What is Mango Farming all about – A Complete Guide

Do you know what is mango known as? Aam, as we call it in India is crowned with the title of King of Fruits. Mango Farming is the most dominant and money-making venture in the world. 

It is loved and relished for its taste, appearance, and low upkeep cost. The perk of cultivating mango is that it can be consumed at any stage. 

Like the raw mango has a delightful taste as chutney, Aam Panna, pickle, sauce. A full grown, mango can be consumed as shakes, juice, jelly, ice-cream, and desserts.

India exports a huge quantity of mangoes to the USA, Europe, and Middle-East. Mango farming is the most money extracting fruit grown in the Indian sub-continent. 

If you want to start your mango farm, you need to gather all relevant about its cultivation. Here, is an outline of important steps to be executed to ensure good mango production.

Types of Mangoes

Here is a list of mangoes with their place of origin. Let’s get a quick look through it:

  1. Alphonso- Ratnagiri, Maharastra
  2. Kesar- Junahgadh, Gujarat
  3. Dasheri – Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  4. Himsagar and Kishan-bhog, West Bengal
  5. Chausa- Uttar Pradesh 
  6. Safeda -Andhra Pradesh
  7. Totapari
  8. Amrapali
  9. Langda

Sweetest mango variety

Sweetest mango varieties

For all the beginners and mango lovers, it is difficult to figure which the best variety of fruit among all. Carabao, the manilla mango is the best and sweetest mango in the world.

However, if we talk about Indian mangoes, Alphonso, the king of all is the best and sweetest mango among all. But don’t forget that mango itself is a sweet fruit loved by all. Every variety is sweet and unique in its way.

Requirements for mango farming

Mango can be planted through seeds or by vegetative propagation. The propagation is carried out through techniques like veneer grafting, epicotyl grafting, and inarching. 

Surely, vegetative propagation is a rapid process of germination. It should be carried out through grafting trees.

The spacing of mango trees

The spacing pattern of the trees should be 10 m * 10 m. This is the ideal pattern to be followed to ensure a good yield. 

The mango trees are tall and wide. So, they require adequate space to expand themselves. If you compromise with its space, the growth of the tree would be hampered.

As a result, you will be deprived of a desired and profitable yield.

Mango plants training

Training mango plants is an essential step to ensure the proper shape of the fruit. It becomes unavoidable in the case of low branched grafting.

The plant should attain a minimum height of 1 meter for training to be executed well. Regular trimming of branches and leaves ensures th healthy growth of the plant.

The plantation is disease-free and the energy of the plant is centered towards the growth only. Therefore, a continuous training process is maintained to get the desired fruit quality.

In mango farming, it is a mandatory step.

The season for mango plantation

For rain prone areas, the plantation is done in July-August, for irrigation-based areas it is carried out in February-March, and at the end of rainfall in rain prone areas.

Rainfall is a good factor to enhance the growth of the tree. As heavy water intake is needed for the thriving of mango trees.

Also Read: Custard Apple Farming Was Never So Fruitful – Read This Guide Till The End

Fertilization of mango trees

The process of fertilization is carried out in 2 doses. First one, immediately after planting, and the next in the young plants. A spread of urea (normally 3%) is advised in the case of sandy soil before the plant starts flowering.

Soil and light requirement for mango seeds

A mango seedling requires a good amount of sunlight but not direct sunlight. For nurturing the plant, a minimum of 6 hours of sunlight is required and 8-10 hours of sunlight will work wonders.

When planting mango seeds it should be kept in mind, that a good drainage system should be there. Like on watering the soil could flush out excess water.

In summers the plant needs water in excess, do remember excess doesn’t mean water overflow. The water should be well enough to keep the soil hydrated.

How to sprout a mango seed

To sprout a mango seed you need to remove the flesh from the fruit, the seed needs to be cleaned, to ensure that they are ready to plant. 

Now, with the help of a sharp knife, chop off the edges of the seed. Ensure the visibility of the pod inside.

Take a container of 11 liter capacity. Place some soil beneath the container providing an outlet at the edge. For settling the soil fill some water in it.

The container is ready to plant the seed inside placing the pointed side downwards. One-fourth of the pod should be popping out of the soil.

Keep watering the seed and place it in a warm place ensuring sunlight but not directly.

Germination time of mango seed

The mango seeds germinate in a period of 2 to 4 weeks. A fully grown-up tree bears fruit in 5 years. These mango seeds germinate at a temperature range between 4-40 degrees.

mango seed germination

But a higher range of temperature is ideal for germination. Seeds restore water in them, dies when dry. All the favorable conditions facilitate the process of germination.

A small bunch of leaves shoots up and the roots start getting firm deep into the soil.

Planting mango seed

A suitable temperature, enough sunlight, and adequate water content is a perfect recipe for  healthy fruit. When you have all the necessities for mango farming, you can go for it.

You need to have a spacious place for the mango canopy. A mango tree has a stature of 90 feet with long leaves. So, it is recommended to plant them separately allowing proper space for them to thrive.

How long does it take a mango tree to grow?

This is the most common query among mango farming. Beginners are curious to know how long does it take a mango tree to grow? Before proceeding, this question needs to be answered.

From planting the seed in the soil to ultimately bearing fruits, it is a package of 5 years. It takes 5 years complete for a mango tree to produce your favorite mango fruit. 

