised surface or you can use a tulle net to cover the rows of plants and protect them of fleas.

Eggplant growing stages:

It is important to know about the growing stages of eggplant before planting them in order to obtain a surplus of produce.

Eggplant grows in following stages:

  1. Seeds:  It takes about 1-2 weeks for eggplant seeds to sprout into a seedling. once the seedling germinates within 10weeks or when they develop 4-5 leaves they can be transplanted into the greenhouse farm and stored at a warmer temperature as cold temperature destroys the seedling.
  2. Adult eggplant: number of days required by eggplant to attain maturity depends on the variety being grown. They take approximately 120days to attain full maturity. The sign of maturity is that they grow the main stem with oval-shaped leaves with leathery texture and spine-like hairs.
  3. Flower and fruit: flowers are purple colored and star-shaped. The florals have both male and female parts and are self-pollinating. The female part of the flower develops into the fruit depending on the variety of eggplant grown. The plant bears the fruit for 80days.
  4. Harvest: This is the last stage of eggplant growth. You can tell the fruit is ready to be harvested when it develops glossy skin and firm texture. If you want to harvest the seeds of eggplant you will have to wait until the skin of the fruit become dull and the texture becomes soft to touch.

Watering eggplant:

Watering eggplant adequately is very important, in case of reduced moisture content the fruit loses the flavor and become bitter in taste. In order to prevent this makesure your plants are being watered regularly and plants are being supplied with additional supplemental water based on the conditions required.

During the growing season or hot weather conditions it is best to water eggplant 1inch per week or more based on the conditions. You can also monitor the moisture content of soil using a moisture meter this will help you ensure that the soil is not excessively dried if so you can water the plant efficiently.

It is best to water the plants during the early morning or during the evening as the water evaporation rate is less during these times. Mulching around the plant roots also helps in retaining water near the roots for a longer duration.

Harvesting eggplant:

Proper harvesting of an eggplant yields tender and flavourful fruit.

Time required from planting to harvest is 100-150days

The appearance of the fruit is your guide to know if your fruit is ripened enough to be harvested.  Thin, firm and glossier skin of the fruit is the main sign to be noticed before harvest. If you are someone new to farming before harvesting eggplant you will have to cut the fruit and check the colour of flesh inside the fruit. The flesh should be cream in colour with small seeds.  Once you have learnt how to identify the physical appearance of fruit for harvesting you don’t need to cut the fruit. Eggplants without any seeds are immature whereas eggplants with dark and hard seeds are over-ripened and bitter in taste. Separate the eggplant from the stem by using a pruning shear or sharp knife; keep a stub of stem attached to the fruit.

Eggplant growing time:

It takes approximately 120days for the eggplant to grow and get mature. When you are growing a plant from the seeds it has to be cultivated indoors first which takes around 10weeks time. Then they can be transplanted to the greenhouse farms.

Opt for the variety of eggplant that have faster growth rate and better yield values in few days time. There are various hybrid varieties of eggplant that have more improved qualities and resistance to diseases making them more better option to plant.

By implementing these tips before starting planting you will definitely see a surplus in growth and yield with better quality.

Happy Farming!

Is Mushroom Farming Profitable – How to Plant, Grow & Harvest

It is a unique experience when it comes to the growing of mushrooms. The mushroom farming can be a very satisfying and profitable venture.

The mushroom is a superfood for diet-conscious individuals. Especially for those, who crave a balanced equilibrium in their diet? Mushroom is such an alternative that can bring essential nutrients to the diet. One piece of mushroom contains low calories and is a great source of fiber and protein too.

You can use dried mushroom and mushroom powder to get more mushrooms in your diet. Although fresh mushrooms may offer great health benefits, mushroom powders promote adequate and frequent intake.

Moreover, even though they are usually white, they are filled with as many antioxidants as many vivid fruits and vegetables.

Mushrooms may be grown with different methods. In addition to harvesting it directly from the forests, mushrooms can be grown with plastics bags or containers. Besides, mushrooms can also be produced over specially prepared bags.

