Is Custard Apple Farming Profitable?

The custard apple, Annonareticulata L., is commonly ranked among the influential representatives of this family, both in the tree and in the berries. Its descriptive English name has been widely misapplied to particular species and the hybrid ATEMOYA, and it is often incorrectly referred to as “sugar apple,” “sweetsop” and, by Spanish-speaking men, “anon” or “onion,” in India as “Ramphal.”

It also received very few appropriate geographic titles. Most widely used as an alternative term in English-speaking regions is bullock’s heart or bull’s heart.

The custard apple tree isn’t pretty. It’s upright with a rounded or spreading crown and 10-14 in (25-35 cm) thick base. Height from 15-35 ft (4.5-10 m). The poorly smelling leaves are evergreen, alternating, oblong or narrow-lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, 2-5 cm thick, with visible veins. The flowers are fragrant, small, with three outer fleshy, thin petals up to 2-3 cm long, light green outside and pale-yellow with a dark-red or purple patch within in the middle. Never completely open bulbs.

Origin of the Custard Apple

The custard apple is thought to be native to the West Indies but was brought to southern Mexico in early times from Central America. Fostered and naturalized as far south as Peru and Brazil. It is usually grown in the Bahamas, often in Bermuda and southern Florida. It was planted in South Africa in the early 17th century and is cultivated as a fruit tree in South Africa.

The tree grows in India, particularly around Calcutta, and runs wild in other places. It has become relatively popular on Malaya’s east coast, and across Southeast Asia and the Philippines, though especially esteemed nowhere. This was stated extensively naturalized in Guam eighty years ago. It’s unclear in Hawaii.

Custard Apple Quality

No named cultivars are registered, but the fruit quality from various trees differs considerably. The yellow-skinned forms are preferable to the brownish and have smoother, juicier meat when well packed. Seeds of a purple-skinned, purple-fleshed type were planted in Florida, and the tree developed unremarkable quality fruit. Keep the quality factor in mind when planning about custard apple farming.

Must Read: How To Do Watermelon Farming?

Propagation techniques

Custard apples can be propagated in three ways: gene, budding, and grafting processes. Seed: seeds usually produce custard Apple. Budding: Chip-and-shield budding will even spread it. Budding happens in spring as the sap begins flowering. Grafting: Whip grafting succeeded in increasing yield and efficiency. Plants usually propagate custard apples.

For rain-fed conditions, when they attain a height of around 20-25 cm, seedlings can be grown in polythene bags packed with garden soil and planted in the field when the monsoon begins.  

Custard Apple farming zone

The custard apple prefers low-lying, dark, fertile soil with enough moisture and durable drainage. It develops to full size on oolitic calcareous in south Florida and grows wild in light sand, and numerous other soil types in the New and Old-World tropics but is undoubtedly less competitive in less suitable locations.

Custard Apple Farming: Planting Custard Apple

Here we are going to discuss various steps associated with custard apple farming, and in other words, agriculture begins with the planting. So, let’s explore it step by step.

 1. Getting seeds

You can get sugar apple seeds from your nearest garden center or, if you have a friend, you can get seeds from the flesh with the help of your friend. You can also order seeds from the online retailer. If you get seeds from the flesh of a custard apple, you will have to wait a week before planting the seeds from the fruit. They don’t germinate well if you immediately place them in the dirt.

Cut the custard apple fruit and extract the big, black seeds. Put them in a seed envelope, wait a week before planting. If you bought seeds from a garden center, you need not wait until planting.

2. Soak the seeds

While germination can take thirty days, soaking your seeds will speed the process. Wrap the seeds in a paper towel. Soak seeds with some water. Place the paper towel seeds in a bag. Let your seeds soak three days before planting.

3. Finding a sunny spot

Because custard apple is a tropical tree, you want a bright spot to start seedlings. You’ll want to place your seedling tray in front of a window facing south, so the seed gets more than enough warmth and light. If you don’t have a window facing south, you will grow lights. So, all in all, you need a sunny spot for custard apple farming.

4. Putting potting soil in a seedling tray

You’ll need at least two to three inches deep seeding tray with drainage holes that you can find at a garden store. Fill the seed tray with new compost from the garden shop, as opposed to garden soil. You would like to moisten the soil until planting the seeds.

5. Put the seeds in the soil

Plant two or three centimeters deep in your seedling tray. They will be one-and-a-half cm apart. The plants will germinate within 30 days. 

Moving to the next step

Now it’s time to move outside. And transplant the seed out there.

Also Read, Papaya Farming Ultimate Guide

1. Choose warm climates

In hot or near-tropical weather, plant your custard apple tree. Since sugar apples can survive drought, you can plant it in a dryer environment. Cooler temperatures are not anticipated, so stop planting it outdoors in winter or night cold areas.

2. Transplant in the spring

In spring, you can transplant your custard apple tree or whenever the climate reaches between 23-24 Celsius. You will consider a place with a wind cover, plenty of suns, and not prone to waterlogging.

3. Choose the sunny area

Custard apple is a tropical plant growing well in South America, Asia, and Africa, so enjoy the sun! You will plant it in a warm, wind-protected spot.

4. Soil should get good drainage

Use fertile, well-draining apple-tree soil. You can grow it in sandy, calcareous or hard loam soil because it tolerates a variety of soil types. However, avoid waterlogged soil and ensure proper drainage.

5. Dig a hole

As custard apple trees have deep root systems, the planting hole should be twice as full as the seedling root ball. The hole depth will suit the root ball size. Place the root ball in the hole, cover and cover the seedling

6. Watering the plant

Water your tree rarely but extensively. Custard apples have mild watering requirements and withstand drought, although they drop leaves if the drought is severe.

7. Using organic fertilizer

To get the tree started, you’ll want a full fertilizer. Using organic fertilizer to boost root system growth.Using 3-10-10 fertilizer to increase yield in later years.

8. Giving shape

To shape your custard apple tree, you’ll want to trim it in spring. You’ll find it grows in several parts, which can get very unwieldy. You’ll want to trim back to shape the tree and extract any old berries.      

custard apples
Irrigation of Custard Apple

Custard apple cultivation does not require watering to grow relatively good crops if successful water storage is impaired by micro catchment in the rainy season. Irrigation during flowering and fruit production is essential.

However, in the absence of water harvesting in the post-monsoon season, two or three irrigations aid in fruit quality and higher growth. Fruit collection yield per field and consistency are superior in pulp/segment irrigated plantations.

With each carrying, plants receiving daily water thrive. Pruning, fertilization, and irrigation are essential for optimum production. For regions with water-limiting schemes, pool, trickle or drip irrigation help in the judicious usage of water. Fruits are grown in low rainfall zones.

Land forming may be used to drain rainwater around the plantation. Contour terraces, contourite, and micro-catchments often help effectively using water. Plowing and mulching during rainy season allows retaining moisture further

Custard Apple Varieties

Some custard apple fruits are tiny and produce plenty of seeds and nothing to consume. On the other side, certain custard apple varieties grow broad fruits with just 5-7 seeds and all substance to enjoy. Custard apples are two major types, both short, juicy and flavored. Break them in two, pinch the meat with a tablespoon and enjoy.

  • Pink Mammoth: Good quality fruits are enormous. It may weigh up to 3 kg and have very few seeds, nearly seedless. This is custard apple’s most popular commercial form.
  • African Pride: The fruits are smaller up to 500-800 gm. But this type of variety of custard Apple has more seeds than the Pink Mammoth. This fruit starts growing sooner. Skin blackening and other fruit issues are susceptible.
Custard Apple Cultivation: Seed benefits and business opportunities

We know that the benefits of the seed of custard apple have nothing a lot to do with its cultivation. But when you plan for custard apple cultivation, you must be aware of the benefits of its seeds. The reason is straightforward, its seeds are in massive demand in the market.

So, more needs will create more opportunities for you in terms of business. For say, through custard apple farming, you will not only be able to sell the product but also its seeds can give you some good company. So, without wasting any time, let’s quickly get to know about the same.

1. Eradication of head lice

Are you sick to scratch your head because of the insects and nit? Has everything failed, such as the dandruff shampoos? Seek the seeds of the custard apple. Only take some, grind in powdered shape and blend into a paste with a little water. Apply on the head and give 10 minutes to rest.