Also Read: Sweet Potato Farming Information Guide

How to Mushroom Farming?


Before starting, it is necessary to know the essential materials that are required in the process. These include straw, water, boiling pot, sterilizer, temperature control device, bags, and drums.

While growing mushrooms, the selection of raw materials is the first step to the ladder.

Straw is the basis of the oyster mushroom production. It can be obtained from a broad range of crops, including maize, wheat, barley, rye, sunflower, etc.

Originally, for the best dry mold-free base, the straw should not have the moisture more than 12 percent.

Moreover, you can add some of the additives including wheat, rice, hay, sugar or gypsum to boost mushroom production.

Sawdust may also be an alternative to straw because the straw is produced from hardwoods.

Once the substance is selected, it is time to prepare the substrate according to the standards to achieve the best results.

Preparing the Straw for Mushroom Farming

The straw is lightweight and the organic material that is less dispersed. Even after boiling, the density does not improve significantly and therefore, you need to form the raw materials closely into the plastics containers.

Otherwise, cutting the straw into pieces and soaking into the water for some hours can be added advantages. The density can also be improved by different external materials including sunflower husk, cottonseed hulls. 

Besides, the wood chips, sawdust, sugar beet pulp, etc can also be supplemented as a substrate but these are not mandatory only subjected to the availability.

Next, the substrates are packed into the bags for heat treatment. Some growers prefer to sterilize the substrate in a bulk and treat it before it is moved to the container or bags.

In the case of former, a hole of 3 to 4 cm is made at the bottom of each bag for inoculation that we need later during the spawning.

1. Sterilization of Straw

Sterilization does the necessary task of destroying microorganisms that can harm mycelium in mushroom farming. This process involves the heating process.

Generally, the heating temperature depends on the quality of the substrate. If the substrate is of good quality, it needs heating of 95 to 200 degrees Celsius. And, the heating duration should be 4to 5 hours long.

Besides, if the substrate includes particles or dust, it should be heated at 200–600 degrees Celsius, depending on the amount of dirt.

2. Pasteurization of Straw

Oil drums are the best option for pasteurization for small-scale production. It is a process of using steam to heat the bottom of the straw-filled bags. The drums shall be coated or shaped inside a way to prevent the burning of the plastic bags. 

These drums are created in such a way that they always have water toward the base and then a channel of metal above it. The metal channel supports the plastic bags and avoids the melting and burning of plastic bags.

The period of heating depends on bag size but usually, it is about 4-5 hours for complete pasteurization in mushroom farming. 

Once, the process ends. These plastic bags are cool down to 25 degrees Celsius.


Firstly, you need to understand the purpose of growing the mushroom as well as a thorough understanding of mushroom farming. Once identified, the next step involves the selection of spawn. 

If you do not have time to devote to prepare the grown, purchasing the premade grain spawn in the ideal choice. Thus, it enables you to skip the sterilization process. And, you can easily grow the mushrooms on pasteurized straw.

To prevent contamination, a mixing of spawn obtained from approved sources is perfumed with the straw in a cleanroom. And, it is required to use clean gloves. 

The hole made earlier at the center of the bag enables mixing 20 to 25 spawns in a single bag of the substrate. This is the inoculation.

 Next, the inoculated bags are transferred to dark rooms with the temperature adjusted to 20-25 degrees Celsius. These bags are kept in incubated rooms for 15-25 days.

You can be arranging bags in different ways. Generally, they are placed in a rack and usually, no interaction is allowed between the bags.

 Once, the little mycelial starts to appear, bags are transferred to the production space. 

In most cases, the same room can be used for both purposes. If you decide to use the same room, mycelial would need at least 10 hours of lighting to grow 

Nest stage for creating little holes in all the containers. It allows mycelial to become a fruiting gland.

Mushroom Farming Tips

1. Maintaining the Environment

 It is very important to maintain oxygen, CO2 and water. Although, each mushroom variety has the different requirements of fresh air, typically, all mushrooms need a fresh air level for them to grow properly.

As mushroom is made of 90% of water thus maintaining the humidity of the atmosphere is critically important during the early stage.