Wash with sparkling, clear water. This process will yield great results twice a week for a month and leave your head entirely safe.

2. Works as a pesticide

The same blend can also be used for your home garden as a pesticide. Regularly spray a few of the riddled plants for 10 to 15 days, to avoid leaf-eating insects.

3. Use in pharmaceuticals

Its seeds are commonly used by drug makers because of their emergency contraceptive properties that have been scientifically confirmed. It’s used to manufacture drugs to cause abortion.

4. Use in Biogas

Countries like Germany and several other European countries use these few wonders to generate biogas for commercial purposes. The grains of this fruit contains methyl-ester-rich trapped fatty acids that cause gas production.

5. Commercial pesticides farming

The custard apple seeds are also combined with neem seeds to create a new powerful bacterial pesticide used in industrial agriculture. The pesticide produced from such seeds is natural and ecologically harmless. The use of custard apple seed pesticide is perfect for human health.

We have not mentioned these benefits for the sake of mentioning. Instead, we have tried to broaden your idea about the business opportunities you can develop out of these benefits. You can transform any of the benefits into a profit-making business when it comes to custard apple cultivation.


The custard fruit is excellent, but the seeds are very poisonous, and unintentional ingestion can lead to abortion, as it is slightly hazardous. The insecticides developed from the grains should be kept from the eyes because they are capable of even temporarily blinding a person. So although you enjoy a dish packed with this healthful fruit, first take care to take off all the seeds.


Pumpkin Farming: how to plant, grow, and harvest pumpkins correctly and properly

There is no fall without pumpkins. Be it big, mini, orange, white, carved, and most importantly pie or any other kind, almost all love pumpkins. Pumpkin farming is done mostly over a large patch of land, for better quality and size. Pumpkins are used in cooking as well as in carving during Halloween for decorations. Several pumpkin farms sell well in other seasons. Farming is easy to maintain if you have sufficient space. These crops will flourish just about anywhere with the right care.

Steps to Follow for the Best Fruit

Pre planting preparation

Pre-planning is important even if you are growing pumpkins as they are very tender. Pumpkin plants grow as a vine, which can easily reach 20 to 30 feet long in the course of its growing season. 

Also Read: Sweet Potato Farming Information Guide

Pre-plan the time to plant seeds:

Pumpkins do require a long growing season. Generally, it takes 75 to 100 frost-free days to grow. So, it is advised to carry pumpkin cultivation by late May in Northern locations and by early July in the extreme Southern places. Plant the seeds after the frost has passed. If you are planning for a fall harvest, then plant them in late spring or early summer. Again, if pumpkins are planted too early, they may soften and rot.

Selecting a site to plant seeds:

Pumpkins prefer full sun. Pick a site with full sunlight to light shade. A spot under a tree or in the shadow of a building would not serve your purpose. Pumpkins grow annually on heavy grown vines. The site should also have lots of space for sprawling vines. An open space of 25 to 30 feet will serve your purpose of pumpkin cultivation. A Pumpkin farm does not take the whole yard. Besides, it should also have a good drainage system. The site should not have standing water after heavy rains as well as a shelter from cold wind.

Preparing the soil to plant seeds:

Pumpkin seeds do not germinate if your soil is cold. Beware; the seedlings are destroyed by frost. They prefer very rich soil, which is not too soggy. Checking the soil temperature is also very important. The soil temperature should be at least 70 degrees Fahrenheit as pumpkin is a tender crop. You need to wait until the soil is warmed, naturally. Otherwise, pumpkins will start to rot. An extra boost for your pumpkin farming is to prepare your soil beforehand. Digging holes to plant the pumpkin seeds and filling them with a mixture of compost one week before planting seeds is advisable. 

Choosing the seeds:

You can choose your yield from three different varieties of pumpkins. Here are three varieties of pumpkins for you to grow in your backyard: pie-pumpkins for cooking. Large decorative pumpkins to carve out for Halloween.Mini pumpkins for decorating purposes again.

Planting the seeds

Pumpkins grow well when the seeds are planted in the ground directly.

Plant the seeds in wide-spaced rows:

Plant the pumpkin seeds in rows. They will creep along with the vines. Depending on the variety of your pumpkin seeds space the rows 6 to 10 feet apart. Mini pumpkins will take small space to grow while the larger ones need more space. The Bush-type variety of pumpkins needs 8feet space in all directions to grow fully. They grow on shorter vines.

The perfect depth to plant the seeds:

The most important step towards pumpkin cultivation is to build the pumpkin-hills. The pumpkin-hill is a small hill built on the ground. Accumulate the soil where you want to plant the seed then give it a shape of a hill using your palms. The hill keeps the soil warmer by allowing the sun to heat it faster. It improves the cultivation by providing natural drainage. Plant the seeds 1-2 inches deep in the hills. You can plant 2 or 3 seeds within a few inches from one another.

Covering the seeds:

After you have properly planted, your seeds now cover them up with compost. The compost mixture prevents the growth of weeds and nourishes the seeds planted. A thin layer of compost mixture in the areas where you have planted your seeds is enough to nurture your seeds properly.

Taking care of the plants

Taking the right care of your seeds will do the magic for your pumpkin farming. With proper care, the plants will sprout within about a week.

  • Watering:

Every plant needs watering, and pumpkin is no different. When the soil temperature is low, it is the right time to water the pumpkin plants. Pumpkins are very sensitive to moisture. Over moisture will injure the plants. Adding more water to wet soil will do no good for farming. Rather adding less water to dry soil is ideal. Let the water soak deep into the soil before adding further water. As the roots grow deep into the soil, the water must reach the plants deeply.

In pumpkin cultivation, you need to water deep down at least 6 inches to moisten the soil. Water only the stem of the plant. Avoid watering the leaves. Wet leaves are the ideal place for fungus to grow. Powdery mildew is one of them. It causes the plant to die by bewildering the leaves of the plants. Watering in the sun is more preferable than in the night. Use a garden hose equipped with a mist ling nozzle for watering the plant. Decrease the amount of water as the pumpkins grow and turn orange in color.

  • Pollinating the blossoms:

The first thing that comes to anyone’s mind is how do pumpkins grow. Pumpkins depend on bees to pollinate their blossoms. If you do not see active bees in your gardens, self-pollinate using your hands. You must get your female flowers fertilized to get the pumpkins.

Must Read: Growing the Avocado – The Healthiest food

The female flowers show up later with a swollen base below the petals, which helps you to identify them. Male flowers show up first. They are thin and straight flowers. Self-pollination includes transferring pollen from the male flower to the female flower. An artist’s brush will help you in this process.

Wear gloves on your hands. Brush the male flower with the artist’s brush to collect the pollen from it. Going to the female flowers, brush only the center of the female flower to allow the pollen to settle on them. Be gentle with the blossoms as they are very delicate. In the mornings, the female flowers remain open for half a day.

After that, they shut themselves up and do not open until the next morning. If you accurately do the self-pollination then you will surely get the best results out of them. Too many fertilizers will reduce the rate of pollination. It will negatively influence your fruit set.

  • Fertilizing:

Adding fertilizers to your pumpkin farm encourages the growth of the plants. When the plants first sprout add the fertilizer to keep them healthy. Go to a local nursery and choose the fertilizer accordingly from them. Side dressing is also important. It means spreading the fertilizer around the plants close enough for their roots to is ideal to side-dress the vines once a week after the blossoms start appearing.

  • Controlling weeds and pests:

To make most out of your pumpkin cultivation, make sure you control the weeds and pests growing around them. Monitor your pumpkin farm throughout its growing process to have control over them. Weed the patch often to prevent the growth of them around your pumpkin plants.

Planning a weed a few times a week is good for your farming. Conserving your soil moisture by cleaning the weeds is also important. Beetles grow on the plant leaves and eat the plant tissues. Check the leaves to remove them. Scrape them off the whole plants twice a week to save the plants. Aphids threaten garden plants a lot.

They mostly grow on the underside of the leaves of the plant. Taking care of a pumpkin farm is highly recommended, otherwise, they will kill your plants. Spraying water on them will do the work. But, spray the water in the morning so the leaves get enough time to dry under the sun.