In case of low humidity, the mushroom bodies can become impaired or deter to grow entirely. On the other hand, high humidity you could raise the issue like bacterial blotch and other forms of contamination.

 An accurate hygrometer can be helpful in this scenario for the best outcomes. Moisten the surface of the bed with water once a day if dryness is noticed.

 To successfully cultivate a large number of mushrooms, the temperature is also a critical factor. Mushrooms generally prefer cool, humid conditions.

 Many mushrooms may require a little warmer, like the pink or yellow oyster, but it’s not the standard but just the case. 

When the temperature during the final phase of production in mushroom farming is maintained at about 15-18 degrees Celsius, the mushrooms become more enduring and meaty at maturity.

2. Deciding the Space

Your space for the production can vary in size and shape. It should conform to the amount of crop you want to produce. When you practice developing, you have a good idea of what size of being a room you like.

In some instances, plastic bags with a random space between them can be hung on the bar.

Otherwise, you can use the rack when you choose using the plastic bags with added sawdust. The light requirements for most mushrooms are not lower than what is needed for other plants.

3. Hygiene and Cleanliness

When it comes to hygiene and cleanliness, a production room should usually have smooth washable walls and floors. You can use a diluted solution to wash them daily.

Again, it is important that contaminants can be kept away rather than discarded. If any portion of the mushroom is infected by a mold or fungus, it must be cleaned and thoroughly extracted from the production room so that the organism is not propagated further.

The production area is an essential aspect of mushroom farming. The effective maintenance of the space and the environment should be learned through practices, particularly for mushroom species.

A grower must be continually aware of the mushroom growth and how it responds to and adapts to the environment around it.

How to Mushroom Cultivation?

Generally, the mushroom would be ready for harvesting in 4 to 5 days, once an instance grows out of the bag.

Besides, a mushroom harvest cycle would be 35 to 42 days long, although some collect a crop for 60 days, and in some cases, the harvest can go on for as long as 150 days depending on the temperature, humidity.

Must Read: Growing Your Favorite Peanuts or Groundnuts

Once the mature mushroom is plucked, the mushroom residue is extracted. Thus, the remaining flush can mature again. 

Mushrooms are typically harvested at a period when the veil is not too long. The maturity of a mushroom is measured by the reach of the veil, not by the size of the mushroom. 

Therefore, all large and small mature mushrooms are ready, although both farmers and buyers choose medium to large mushrooms.

If these are grown in a cluster, it is ideal for the mushroom cultivation to pick a complete cluster when the cap of the largest mushroom in the cluster begins to go from convex to concave.

Besides, a white powder appearing on the side of the bag determines the mushrooms are simply maturing.


There are the other methods to achieve similar results, but the most effective way is that conform your budget to transform a skilled on a small-scale project.


Why Are My Radishes Growing Above Ground

Radishes are a healthy and versatile plant. They can be consumed as toppings on salads used in western dishes too. The juice of radishes is full of nutrition. It is also cooked as a vegetable in various parts of the world. Along with all of this, radishes are so easy to grow and consume. 

But while growing radishes you can face some problems too. Problems that occur while growing radishes can be woody stems, bitter taste, cracking in roots, not forming bulbs, too hot taste. And while growing radishes, one question you might ask is, why my radishes are growing above ground?

Here we shall discuss why radishes grow above ground and solutions to this problem too. 

First, check out these numerous benefits of radishes. 

They can be eaten raw or can be cooked too. Only half a cup of radish has enough vitamin C to fulfill your daily need. It also has nutrients like vitamin K, vitamin B6, potassium, niacin, phosphorus, riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. 

Along with this, extracts in roots of radish have the power to kill cancerous cells. It is also great for bowls. To add to this, radish consumption can control blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Gastric ulcers can be cured by radish juice. Natural antifungal agents are present too. 

Why are my radishes growing above ground?

There can be few reasons behind this and they are mentioned below-

1. Imperfect Soil

If soil is not fit and does not match the required criteria for growth then abnormalities are obvious. Soil should be loose and crumpy to grow perfect and healthy radishes. In case, the soil is too compact, roots do not get enough space to expand. Therefore, first, they grow small in size.

Next, when they have no space to expand, they push themselves out and radishes start growing above ground. This situation can be prevented by loosening soil a little. It provides enough space to grow freely and thus, they do not pop out. 

The soil must be loosened and well maintained with compost and dry leaves up to 14 inches. 

By the time radishes start popping out of the ground, the problem would have increased very much without you noticing. Thus, if they come out by a quarter of an inch, check soil integrity. 

2. Seeds not sown deep enough

Seed packets bought from the market suggest sowing seeds up to ½ inch inside the ground. Scientists suggest that seeds must be sown at least one and a half inches deep in the ground for perfect growth of radishes. Sowing seeds above can lead to roots or main bulbs coming out of soil early. 

Sowing seeds deeper ensures proper growth and maximum output. 

3. Temperature of soil 

Soil temperature becomes unsuitable for radish growth when radish seeds are not sown at the correct time. The best time for sowing seeds in the spring season.

Sowing too early or too late makes them face too cold or too hot soil temperature which affects the growth of radish. Further, temperature above or below 80F is not suitable for radishes. Therefore, radishes come out of the ground. 

Must Read: Radish Farming: Planting, Harvesting, & Diseases

Tips to prevent radishes growing above ground

  • Make sure soil is loose and crumbly up to 12-14 inches deep. 
  • Use compost and dry leaves to make soil fit for radish growth. 
  • Seeds should be sown at least one and a half inches deep for maximum output. 
  • Maintain good moisture in the soil to avoid bitter radishes. 

Radishes turning long and thin 

There can be various reasons behind radishes turning long and thin. First of all, understand that the growth of leaves generally determines when they are to be pulled. Sometimes, leaves can be healthy but radishes below-ground can be long and thin and unfit for consumption. 

You can check growth by pulling the main root out a little. The main taproot is strong and deep and does not get affected much. However, tiny roots attached to the main one can get damaged by harsh pulling. So, be careful while checking. 

Now if your radishes appear to be long and thin then this might have occurred because of your little mistakes like- 

  1. Overcrowding- Radishes grow below ground and require enough space for proper growth. If they don’t get enough space due to overcrowding then they grow long and thin. Radishes should be grown 2-3 inches apart. This makes sure each one gets enough space to grow fully. 
  2. Sunlight- 6 hours of sunlight are a must for healthy and fully grown radishes. Alteration in sunlight periods affects growth and makes them long and thin. 
  3. Regular watering- radishes require a lot of water to grow. Shortage in the water supply makes them long and thin. However, too much water can destroy them so care must be taken. Radishes can bolt if hot water is supplied.
  4. Temperature- 80F is the optimum temperature for radish growth. If the temperature is above 80F, radishes start producing flowers. 
  5. Nutrients- improper intake of nutrients causes thin and long main roots. If high nitrogen content is added to the soil, radishes focus more on leaf growth than root. 

Radish leaves turning yellow 

Various conditions can result in the yellowing of leaves like overcrowding, lack of sunlight, competition for weeds, irregular watering, pests, or diseases. Few diseases that lead to yellowing of leaves are- 

  • Septoria leaf spots- this condition leads to yellow spot formation on leaves. Well-drained and nutritional soil prevents this disease. 
  • Club rot- yellow leaves, tumor growth, and swelling in roots us seen. It can be prevented by crop rotation. 
  •  Downy mildew- Angular yellow spots appear on leaves along with the white or grey fungus. 

Holes in Radish leaves 

Flea beetles can lead to holes in the leaves of seedlings or small transplants. Larvae of flea beetles feed on radish leaves and make holes in them. 

Holes eaten in the leaves of radishes by flea beetles, early June.

Cultivating them often can help get rid of flea beetles. The Garden should be kept clean to avoid pests. 


Radishes are an easy to grow and versatile plant. They take only 3-4 weeks to grow and ready to eat as such. But growing radishes can be accompanied by the above-mentioned problem too. Therefore, take steps to prevent and cure these ailments and you can grow perfect radishes that are fit for consumption.  