Squash bugs are another variety of pests that grow especially later in summer. Poor light will enhance the growth of pests. Go to your local nursery and ask about organic pesticides if necessary. 

Harvesting the pumpkins

pumpkin harvest time
Check the pumpkins:

Pumpkins typically take 95 to 120 days to fully mature after they are planted. Check to see whether they are ready to harvest or not. They should have a bright orange color. Their shell should be hard. Do not harvest the pumpkins if they are still soft. Allow them to become hard before cutting them from their plants. Their stems will remain soft. But, the vine will start drying out itself. They will also start to wither on their own.

Cut the stems:

Do not break the stems; it will destroy your pumpkins. Cut the pumpkins from the stems with the help of a pair of shears to keep them intact. While you cut the stem make sure to leave the stem a few inches long. A liberal amount of stem (3 to 4 inches) will increase the life of the pumpkins never after cutting.

Store the pumpkins:

After cutting the pumpkins from the plants keep them in a cool and dry place. Wet and moisture places can make them rot. Keeping them away from humidity, damp, and direct sunlight is advisable. They do not need any kind of refrigeration also. Pumpkins can be kept for many months after harvesting. To avoid molds and fungi, a little spray of mild chlorine before storage does the work perfectly. Maintain a storage temperature of around 55 degrees Fahrenheit. 


Just remember to water well and often. Watch the plants often for pests. Clean the ground and make it weed-free. Fertilize regularly. Last but not least is to watch the fruit grow bigger and bigger! Handle the pumpkins gently or they may bruise. Follow the above-given steps to make the most out of your cultivation.

Kiwi Farming, Planting, Growing & Harvesting

Kiwi farming is predominantly carried out in the USA, Japan, Italy, China, Chile, France, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand.  Kiwi is also known as Chinese gooseberry is an edible berry that has high medicinal and nutritional value. Kiwi is a deciduous vine fruit which is oval in shape and it is about the size of a Chicken’s egg.

The fruit grows on a vine that is as high as 30 feet tall and is woody. The fruit has fibrous, thin, tart, and fuzzy edible skin. The fruit is similar to grapes as it is also grown in clusters. Kiwi has light green or golden colour flesh inside and has tiny black edible seeds. Kiwi is soft-textured and has a unique flavour.

Kiwi is rich in Vitamin C and vitamin B and other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Kiwi can be consumed fresh or can be mixed with other fruits in desserts and salads. The kiwi fruit is also used in the preparation of wines and squash. In India, Kiwi farming is done in Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Jammu & Kashmir.

Health Benefits

Kiwi fruits are excellent antioxidants and anti-aging agent. Thus it aids in the improvement of the skin. The respiratory and cardiovascular system also benefits from the consumption of the fruit. The presence of serotonin is beneficial to treat sleep issues. Furthermore, the kiwi fruit also has antifungal and antibacterial properties.

Types of Kiwi Fruit

Hayward is a New Zealand variety that is grown globally. However, kiwi fruit is majorly available in three varieties: Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiaarguta), Super-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiakolomikta), and Grocery store kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosa).

Hardy kiwifruit is also known as ‘bowerberry’ and it grows on the trees that are as tall as 100 feet in Siberia, Korea, Japan, and China. This variety of kiwi fruit can tolerate low temperatures.

Super-hardy kiwi fruit is smaller but smooth-skinned. It can grow in temperature as low as -40°F. The fruit is also known as ‘arctic beauty kiwi fruit’.

Grocery store kiwi fruit is also known as fuzzy kiwifruit. This variety of kiwi is large in size and is the most common and edible variety.

The other types of kiwi fruit known are Tewi, Bruno, Monty, Tomuri, Elmwood, Saanicheton, Abbott, Chico, Gracie, Dexter, Matua, Allison, and Vincent.

Where do Kiwis Grow?

It is essential to cultivate a crop in a correct season and with ideal soil requirements. Kiwi fruit can be grown in well-drained, fertile, and moist soil. The presence of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus is essential during the vegetative stage of the fruit.

The best pH range of the soil should be from 6.3-7.3 to get maximum yield from the crop. The ideal kiwi fruit farming weather is low temperatures. However, kiwi needs protection from moisture throughout the year. The fruit should also be shielded against frosts. The ideal temperature for growing kiwis is below 38°C. A temperature higher than 38°C can cause sunburn to the crop.

Kiwi fruits can be grown where almonds, citrus, and peaches are abundant. However, the leaves are more susceptible to cold in comparison to the peach or orange trees. The young plant of kiwi fruit can be harmed if the temperature falls below -1°C while the vines that are mature can handle the temperature lower than -12°C. It is essential to protect the young flowering shoots from wind as it can damage the crop easily.

How to Grow Kiwi from Seed?

To grow kiwi from the seeds or planting a kiwi from seed is not a hard job. The first step is to collect the seeds of the kiwi fruit from the available ripe fruit. The gooey membrane needs to be separated from the seeds and thus seeds have to be placed in water and then blended. With the help of the colander, wash the seeds in the sink. The cleaned seeds can then be transferred to the paper towel.

A plastic ziplock is used to store the paper towel containing the seeds. The ziplock is later placed into warm container. The sprouting process takes around 2-6 weeks. Once the seeds start the sprouting or germinating, the paper towel is split into small pieces. The seedlings are then transplanted into the pit made on the small pot for 2-3 months. Keep the kiwi vines in adequate sunlight as the plant requires light.

Also Read: Strawberry Farming – A business that promises a “delicious” future

Steps of Kiwi Fruit Germination

  1. Separate seeds out of a ripe and organic kiwi and then clean them by water rinsing. The easy way is to place the seeds in the cup, add water and then swish them. Later on, remove the water out of the cup. This process has to be repeated multiple times for proper cleaning.
  2. The small container or cup is then filled with lukewarm water and the kiwi seeds are transferred to it. The cup or container hasto be placed in the warm environment such on the warm window sill, in front of heater, or on the top of the computer. The seeds are to be kept in water for about a week or until they start separating. The water present in the cup has to be changed daily to inhibit the bacterial growth.
  3. As soon as the seeds begin to open, they are ready to get transferred to mini greenhouse. The paper towel is soaked in lukewarm water and placed on the plate on which the seeds are distributed. The distributed germinating seeds are then covered with plastic container and placed in the area getting sufficient sunlight. It is recommended to make small holes in the container to allow the air to flow smoothly. This is the ideal condition for the seed to germinate faster. The kiwi seeds would be ready for planting only after 2 days in the greenhouse.
  4. Once the seeds are germinated properly, it is the right time for the planting process. But before planting it is mandatory to prepare the container or pot. The soil in the pot should contain sufficient moisture and this should be done by transferring the soil in a bucket and then mixing water to the soil until it is damp in nature.
  5. The container should be completely filled with the moist soil. An inch of space should be left below the rim of the pot.
  6. Now the seeds are ready to be planted. The pots are then sprinkled with the seeds keeping few inches distance from each other. It is advisable to plant each seed in a separate tiny pot to make the transplanting process easy and smooth. Once the seeds are in the pot, spread a thin layer of soil over them. The seeds should be planted at a depth of around two times their length.
  7. Once planting is done, water the seeds using can or squirt bottle. Transfer the pot in a warm and sunny area to get sufficient light. Take care of the seeds by watering and feeding them regularly.

Nutritional requirements and Fertilizers for Kiwi Plant

A dose of fertilizer consisting of 0.5 kg NPK mixture with 15% N and 20 kg farmyard manure is suggested every year for the plant.  High amount of chlorine is also required by the plant as its deficiency can negatively influence the development of roots and shoots of the plant.

Contrary, high level of sodium and boron can be very harmful to the plant. The two equal doses of nitrogen are applied. The young vines get the necessary nutrients of the fertilizer from the soil as the fertilizer is mixed to the soil. The entire soil surface is provided with fertilizer once the plant attains maturity.

Propagation in Kiwi Farming

On the commercial level, the crop is propagated by planting vegetative cuttings or via grafting technique.

Spacing in Kiwi Farming

Planting the crop at a sufficient distance is essential to get maximum yield out of the crop. The distance varies depending on the propagation method used. For the commercial plantation of kiwi, Pergola Training system or T-bar training system are used. In the Pergola system, the row to row distance is about 6m and the plant-to-plant distance is 5-6m. In case of T-bar training system, row-to-row spacing is 3.5m whereas plant-to-plant distance is approximately 6m.

To increase the pollination rate, male plants should also be planted in the garden and the ratio should be 1 male to 6-8 female plants. Insects are also a useful vehicle for pollination of the crop as this fruit plant aren’t self-pollinating plants.

Intercropping in Kiwi Crop

The initial kiwi farming can get the benefits if vegetables and leguminous crops are planted together with the kiwi crop.

Diseases and Pests in Kiwi Plants

Rots in the roots of the plant can be caused by Phytophthora soil fungi and majorly in the soil containing water. The humid conditions results in the development of Botrytis cinera rot that causes infestation in young fruit.

Irrigation in Kiwi Fruit Farming

Watering the plant at regular intervals is essential for the setting of crop as well as fruit. The complete growth cycle of the crop requires adequate amount of water. The hardy kiwi crop gets ready for harvesting in 3-4 years. Thus, this crop is in need of water for at least 3 yearsin the field.

However, it is essential not to over water the crop. Once the crop gets the necessary water content, it spreads its foliage to the surface of the soil resulting in the mulch formation. The process of mulching lowers the water requirement of the plant by reducing the evaporation rate. Mulching also aids in controlling the weeds.

A kiwi crop needs a regular water supply mainly during the drought and hot conditions. The commercial farming of kiwi requires irrigation in around 10-14 days’ interval is preferred for best yield. Providing the water as per the need of the plant is one of the best ways to get the maximum production. 

Harvesting and Yielding of Kiwi Fruit

The plant starts producing fruit after 4-5 years. The initial yield is small but it increases gradually as the plant attains maturity. The ripening season of kiwi fruit is September and October. If there is presence of frost, the plant needs to be harvested before the fruit ripens. The ripening process can be done in refrigeration. Once the skin of the kiwi fruit starts to turn brown in colour, it can be snapped from the stalk. The other method to check whether fruit is ready for harvesting is to observe black seeds in the sample kiwi fruit.

Due to the difference in temperature, the fruit matures later at high altitudes and early at lower altitudes. After the harvesting is done, the stiff hairs present on the surface of the fruit are removed by rubbing the fruit against coarse cloth.  The fruits that are hard are sent to the market and within two weeks they become edible.

The yield of the crop relies on various attributes such as method of irrigation, soil type, tree age, variety, and climatic conditions. On an average, approximately 100 kgs of fruit can be collected per harvesting season.

Storage of Kiwi Fruit

The harvested fruits can be stored in the cool place for approximately two months. This storage doesn’t require refrigeration.

Papaya Farming – Ultimate Guide

Do you want to start a Papaya farming business? Here we have listed a comprehensive business strategy roadmap for beginners with profit margin, expense, and papaya farming techniques. However, before we tell you anything about Papaya farming, let’s first get familiar with this plant and the cultivation techniques that you should use to get the maximum output.

About Papaya

Papaya (Carica papaya) could be an early-living and dying fruit tree. These fast-growing trees can bear fruit in the first year of planting, if possible. However, a multi-hour sub-freezing temperature will destroy an exposed plant. Papaya plants are so cold sensitive that they should be grown in warm areas. Throughout the year, warm areas will have papaya flowers and fruit on the plant.

How long does Papaya farm take to grow?

It may take eight to 10 months before the fruit is ready to be harvested after planting a small plant in the field. In the number of months that Papaya will develop and bear mature fruit, the environment has a role to play. In hot areas, harvesting from seed can take six to nine months, but zones that are more temperate need 9 to 11 months to be able to grow fruit from seed. When planted later in the year, the colder autumn and winter weather slows down growth and increases the time required by the plant to produce fruits for harvest.

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Papaya cultivation and harvesting

When the tree has bloomed, wait for five to eight months for the fruit to be harvested. This time depends on the temperature and the state of the fruit. Papaya trees bloom during the year. After the first year, the fruit and flowers on the tree should be supplied continuously.

The form of flowers on a tree decides whether, after many months, you can see fruit. If the tree has male flowers only, it won’t be fruitful. Trees that have only female flowers, or both, can bear fruit if adequately pollinated. Vigorous flora hangs from long stalks, while female vegetation has short stalks and a bulge at the ovary’s base.

Edible flowers like female flowers are available on short stalks and have the stems that are typical of male flowers.

How to know if your papaya plant has fully grown-up

As there are often fruits in various stages of tree development, it will help to recognize the ripe ones when to pick them. The fruit’s color is the primary measure of maturity. Choose fruits of one to three-fourths of the yellow rind.

The green fruit is not ripe and after harvest does not sweeten. Depending on your growing conditions, 30 to 150 fruit can be obtained each year from your papaya tree.

Papaya farming blueprint for business

You must conduct an economic analysis to validate the use of various production inputs and the revenues received. Fixed costs are primarily in initial land growth in papaya farming. Fixed prices may include fixed labor salaries and repair of farm machinery and other miscellaneous expenses.

The cost varies between manufacturing methods and input costs, including fertilizers and pesticides. It also includes payments for irrigation, intercultural, mining, transportation, and other management activities. Calculate the gross production expense. Calculate and record the anticipated profitability and ROI in your business plan.

The more uses, the better business prospect
  • Papaya is used in many ways. And, its several uses opens the opportunity to explore the business scope from the same. So, let’s know more about it.
  • Sometimes Papaya is taken in the breakfast or dessert fruit.
  • Papaya is also loved as a diet fruit.
  • The culled Papaya can be fed to the pigs and or other cattle.
  • Papaya is used as an ingredient in a variety of fruits across the world whereas unripe fruits and leaves are also used as a vegetable.
  • Papain, which is milky latex obtained from the Papaya after a process of the incision. And, then latex is dried and sold in the powder form.
  • The latex powder is then used in digestion aids, tooth-cleaning powders, and so on.

Papaya farming and health benefits

1. Papayas are high in starch, vitamin C, and antioxidants that avoid arterial cholesterol build-up.

2. Single Papaya will meet more than 200% of your daily vitamin C requirements, which makes it ideal for developing a more robust immune system.

3. Papayas have a low sugar content (8.3 gm. in a cup of Papaya) and glycemic index. This property produces excellent papaya fruits for diabetics.

4. Papayas are rich in vitamin A and flavonoids such as beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lutein that keep mucous membranes safe in the body.

5. Just 120 calories include one medium-sized Papaya. It also helps in the pursuit of weight loss.

6. Papaya is rich in many nutrients, such as vitamin C, which will keep you stress-free.

Papaya cultivation and agro-climatic condition

A tropical fruit, Papaya. Sub-tropical sections, however, also develop well. It’s frost-sensitive. The ideal temperature is 25-30 ° C and 16 ° C minimum. Appropriate pH is between 6 and 6.5. The foothills enjoying mild winters are suitable for papaya cultivation. Low temperature and frost restrict higher-altitude cultivation. Excessively cold nights cause slow fruit maturation and mediocre quality in the winter season.

papaya plant

Papaya cultivation and soil suitability

The right soil type is well-drained or sandy loam soil with enough organic matter. Sticky and calcareous soils aren’t pleasant because the soil can trap rainwater. It could be lethal to the crop. In this scenario, create a better-raised ground and drainage ditch. Furthermore, you must keep the field with enough soil moisture required to grow papaya plants.

Also, a ripening dry climate is fantastic for fruit quality. Additionally, in the same region, continuous cropping can result in reduced production. A slightly messy field is compared to a perfectly flat area. The region’s hilly soil is ideally suited to well-drained organic matter.

Steps involved in papaya farming

Now, it’s time to dive deeper into the steps involved in papaya farming. Therefore, those to better utilize your farming skills.


You’ll need seed papaya propagation. Second, you must collect seeds. You can receive from ripe, big, healthy fruits, mainly from pest-free female plants. Often seeds fail to germinate because seed viability is lost in about 45 days.

Germination of seed

The equilibrium temperature is 21-27 ° C, and 19-29 ° C of extreme emergence. It takes 1-4 weeks after sowing, depending on the weather. Treat with Thiram (TMTD) W.P. Until, sowing young to combat fungal diseases.