Chilli Flowers Dropping Off – Plant not flowering

Chilli is one of the most used spice crops in the world. There is no better way to provide the harsh and bitter taste in your food than using chilli. It is an absolute delight to use chilli to bring out the flavour of your food and make it worth it. Indian have always been very excited about their rich spices, and they never lagged behind in this. The Indian chillies are worldwide known and are amazing to taste.

Chilli is a part of the botanical family Solanaceae. The flowers seen on the plant are small, white ones, and they often are downward facing. Even the chilli fruit which grows on the plant is similarly growing downward, and hence they hang beautifully from the main plant.

But this transformation of the flower to the main fruit depends on a number of factors. The fruit bears seeds and without this, it is not possible to have the next growth. There can be a number of reasons why a situation of chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen. It is really hard to get close to perfection and then later losing the result of the fruit.

Flowers growing into fruit depends on a number of factors such as the intensity of the sunlight, humidity, water content, air, and many other such things. Chilli drop is a usual event, but a situation where chilli flowers dropping off is seen as very tragic.

Why does such a thing happen?

The gardeners very easily face this problem of chilli flower drop in their plants. It’s also a natural phenomenon as these shrubs do drop the flowers for giving a balance to the plant.

The main stem of chilli is so weak that due to excess flowering, it is seen that the plants do shed their flowers. It’s very normal for a healthy chilli plant, but there can be many other reasons for having this “blossom drop.”

Optimal temperature matters-

This factor really plays a lot for flowering and fruiting. The chilli plant is very limited in the temperature range. They are very sensitive to high temperature, and due to this factor, the gardeners face problems in maintaining the crop.

The morning temperature ranges from 20-10 degree celsius in the daytime. The plant drops the flower as an option to survive. This is a typical case of chillies flowering but no fruit. There can be other temperature-related facts, but you will have to see and analyze exactly which part of your plant gets damaged by the heat variation.


Another big point in chilli flower dropping off is the misuse of fertilizer. Many gardeners don’t get the entire concept of fertilizing, and hence they often think that using extra fertilizer is beneficial, but it is completely a myth. It can just backfire, and hence one needs to have a clear and keen analysis of the type of fertilizer, and the quality of fertilizer one should use. A better way would be consulting an expert for this—one who can analyze and work in detail.

Water Content-

Water plays a very unique role in plants. When you analyze the situation and see how it can work, you can observe the fact that both extreme water and low water can be harmful to the chilli plant. Both of them can cause chilli flowering but no fruit. When the water content gets lowered up in the soil and eventually in the plant, the chilli plant goes for an option to save the water from transpiration so that the water can be there for useful processes involving its life.

Flowers have their own water requirement, and also the surface area of the flower gives more surface for the water to escape; hence one can see chilli flowers dropping off. Similarly, in the case where water is in excess, the plant becomes heavy. Even the flower becomes loaded up with water, and the stem is full of water. In such a case, the flower can drop easily. The weight is a big factor in chilli plants, and hence they can’t make it easy if the plant gets full of water. It can even break the main stem.

Also Read: How to Grow Lavender with Maximum Productivity


It is a process in which the male spores from the male plant are transferred on the stigma of the female to form a zygote and later a seed. This process in chilly does happen via an agent. It can be air, water and many other such things. In the chilly plant, pollination is mainly via an insect.

Garden bees are a very common vector for this transfer. It is amazing to notice that lack of these vectors can cause the stoppage of pollination. Most of the gardeners aren’t aware of this fact. It will eventually lead in the death of the flowers.

The flower without being pollinated gets dried up, and hence the flower sheds off the plant. In such conditions, the flower needs to be pollinated by artificial means so as to make the flower stay on the plant. Even the gardener can do such a thing by using a cotton brush and artificial techniques.

Improper and incomplete pollination

Basically, even if anyone of the given conditions doesn’t match with a compatible pollination environment, then the process could be a complete failure. Any type of poor air circulation and improper agents can lead to such a situation. The life span of these flowers on the plant is very short, and even with a small change in the complete process, the pollination misses. This leads to Chilli Flowers Dropping Off the chilli plant after being dried up. The solution to such problems is easy, and a g can easily take some of these.