Sowing the seed

In 8 – 9 cm long, 8 cm long, and 8 cm high or black soft plastic containers, you can use the clear plastic bag. The bags require drainage space. You may also use a plastic seedling tray. It is a new form of seedling for good seedlings.


When the seedlings are 15-20 cm tall, a razor blade will open the bag. Now the seedlings are set for evening transplantation in pits. You may plant three seedlings about 15 cm apart in each hole. Watering is vital after transplantation for rapid recovery from transplant shock.

Adding Manure

The plant requires continuous fertilization as fruiting begins at maturity. From day one, you will prepare for fertilization. Because a five-month transplant-to-first flowering cycle is essential for papaya plant nutrition. You will stop manuring 6 months before harvesting the crop.

Now it’s about cropping

Male papaya plants typically thrive and start flowering after three months of transplantation. When their presence is detected, you will delete most of them. Of successful female flowers, however, around one male tree is kept for every ten female trees. Papaya starts flowering about five to six months after transplantation.


Currently, irrigate every winter ten days or every summer week. However, it varies with soil, climate, and irrigation methods. You may use a loop, furrow, or drip irrigation. Be sure, however, to avoid water meeting the stem. Irrigation can avoid frost damage to plants.

Papaya cultivation and plant protection

You need proper disease management to get the optimum yield. The major diseases are powdery mildew (OidiumCaricae), anthracnose, and stem rot.

Another possible condition is a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) frequently and gently extracts weeds at the early stage. Never deep soil tillage, however, because the plant has shallow roots. With 43% lasso E.C, you can apply herbicide once before an emergency.  


Overall, Papaya takes six months to bloom. And, five more for processing. However, it can vary with climatic conditions and management. For shipment to distant markets, fruits should be harvested when the apical starts to turn yellow, and latex is no longer milky.

In the cold months, fruits will stay on the tree to produce deeper colors and get a better flavor. In papaya cultivation, in the first 15 to 18 months, a tree with proper management produces 25-40 fruits weighing 40-60 kg.

Pest and disease control

The frequently found pests are fruit flies, aphids, red spider mite, stem borer, gray weevil, snail, and grasshoppers. They are all regulated by spraying prophylactic substances including 0.3% dimethoate and 0.05% methyl gemstone.

The growing diseases are powdery mildew, anthracnose, damping off, black spot, nematode, and stem rot. Essential control measures are growing disease-resistant crops, choosing well-drained soils, practicing crop rotation, and growing seedlings or plants under net households.

Intercropping with a barrier crop such as corn mulching the bed with silver and plastic film that immediately destroys infected plants and replants the crop to avoid this virus infection.

Yield from papaya farming

All cultivar yields are different. Suitable plants are estimated to produce 34 kg fruit per plant per year, which amounts to around 38,000 kg fruit per hectare. The total area under Indian papaya farming has increased in recent years. Papaya’s nutritional and medicinal value has resulted in heavy consumption within the country, i.e., only 0.08 percent is exported. Thanks to conventional agricultural methods, exports are also less competitive. Delhi and Mumbai are Papaya’s main markets. The country’s overall production accounts for 54-lakh tones/year.

What is the cost of papaya farming?

Papaya farming costs will rely primarily on the farmland location. The cost components are farmland acquisition, planting expenses, irrigation expenses, fertilization facilities like labor shed, and land growth. Other than farmland costs, papaya farming costs aren’t much.

How much profit can you mine?

The margin of profit in papaya farming depends on the land area and the diversity of Papaya growth. In general, papaya farmers get their entire investment payback in around 2-2, 5 years. However, in the end, we would say that the amount of profit entirely depends upon your practices and techniques you use for farming.

Guava Farming – Planting, Spacing, & Cultivation Guide

Guava fruit is well known for its good flavor and aroma. Its scientific name is Psidium guajava. Guava is also called the ‘apple of the tropics’. Guava is rich in vitamin c and minerals. It is also rich in antioxidants. Guava has many health benefits. Guava is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions.

Guava Farming is a very profitable business. Guava helps in curing many diseases. Guava is also helpful in losing weight. In 2019 the production of guava all over the world was 55 million tonnes. Guava trees start fruiting after 3-4 years of plantation. Guava is mainly grown from seeds or by vegetative propagation. Guava trees are very productive and adaptable.

Guava Farming: 

  • Description of the guava plant:

Guava tree has smooth, thin, and brown bark that peels off and reveals a greenish layer below it. The maximum height that a guava tree can reach is 33ft or 10m with a trunk of 10 in (25cm).

The leaves of this tree are evergreen. These leaves are oval and long, having a short petiole. These leaves are leathery in texture and when guava leaves are crushed, they have a nice aroma. The white flowers grow independently in the leaf axils. These flowers have 4 to 5 petals. 

  • Description of guava fruit:

The skin color of the fruit ranges from light yellow to pale green or sometimes pink. When you peel off the skin of guava, a layer of sweet flavor full and tangy flesh is present. The color of flesh can be white, yellowish, light pink, dark pink, red.

When the fruit is immature, it is very hard and astringent. When guava ripens, some of its varieties have custard-like consistency however the others are crispy. Mainly the central pulp is of the same color even if the surrounding flesh is lighter or darker. It is very juicy and has hard yellow seeds in it. 

  • Different types of guava fruit:

Guava fruit has many different varieties. Some of these common varieties are given below:

  1. Ruby supreme: This variety of guava is oval. It has a medium to large size. It has a pungent smell. Its flesh is thick and sweet. Comparatively fewer seeds are present in this variety. Ruby supreme guavas are excellent to eat fresh. This variety has good productivity.
  2. Red Indian: red Indian guavas are round in shape and have medium to large size. This variety has a strong odor. It has a sweet flavor and its flesh is red. It also has good productivity. 
  3. Beaumont: The fruit of this variety is large. Its color is either green or light yellow and has pink flesh. Beaumont guava fruit can weigh up to a pound. 
  4. Red Malaysian: This variety has very unique foliage and flowers that are deep red. These flowers are also used for decoration. This variety is frequently grown for ornamental uses. 
  5. Mexican cream: It is our next variety of guava fruit. These guavas have yellow skin and cream-colored flesh that is a bit spicy. It is mainly medium-sized. 
  6. Safeda: In this variety, the skin of the fruit is very thin however the flesh is thick and white. Fewer seeds are present in this variety. This is a very famous variety and grown widely. However, branches of safeda are brittle and can break continuously. 
  7. Bangkok apple: These fruits are large-sized and have thick flesh. It has fine color and taste.
  8. Lucknow: It is medium-sized fruit and round shaped. It has creamy white soft flesh with a sweet and pleasant flavor. It is a good quality fruit and has fewer seeds.

Propagation of the guava plant: 

Propagation of guava depends on the variety of fruit, the fertility of the soil, and the available irrigation provisions.

At what distance the trees should be planted?

A distance of 5to 8 m should be maintained between the trees. Standing spacing between them should be 6 × 6 m where 112 trees could be planted in one acre. High-density planting can lead the branches to grow towards the sky. This results in long compact trees that give a high yield in the initial years. 

Usually, seed propagation for guavas is not much preferred as the juvenile phase of seeds is very long. Seed propagation gives lower yields and poor quality of fruit.

However, if seeds have to be used for propagation, then these seeds should be sown immediately after it’s extraction from the ripened fruit. Soaking these seeds in water for 12 hours a day or soaking them in hydrochloric acid for 3 minutes gives 90% of germination. After one year the seeding is ready for budding.

Inarching is another way for the propagation of guava but this method gives a limited number of plants from the mother plant. Though budding is a very successful method of propagation it needs a large amount of labor. Another successful method is layering but again the condition is that a limited number of plants can be produced from a mother plant. 

The easiest and pocket-friendly vegetative method for the propagation of guava is marcotting. In this method, the parts of the hardened shoots of a selected variety are dragged. After this step, a mixture of moist earth, compost, rooting hormones is gathered at the spot. If this method is successful, roots will appear in 3 weeks. Seedbeds are also a good method for vegetative propagation of guava 

Must Read: How Long Does it take a Kiwi Plant to Produce Fruit

Fertilization of guava trees:

Different fertilizers are used in different regions. Fertilizers have to be provided regularly to produce high-quality flowers and fruit. Regular fertilization also helps the plant to grow faster. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in the ratio of 6:6:6:2 are applied to the guava tree. 