How to increase pollination?

It’s not very hard to increase the pollination rate in chilli plants. In chilli growing in gardens, the main pollinator is bees. This bee is one of the most amazing organisms in nature. To attract bees, you can plant many colorful flowers in the main garden or field where you are growing the main chilli.

Bees easily get attracted to the fragrance and sweet smell. Also, the big attractive looking flowers are very pleasing to the bees, and they like to come around these. This will accidentally help in the pollen transfer so moreover a great technique. But, you can never be sure of the success story. It is a complete case of hit and trial, and luck only can make the pollination better. If you are in an area with poor aeration or less attractiveness to pollination agents and if the pollination is the reason for Chilli flower dropping off, then you have nothing to do rather wait.


yes, don’t be surprised to know that the gas which is found the most in the atmosphere is one among the deficiencies responsible for chilli flowering but no fruit. The main reason behind this is the presence of nitrogen in free form in the soil in which the plant can use it. The nitrogen is very much important for the proper growth of chilli flowers.

Being one of the most essential macronutrients Nitrogen is very important for the blossom to remain perfect and later to transform into the chilli you want. Not only a deficiency but also an excess is very much harmful to the plant. In any case, if you took a chance to increase the nitrogen level much above the optimum, then the consequence could be a crop full of foliage bosom, and eventually, it costs in the toxicity of the land. There can be a shocking drop in the number of flowers in chilli plants, so be very strict in maintaining the appropriate amount of nitrogen for proper growth.


not only nitrogen but also air is a reason for such events. There can be many points on how air can affect the plants. The first case is itself the pollination rate. Chilli pollen is also travelled by air currents in the atmosphere which gives you an option of air pollination.

Unavailability of this airflow can reduce the pollination, dry up the flower, and then shed the flower. The second is the air content in the soil. Aeration is important for the roots. Due to tight soil, the air cannot get inside, and the roots don’t get the proper air. Further, this may lead to a lowering in the number of flowers. Even if the plant will grow, but the chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen.


The density or the area in which each plant is placed on the field is also a determining factor. If there are any plants on the field and the spacing is a problem, then the consumption of air and the circulation becomes weak. This may lead to chilli flowers dropping off. Sensity can be another factor by which the number of flowers can variate. The lesser the distance between pants, the lesser the growth is seen.

Humidity is very dangerous-

This plant likes to grow in dry areas. Proper and moderate humidity is required for easy and quick pollination. If the moisture content in air increases, the stickiness of the pollen also increases. The humidity is also a very important reason that can make the flowers heavy. This might be a very good cause for chillies flowering but no fruit. The content of the air is very determining, and hence small plants such as chillies do need the optimum condition. The blossom drop is very much significant in the areas with high moisture content.

Watering in the soil-

The water in the soil is important. If the water on the land where chilli is growing then it completely vanishes the fruiting in the plants. If the water level goes down the situation can be very stressful for the chilli plant. Due to such harsh conditions, the flowering might drop.

Water is very important for the overall growth, when overall is hampered the fruit is destroyed automatically. The chilli flowers dropping off can be seen in such situations, and water is something that can be really managed well. Even if the water is very much in the soil, it creates a lump. The aeration further decreases.

How to prevent this drop?

There are many factors for all these situations, and a gardener always wants a solution to it. So here are some of the things you can do to take of the problem-

  • You cannot change the environment, and hence it’s not on your choice, but you can select the area where you are going to cultivate chilli. Even some solutions such as artificial heating and greenhouse gases are beneficial, and one can try using these artificial techniques for getting the plants back on track.
  • Fertilization- it is very much sensitive in chilli plants. Most of them provide ammonia to the soil and hence are great with fixing nitrogen and providing other ions for the growth. Try providing a good amount of fertilizer just enough to support the flowerings.

 Here is a key point with fertilizers.

Excess of fertilizers on your plant is very much more harmful than less content or no fertilizer. One has to be very specific with the amount.

  • Try providing good water to the plant. Chilli is very sensitive to water. If they don’t get a good amount of water, the growth degrades a lot. Chilli flowering but no fruit is a very basic thing seen on the plant due to water.
  • Sometimes there are many growth factors in the plants responsible for fruiting. One can easily get these chemically synthesized chemicals from the market and use these for use. Cytokines, Auxin and other chemicals are growth initiating hormones.

Dropping of flowers from the main plant is a very common phenomenon and sometimes it is even very natural. Chilli is so sensitive that even a tinge of variation in the conditions and your fruits are spoiled. The best a person can do is to make the situations favourable and more worthy for the plant.


Growing the Microgreen Broccoli

The broccoli is a dark green plant that appears like a green miniature tree and belongs to the cabbage family. It is loaded with vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds. 

Apart from nutrition values, the broccoli is a cash crop due to its demand in the daily diet. And, broccoli farming is picking the trend nowadays.

Broccoli has the greatest content of essential nutrients, including magnesium, iron, and calcium.

 Being a nutritious vegetable, broccoli is growing in consumption. Besides its use in a variety of cuisine, it is quite popular in green salads.

As broccoli is a cold season crop, it is wise to grow broccoli in the winter so that at the time of harvesting the temperature should not be above than 23-degree Celsius.

Also Read: Cabbage Farming: Planting, care, Harvesting- A complete guide

This is interesting that the broccoli thrives best in the climate condition that varies from 7-degree Celsius to 23-degree Celsius. Besides, broccoli is frost-resistant and can tolerate temperatures below the freezing level for at least one week. 

Understanding how broccoli grow

It is recommended to sow broccoli seed month before the spring’s last frost. Because now you get enough time to move the seedlings to the field in broccoli farming, after hardening off them for some time so that they can bear the hardest of climate conditions.

On the other hand, it is worth sowing the seeds indoors in the case of the late summer, for the regions that have mild winters. Later you can put them in the greenhouse, once autumn starts and so it can be harvested in the winter.

In both the cases, temperature hitting the freezing level for quite a time or rising beyond the 25-degree celsius can hamper the growth of the head of the broccoli.

While in areas that have cold winters, it is recommended to sow the seed in the summer so the crop can mature in autumn, just before the cold.

Soil Preparation

To make the soil fertile for broccoli farming, it is worth adding well-mixed compost containing the manure. Once, the manure is spread over the soils. Then plow the field for three or four times before starting the main planting.

The crops of Broccoli may be grown in a variety of soils. Besides, the sandy and silt loam soils are ideally used to achieve a higher yield from broccoli crops.

When considering the pH value of soil, it should be between 6 and 7 if soil can have the best moist conditions throughout the crop. 

In some cases, aging manure can be applied to soil to replace soil nitrogen in areas of heavy rain or sandy soil.

Selecting Variety of broccoli

While selecting the variety, it is necessary to keep the maturity time of the crop. The green sprouting variety often takes the 70 to 140 days to mature. The proper selection of the broccoli variety directly influences the final yield because one can thrive in a certain environment and others indifferent. 

Thus, it is worthy to select the relative variety so that the crop matures after optimum climate conditions.

In the case of broccoli farming, direct seeding is far more valuable as compared to the transplant. While for some areas, due to the climate conditions, transplant is a better choice.

Besides, in both cases, it is recommended to grow the broccoli in two rows on the raised beds with a minimum distance of 4o to 45 cm. While in case planting is done in a single line, space should be around 60 cm.

And, during the transplant, a young plant with some leaves and almost a month old is the right choice to succeed. 

On the other hand, it is better to transplant thin plants to a different section of the field.

And, in case of direct seeding, sow the seed half an inch deep and at least three inches apart. 

When transplanting, it is worth that you must have a minimum of 11,000 plants per acre. 

 Broccoli planting spacing

For the spacing make sure that it adheres to the capability of irrigation, the schedule of the plantation as well the particular demand in the market if there is any.