Pruning of guava plants: 

Pruning of the plants is very important at younger stages as this helps to build a strong framework and avoid week crotches. Pruning if fruiting trees is important to prevent overcrowding. The plants are aimed as low headed trees as this makes the hand picking of fruits easy. Pruning is also helpful in increasing the size of the fruit and yield as well. 

Pest and diseases: 

Pest control is very important for good productivity and disease-free plants. Mainly fruit flies, stem borers, nematodes, thrips, mealy bugs, scale insects, and some more are the pests found in the guava field. These pests can be controlled by chemical spraying or using pesticides. 

Some other cultural practices can also be adopted to avoid fruit from getting destroyed. For example, removing the infected fruit or plant part so that it doesn’t infect the whole plant.


Some of the diseases of Guava plants are fruit canker, will, fruit rot, anthracnose, grey leaf spot, or more. More details about the diseases are given below:

Guava wilt:

The symptoms of this disease are: in the early monsoon, light yellow foliage starts appearing and loss of turgidity and epinasty can also be noticed. Later on, plants can show unthriftiness along with this, premature shedding and defoliation can also be seen.

Some of the small branches can become bare and may stop producing new leaves and flowers and eventually dry up. Fruits on all these affected branches are left underdeveloped, hard, and Stony. And finally, the plant dies at the end. In this disease, the roots also get rotted from the basal region. The bark also gets weak and can be easily removed. Discoloration can also be noted. 

How is it spread? This can be spread from the sick soil in Virgin areas. It can also be spread from water. Any root injury also promotes wilt diseases.

Fruit rot:

Symptoms of this disease can be mainly seen in the rainy season. White cotton-like growth can be noticed on the affected part that develops very fast. This pathogen can cover the entire surface within 3 to 4 days. When the humidity is very high, at that time the fruits that are near the soil get affected very easily. Below the white covering, the skin of the fruit becomes very slushy and its color becomes light brown to dark. 

How does it spread? This disease is mainly spread through wind or rain. It is also spread through pathogens. It can be also spread from the infected plant material like soil etc.

Fruit canker:

The symptoms of fruit canker can be seen mainly on the green fruit and rarely on the leaves. At first, brown-colored or rust like unbroken circular and harmful patches can be seen on the fruit that leads to infection. The crater-like thing can also be noticed. In some severe cases, a large number of cankerous stops can also be seen. The infected fruit doesn’t develop completely and is very hard. Sometimes tiny rusty spots can also be noticed on the leaves. 

How do fruit cankers spread? This disease is mainly spread through Pathogens. Anyone infected or injured by fruit or plant part can also be responsible for this. 

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Alga leaf and fruit spot: 

In this, the algae infect the Immature fruit and in this small brown velvety lesions can be seen on the leaves or leaf tip. The spots on the leaves may vary in size, there may be small tiny spots or big patches. The color of the fruit can change to dark green, black, or brown. In this, the size of fruit enlarges 

How does this disease spread? This disease is an air-borne disease and hence air and rain can be the carrier of the disease. Pathogens are another carrier of this disease. 

Stylar end rot:

The main symptom of this disease is a change in the color of the region lying just below and adjoining the persistent calyx. Such areas gradually increase in size and turn dark brown.

Afterward, the affected part becomes slushy. Despite these all symptoms of the discoloration of the pericarp, the mesocarp tissue also shows the change in color, and the diseased area is marked by being pulpy and light brown in color in contrast to the bright white. 

How does the disease spread? Again pathogens are responsible for this disease and these are spread through the wind. 

Irrigation if guavas: 

Usually, no irrigation is needed during the monsoon months unless and until there are long spells of drought. In the initial year when the plants are very young with a shallow root system, they should be irrigated even at 2 to 3 days interval in the dry season. Trees in the age group of 2-5 years should be irrigated at intervals of 4 to 5 days. 

How to harvest guavas? 

Fruiting starts after about 2 to 3 years of plantation. However, the yield of the fruit depends on the age of the trees, or how the trees are planted ( pattern ), and other cultural practices. The proper yield can be seen after 10 years. After 10 years 100 to 150 kg of yield can be seen every year. Guavas can be harvested at any time in the year. However if one wants the best taste, flavor, and aroma it can be obtained when the fruits are ripened. 

When these guavas are grown at a commercial level, the ripening can be noticed when the fruit starts turning yellow. If the fruits are to be transported to some faraway place, then they should be harvested when they are light yellow and yellow can be harvested for locals. 


Guava farming is a profitable business but it needs a lot of hard work and time. 

With harvesting possible at any time of year, it can bring profits to you for a lifetime. All you need to do is beware of the necessities of guava plants and then you can get fruits whenever you wish.


How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum ) is a widely grown crop and is the main source of sugar. It is a well-known cash crop that is of great commercial importance. It has also provided employment to a large number of people directly or in an indirect way hence contributes to the national economy.

Sugarcane is mainly a tropical plant and hence it runs across all the seasons whether it’s raining, summer or Winters.

Before knowing how long does sugarcane take to grow, check out the essentials that you must know about for sugarcane plantation.

Different requirements for sugarcane plantation

  • Suitable climatic conditions : As we know sugarcane is able to grow throughout the seasons, but they best grow in tropical hot sunny areas. 

A long warm growing season with high frequency of solar rays and sufficient amount of moisture can be said to be the ideal conditions for proper growth of this crop. For ripening it requires a cool but frost free season. 

  • Soil type : sugarcane can be grown in different varieties of soil such as alluvial soil or the red volcanic soil or the soil that is a mixture of  silt , sand and clay particles along with some organic material can be the perfect soil for sugarcane plantation. This crop needs a well drained soil for which the land is ploughed and left to weather for some time before subsoiling. 

The pH range of the soil for sugarcane cultivation should be from 6.5 to 7.5 pH. The minimum depth of the soil should be 45 cm and the soil should have an adequate amount of nutrients. 

  • Seed Quality: Accessibility of good quality cane seeds is must for good crop yield. Firstly the seed is grown in the nursery  for 10-11 months and then that nursery crop is planted in the field. After that some other chemical treatments need to be provided to the seed which are 0.05% Bavistin, 2.5%KCl , 2.5% urea KCl +Urea etc. After the above chemical treatments , a hot water treatment is also given for prevention of seed borne diseases. 
  • Land Preparation for Sugarcane plantation:  Every single time a new crop is grown , it becomes necessary that soil should be brought to a properly cultivated land for proper germination of seeds and good root growth.

There are some  reasons behind land Preparation which are:

  1. Land Preparation includes the preparation of seedbeds that allows optimal soil water relations.
  2. This activity also provides good physical conditions for early root proliferation and penetration.
  3. It is also helpful in destroying weeds and hibernating pests.It also helps to knock down the diseases causing organisms.
  4. It also helps the land to absorb the previous crop residue and organic manures.
  5. Land preparation also  facilitates proper soil chemical and microbial activities.

Tillage is an important operation under land preparation. Tillage is basically agricultural preparation of the soil with the appropriate tools or implements to loosen the surface soil layer.

The main function of tilling is to mix up the organic matter into your soil properly , break down the crusted soil, and loosen up the tiny areas for plantation. Anything in excess is never good and so is tilling, excess tilling can also cause more damage to the soil.

The best time for tilling is the spring season but can also be done in autumn for cool weather crops. However tilling must be avoided when the soil is wet as it can cause damage to soil structure.

Plantation methods of sugarcane:

Mainly, there are a few different methods for plantation of sugarcane described below- 

Must Read: How To Plant Sugarcane – A Complete Beginner’s Guide

Ridge and furrow method:

It is one of the most common methods for sugarcane plantation. In this method the ridges and the furrows are opened with the help of a ridger by maintaining a distance of 120cm between the furrows in the heavy soils and and a distance of 105cm in the light and medium soil. After this step, the main and sub irrigation channels are opened at suitable distances.

Initially the sets are laid on the end of the top ridge and later on these are planted in furrows by dry and wet method. 