Must Read: Planting and Growing Okra Step by Step

Irrigation of broccoli plants

Broccoli gives a better yield when irrigated regularly, it’s worth keeping the soil enough moist when flowers start to bloom. Though, watering with the furrow or the sprinklers achieves better growth in the broccoli plant. 

While if you have a large farm in the case of broccoli farming, it is appropriate to use drip irrigation.

The amount of water for the broccoli largely depends on the soil type, weather conditions as well as the growth or maturity of the crop. 

The watering to the plants should be more frequent when the crop is in the last phase and the vegetable’s growth is at its peak.


To get the highest yield of the crop, applying the proper amount of fertilization is utmost necessary. For healthier plant production, most of the crops rely heavily on NPK fertilizer.

Broccoli is a relatively hard feeder and must feed in a thin layer of old manure before the crop. 

The land as a resource requires proper maintenance and monitoring. Fertilization will then be produced on the basis of soil analysis tests.

 In the case of the drip irrigation system, nitrogen can be applied through the water as it is the most precise way to feed the plant.

How grow broccoli sprouts

Broccoli develops in just more than two months from seed to harvest. It is appropriate to wait for the sowing before the weather conditions become favorable for the plants. Thus they can become stable and efficient, offering protection against intense weather.

While all broccoli plants may endure freezing, extended cold periods can delay development or harm plant production. 

The flowering cycle is triggered by low temperatures and warm days. This mechanism can cause plants to have flowers earlier than normal. This can affect the size of broccoli’s heads.

To combat these conditions, cold weather shelter is provided that gives further 4 to 8-degree insulation, protecting and extending the season of freeze harvests for up to four weeks.

Grow broccoli microgreens

Proper care of the crop is as important as another step. The caring of a plant may include, apart from the watering and fertilization, eliminating the unnecessary weed, identification of the insects or the adequate analysis of the crop diseases. 

The main problems of broccoli development may be insect pests, in particular for summer seedlings. 

Right monitoring of each plant can prevent unnecessary loss to the crop and eventually can hamper the overall yield at the end.

To take care of your plants, make sure you take appropriate action as soon as you get any hint of any problem to the plant.

These are some of the highlighted problems in broccoli farming:

Eliminating weed

The weed battles for food, sunshine, and air with the majority of the crops. And, consequently, reduce the growth of a particular plant. So, it is appropriate to keep the crop weed-free as it starts to appear after a month of transplantation.

Controlling the insects

Several insects harm the broccoli plant throughout its life. Flea beetles, wireworms or the cutworms can make the seedling die at the early stage. 

Besides, cabbage aphids can attack the heads while they are in the development phase. In this case, it is necessary to control these insects even before the head starts to develop. A quality insecticide can be sprayed to the plants to prevent these harmful insects. Or, you can handpick them to get higher yields.

The soil-borne pests have less impact over the broccoli plant, yet some soil pathogens can cause clubroot disease. These diseases can be controlled by crop rotation or applying the line to the roots in the case of broccoli farming.

Apart from these, downy mildew affects the broccoli plants quite a lot. It can be identified with the spots in the leaves. This fungal infection does not have a great impact on vegetables until it affects the head.

To counter such infection, some growers prefer to use a fungicide. In some cases, a seedling is treated by chemical treatment especially in moist conditions, which favors the disease.

The broccoli head is also susceptible to the various diseases that need to be taken care of. The head diseases severely affect the flower buds and can also because of the head rot.

Such disease spreads in wet conditions and causes significant damage to the overall yield. To prevent such conditions, it is appropriate to use correct pesticides once you get any symptoms.

Harvesting broccoli

Seed based plants can produce broccoli in 100 to 150 days. This is the best broccoli plant harvest time. Broccoli can be developed in 55–80 days from the transplants method. It is worth leaving the foundation and some exterior leaves of the broccoli plant to facilitate fresh heads in the secondary production.

A crop must be hand-picked two to three-times during a season and in case of storage, a broccoli stem should be cut at the 6 inches.

Moreover, it is recommended to harvest the broccoli in the morning to maintain the freshness of the vegetable intact.



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