Dry method :

This method is adopted for heavy soils to avoid pressing of the setts very deep into the soil. These sets are arranged in the furrows  end to end by

 facing eyes buds on the sides and sheltering it with a layer of soil. After completing the steps of plantation, the field is ready for irrigation.

Wet method :

This method is adopted for light to medium soil. In this method of plantation the field is irrigated initially before planting the setts. Then the sets are planted at the depth of 2.5 to 5 cm in the furrows with hands or feet. These sets are placed end to end in such a way that they face the bus on the sides. 

Flat bed method:

Flat bed method is another method for sugarcane plantation. In this method firstly the land is ploughed, harrowed and then leveled and then flat beds are prepared. After that the cane stes are laid down in the flat beds in end to end rows. A distance of 60-90cm is maintained between the rows depending on the soil type.

Afterwards they are pressed into the soil with the help of a hand or foot , about 2.5-5 cm deep and then it is covered with a layer of soil. During the plantation by this method one must keep in mind that the buds should face on the sides otherwise it would not be possible for lower buds to germinate. This method of cane plantation is usually adopted in the areas where there is abundant moisture.

Rayungan Method:

This method of plantation is usually adopted for adsali sugarcane plantation. Rayungan Method is followed in Riverside fields or in the areas with heavy rainfall. In these areas the cane fields are usually prone to floods during the rainy season which affects the germination of the seeds and in such conditions the sets cannot be directly planted in the main fields.

So firstly the single bud sets are planted in the nursery in a vertical manner which are prepared in a high lying area of the farm in summer. After about a period of 6 weeks the sets that have been sprouted are shifted in the main field when the danger of floods is over. 

Trench or the Java method:

In this method trenches ( a type of deep and wide depression in the ground) are made that depth is about 22-30cm and maintained at a distance of 90-120cm. The deeper soil is loosened and mixed up with manures. Then the sets are placed in the middle of  these trenches and then covered with a layer of soil.

After the completion of planting irrigation is carried out. Large clumps of cane are produced  in this method that do not lodge  when tied together. The danger from wild animals is least.

Manures and fertilizers: Sugarcane is a long durational crop, as well as a heavy feeder thus the requirement of manures is quite high.

During the land preparation about 25-50 tonnes of  FYM/ha has been used. 

It is recommended that different sugarcane fertilizers have to be used according to the planting season, it even varies from growing track to track. So basically for Adsali 250:115:115 is used and for pre seasonal  340:170:170kg nitrogen , phosphorus and potash respectively are suggested.


The water requirements for sugarcane generally range from 2000 to 2500 mm depending upon some factors like soil type, duration, and climatic conditions etc. Irrigation of sugarcane crops has been done during the different phases like  the germination phase, tillering phase, grand growth phase and the final maturity phase.

So firstly during the stage of germination, the soil needs sufficient moisture for better germination however water logging can result in rotting of sets. In this phase irrigation can never be done at intervals of a week however these intervals can be of 10 days in tillering phase.

Next comes the grand growth phase which is known to be a critical stage for water demand. This also needs to be irrigated at intervals of a week. It takes 12-14 months for sugarcane to grow. Now finally in the maturity phase, the irrigation has to be done fortnightly and has to be stopped about 15 days before harvesting.

Intercultural operations: These include mulching, hoeing, tying of the cane and earthing up.

In the initial period, spreading the paddy straw or sugarcane trash on the field can help to prevent more evaporation and hence the demand for water supply will also be less.

Hoeing and weeding is necessary in the first 3-4 weeks after plantation  for high yield and improved quality of sugarcane. After the germination phase two to three more hoeing and weeding may be required during the first three months depending upon the field conditions and frequency of irrigation.

The final earthing up has to be done before the monsoon rains and should be synchronized with the implementation of the last dose of fertilizers. This operation is helpful in keeping down the weeds.

Tying of canes is said to be a very desirable activity that prevents the canes to sway during wind. Bringing together the stalks from the adjacent rows and tying them all together along with their own trash and the old leaves  is considered as the best way of tying the cane.q

Sugarcane diseases:

There are a few plant diseases that can be controlled or cured with some simple methods. First comes the red rot disease which is a fungal disease. It’s symptoms are drying of top leaves, the leaves start withering, red lesions on the midrib of the leaves.

One should uproot and destroy all the clumps if you notice the above symptoms. Use diseases free and heat treated setts for plantation.

The next disease is whip smut which is also a fungal disease and the symptoms can be noticed before 1 month of harvesting season and to prevent this , diseases free and heat treated sets should be used.


When the lower leaves start withering up and leaving progressively, and fewer green leaves are left at the top, it can be marked as the maturity phase. Even a maturity testing device call a refractometer can be used to test the maturity stage. If the hand refractometer shows a reading of 20 , it can be said that the cane has reached the maturity level. 

The harvesting of sugarcane generally begins in early winters as is continued for about 150 days. Nowadays the harvesting and cutting of sugarcane is done after receiving the cutting orders from factory authorities and these cutting orders are issued depending upon the date of planting of which the records are maintained. Harvesting of sugarcane is done with the bog machines that contain rotating knives which cut the sugar cane from the base of the stalks.

How long does it take sugarcane to grow:  

sugarcane takes quite a long time to grow, we can say that it grows through the entire season. Sugarcane plants produce several stalks and each one of them can grow well over ten feet and this usually takes 12- 14 months. The best time to plant cane crops is in early Winter so that the sprouting can happen in early spring. These os basically one harvest of the primary crop and then 3-4 harvests of the regrowth.

Yield: The average yield of the cane crop under the commercial cultivation of170 tonnes per hectare for Adsali  and 120 tonnes per hectare in the case of pre seasonal sugarcane and 100 tonnes per hectare for suru 


Farmers that grow sugarcane want their farms to be sustainable and by using sustainable practices Farmers can keep the farms and crops healthy.

Why are my Strawberry Leaves Turning Red

Strawberries are a staple for numerous home gardens. These fleshy, sweet berries are so delicious to eat and are so versatile too. They can be used to prepare jams, sauces, desserts, and much more. Growing strawberries ourselves and then eating them bring so much pleasure. Even if you need them for business, it brings profit then too. But sometimes, diseases can effect growth of strawberries dramatically. If you are here, you might be thinking, Why my strawberry leaves are turning red. 

Yes, it is something that you need to pay attention to. Here we have all the reasons for strawberry leaves turning red along with preventive measures and solutions for you. So, do check these out. 

Strawberries have natural red pigment in them. The occurrence of red stems in strawberry plants is due to their genetic expression. Moreover, it is considered completely normal. However, in case leaves of your strawberry plant start turning red, you need to worry about them. Redness of leaves is a sign of a plant being affected by a disease or some nutrient deficiency. Whatever the reason might be, the redness of leaves is a disastrous condition. It basically implies that your plant is dying. 

Below we have mentioned all the possible reasons of reddening of leaves- 

Diseases in Strawberry plants 

There is not a single disease or ailment that results in red leaves in strawberry plants. Various diseases can lead to such conditions. In order to deal with ailment, you must be aware of what problem you are going through. Given below is the list of diseases which lead to red or purple leaves in strawberry plants. Match symptoms and figure yours out. 

1. Red Stele Root Rot

This is a very potential disease and is commonly seen in strawberry plants. 

  • Causing agent 

Red Stele Root Rot is caused by a pathogen named Phytophthora fragariae. This pathogen resides in soil. The soil which makes home to this pathogen is generally moist, poorly drained and clay laden. 

This pathogen generally spreads through planting equipment or soil like pot soil etc. The planting equipment gets contaminated and when it is used on strawberry plants, they get infected as well. 

  • Occurrence

This disease usually occurs in early spring, late winter and late fall. At these times of year, soil is more conducive to growth of this pathogen. Generally, this fungus is attracted to either poorly drained conditions or overly wet soil.

  • Symptoms

Strawberry plants get affected by this disease dramatically. Early symptoms include stunted growth and lack of shiny luster in strawberry plants. Further, leaves start turning red, yellow, blue in plants. 

Older leaves start turning yellow or red in plants. Also, they begin to wilt and die eventually. Rust coloured roots are also observed in plants. In advanced stages,fungi can kill the whole plant.

You can easily check if your strawberry plants are also suffering from this disease. First, dig out the roots of the plant. Then cut the root into two halves. If the centre of the root is dark reddish, it conveys that the stele of the plant has turned red. Therefore, it confirms that the plant has been infected by Phytophthora fragariae. 

  • Treatment 

Soil fumigation is an effective measure to remove fungus completely from the growing site.However, such a measure is difficult to carry out in a home garden. Metalaxyl fungicides can control this disease. But you need to follow proper cultural practices for better results.

Diseased parts of infected plants can be removed or pruned. 

For further growth of strawberry plants, you can purchase highly resistant plants from a good nursery. In addition to this, grow future plants in another area of garden for minimal risk of infection.

  • Prevention

This species of fungi is quite persistent. They can easily survive in soil for years even without host plants. Due to its nature, it is a little difficult to grow strawberry plants in such conditions. Red steel root rot occurs in most common and is very destructive for plants. 

Soil chosen for growing strawberry plants should be well drained, light and also not compacted so that diseases stay at bay. 

2.Black Root Rot

Black root rot is a disease seen in strawberry plants that results in redness of leaves. You can check these symptoms given below to check out if your plants are suffering from the same. 

  • Causing Factors

This disease is also caused by fungi. The reasons behind this can be- 

  • Over fertility 
  • Microscopic soil nematodes
  • Inconsistent irrigating
  • Damage due to frost 

These reasons can lead to black root rot in strawberry plants. 

  • Symptoms 

In this disease,black roots are seen clearly. Also, leaves turn red or purple in colour and growth is stunted. 

  • Treatment 

Improved cultural conditions can help in treating this infection and save our strawberry  plants. Furthermore, mulch is considered really effective in this condition. It retains moisture in the soiland is very beneficial for plants. 

3. Leaf Scorch 

  • Causing agent 

Leaf scorch is caused by fungus diplocarpon earliana. This fungus causes the appearance of dark brown, disk shaped lesions on the upper surface of leaves.

  • Symptoms 

As stated above, disk shaped lesions are seen commonly on the upper surface of leaves. There is an appearance of dark spots at first. These spots give a sense of burned look. The spots can be around ¼ inch in diameter. As these spots grow in size, they resemble small droplets of tar. It is due to production of minute, black fungal structures in abundance. 

When infection hikes up, leaves appear all red. They dry up and appear scorched. These lesions can also be seen on other plant parts like flowers or young fruits. Petioles, runners, fruit stems can also get infected in this condition.

  • Management

Strawberry plants should be grown in proper air circulation and good sun exposure. Treatment can be carried with fungicide in the flowering period, during late summer and late fall. Keep the level of moisture low and avoid providing too much water supply. 

4. Nutrient Deficiency

Giving proper nutrition to strawberry plants is necessary for proper growth of plants. Nutrients such as potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus are responsible for various processes being undertaken in plant physiology. In case the levels of these nutrients are compromised so does plant health. It leads to purplish or red color in the leaves of strawberry plants. 

Along with the redness of leaves, fruit yield is also compromised in strawberry plants by one third due to deficiency of nitrogen. 

If potassium is supplied in minimal amounts to plants then red color appears on the margins of the leaves of plants. Strawberry leaves turning red at edges should also be treated to avoid complications.  Further, runner number and fruit production decreases dramatically. 

Control Measures for reddening of leaves in strawberry plants 

  1. Use disease resistant cultivars for growth of healthy and disease free strawberry plants. Resistant varieties are extremely resistant to various types of diseases. These  varieties require minimal effort and can be grown easily to produce delicious fruits. 
  2. Start your gardening with certified plants only. Do not just get them from any place you find them. But purchase certified and healthy strawberry plants from a renowned nursery of your area. Taking this step at start will ensure great results and fruits at the same time.
  3. Plant them in areas which receive good quality sunlight for maximum hours. Air circulation should also be very good in the gardening area. 

Prevent The growth of weeds by using chemical methods or cultural practices. In addition to this, space runner plants in matted row cultures. Overpopulation should be strictly abandoned in strawberry plants. It affects growth and stresses plants. Also, it has an obvious effect on fruit production. 

  1. You can apply nitrogen fertilizers at the time of renovation. Use a spray to cover a larger area with less amounts of products. These plants are very prone to fungi diseases. Using a fungicide is really helpful to keep those diseases at bay. 

Fungicide controls fruit roots and leaf diseases. Set a proper schedule for spraying. For June cultivars, starting fungicide should be sprayed at a gap of 7 to 10 days. After the primary fruiting period is over, gaps can be hiked upto 2 to 3 weeks. 

  1. Application of fungicide should be on all plant parts present above the ground. Leaf scorch is commonly seen on the surface of leaves so cover leads with fungicide carefully and properly. 

As Spray lasts longer and is more effective that dust so choose it for your plants. 

Also Read: Strawberry Farming Guide for Beginners


You can prevent your plants from.catching these deadly diseases by taking care of small things. You do not need to run any hard operations to fulfil the task. Small steps can ensure you healthy strawberry plants that give healthy and delicious fruits. Various ways for preventing are mentioned below- 

  • Soil must be drained properly with water. Water is essential for all living organisms and strawberry plants are not an exception. However, too much water can deteriorate the quality of plant and fruit yield. Therefore, use your judgment and provide a required amount of water to plants regularly. Inconsistent irrigation can lead to diseases such as black root rot as mentioned earlier. 
  • In case too much water is added to plants, then shallow roots suffer a lot. As plants get all of their food through roots therefore all of the plant will suffer from detected roots. 
  • Plants must be placed in a spacious area. Overcrowding can cause stress in strawberry plants and effect growth negatively. Plants must be placed 15 inch apart for best results. 
  • Air circulation should be properly taken care of. Due to air circulation, plants do not stay wet or moist and as a result occurrence of fungal disease can be avoided. This is because fungus grows in moist conditions. Dry leaves will ensure a non fungus and healthy environment. 
  • Strawberry plants grow best in bright and sunny locations. California, Florida and North Carolina are regions in the USA where strawberry growing conditions are very favourable. Kent, Sussex and Wales have the most suitable climate for strawberries cultivation. 
  • Use fertilizers to provide plants with required nutrients. 

You can even prepare fertilizers at home using organic materials. Such fertilizers are much more useful and safe for strawberry plants.

How to Make Homemade Fertilizers 

Homemade fertilizers are full of vital nutrients. They ensure overall good growth in strawberry plants. Preparing fertilizers at home is easy and requires you to take a few steps. Check out fertilizers mentioned below which you can create at home and are best for plants. 

  • Fertilizer Tea

All purpose liquid fertilizer can be prepared from organic compost and is called fertilizer tea. To make fertilizer tea, you need a large container and well aged manure or organic compost. Add material to the container and fill 5 parts of water in it. Keep the mixture away for 7 to 10 days to brew it. Once it’s brewed, pour into a spray pump and cover strawberry plants from top to bottom with this liquid. 

  • Fish Waste fertilizer 

Fish emulsion is highly enriched with nitrogen. Using this can help in proper growth and healthy fruit yield. It also repairs pale green leaves in strawberry plants. 

You can prepare this homemade fertilizer by adding 1 part of fish waste to 2 parts of water. Keep the mixture away for several weeks. Spray it on the ground in quantities of 3 gallons on 100 square feet.  

  • Plant based fertilizer

Plant based homemade fertilizers can be prepared from seaweed, nettle or chamomile.  Seaweed is enriched with mannitol. Mannitol is proven to increase nutrient absorption in soil. Add seaweed in 5 gallons of lukewarm water. Soak it in there for around 3 weeks. Cover it loosely with a lid. After 3 weeks, spray it onto the strawberry plants. In case of nettle or chamomile, take 5 gallons of water and put plant texture in  it. Rest it for 3 weeks and then spray onto plants. 

  • Manure 

NPK value varies ik cow, horse, rabbit and poultry pasture. After 4 weeks of planting, June bearing adds 8 pounds of cow or horse manure to plants. If you are using rabbit or poultry manure lower it down to 2 pounds only.

Strawberry plants can be affected by various diseases that lead to symptoms like reddening of leaves. But it doesn’t mean that those diseases cannot be recovered or prevented. All you need is to be careful while buying plants and at the growth or cultivation practices. Prevention and control measures described above provide you much needed insight.