But a lot of rigorous hard work is required to nurture the mango plantation in these 5 years. Regular pruning of branches and leaves is necessary. Plus, after bearing flowers the water intake of the tree is around 26 gallons per week.

This should be maintained to prevent the tree from drying. The proper spread of fertilizers should be done to curb the spread of diseases.

The resultant is the delicious, tasty, and lip-smacking mango fruit.

Diseases infecting mango farming

Mango farming is threatened by aphids, bugs, and mites. Infections prevailing in the plantation can be witnessed in the form of webs on the leaves, white residue, or insects crawling over the leaves.

These infections need to be curbed in, timely before they hinder the growth of the plantation.

mango infecting diseases

Mango farming is prone to anthracnose, a sort of fungal infection. They can be checked by the use of copper-based fungicide. It should be used after 14 days of planting.

How to take care of flowering mango tree

Some of the flowers are formed through the process of self-pollination. However, few of them are pollinated through fruit bats, humming birds, and bees. It must be noted that all the flowering trees don’t produce fruits.

Taking care of a flowering mango tree is a must. Proper care must be taken of those trees who produced heavily during the previous season. 

They should be trimmed regularly. And should also provide more fodder to ensure a better flowering and fruit production in the present season as well.

The much-branched inflorescence needs to be detached or trimmed compulsorily. It ensures better flowering and fruit production.

In the regions where the evening temperatures trips below 30 degrees, these white creamy flowers become steady. On reaching the temperature range back, they tend to bear fruits immediately.

Mango yield per acre

The mango yield per acre varies. This depends on the quality of seeds sown and the good upkeep of the mango farming. Ideally, the yield ranges from 2.5 to 3 tonnes per year. Exceptionally, it can reach 9-10 tonnes per year.

Mango yield per acre

A good spacing in the orchard, among the trees, and favorable climatic range shoots up the yield of a mango farm.

Mango farmers must adhere to these 2 most important factors apart from other upkeep necessities. A little extra care can make you earn higher profits.

When to harvest mango?

After flowering and bearing fruits, now the point arise when to harvest mangoes. The tasty tropical fruit of mango is grown in various parts of the world, favorable to mango farming. 

The harvesting of the fruit is directly proportional to the amount of care taken of the tree in the 5 years of the plantation.

On average a good harvesting time prevails after the completion of 100-150 days from the flowering stage. Generally, flowering ends up producing fruits and you can observe the fruit grow in shape and size.

harvesting mango

In 3 months, the fruits become ripe, this can be felt on touching the mango, as it becomes soft on ripening. The color turns into a proper yellow shade of the fruit.

Heavy fruit can be seen bulging downwards from the branches. This is an indication the fruit is ready to pluck.

Now, you have 2 ways to get the fruit down either shaking the tree or thrashing the branches to chop off ripen fruits.

Shaking tends to damage the roots and branches of the tree. Also, unripe fruits get disturbed as well. It is highly recommended to thrash the branches by the use of a rope or stick.

This the best way out to spank down your favorite mango fruit. The fruit is ready to explore the markets.

Must Read: Papaya Farming Ultimate Guide

Transporting mango to markets

Once you are done with mango harvesting, it is time to get a reward for the 5 years of hard work done. Proper steps should be taken to avoid any sort of damage to the fruit during the transit period.

mangoes in market

For transporting mangoes, the packaging is done in two ways either using a wooden crate or by using CFB boxes. However, for long-distance transit it advisable to store mangoes in CFB boxes as it is a perishable item.

Wooden crates can hold the mangoes for 8 days maximum. After that, they tend to perish.

When transporting to local nearby markets, wooden crates are the best open as they keep the fruit safe and fresh. And the fruit is ready to consume. 

Is mango farming profitable?

To find out the profit ratio of mango farming, let’s calculate the cost of production involved. The cost of the land stands on whether it is owned or rented.

Then comes the plantation cost. This comes to around 2 lakhs per acre per year. And it gives a normal yield of 2.5 -3 tonnes or even up to 9-10 tonnes.

It is a profitable deal. A deal with huge profits. It is one of the most profitable ventures in horticulture. Profitability has a direct relationship with demand for the product in the market.

Mangoes are high in demand. The reason for this is the limited availability and good taste. This fruit is relished by everyone.

This tropical fruit is an evergreen fruit and never will lose it’s charm. Nothing can beat the demand for mango fruit.

Yes, you can say it is a tedious job but the hard work is paid off well. Whether its appreciation in taste or money, a mango farmer lands in huge profits after selling his mangoes in the markets.

People wait for those delicious mangoes in the market every year for their limited availability. So, the idea of mango farming is a sure shot profit deal. Crack this deal and enjoy the benefits.

How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Do you know that some of the fruits are healthier than others? Dragon fruit is one of them with plenty of health benefits. Dragon fruit, or pitaya, is a cactus fruit, well known for its peculiar look.

The healthy fruit is loaded with vitamin C, fiber, and antioxidants. This improves the immune system of the human body and is also used for diabetes treatment. The farming dragon fruit is profitable as well as satisfying experience.

Besides, medicine extracted from the flower and stem can be used in treatment to improve blood circulation. Therefore Dragon fruit can be branded as prestigious health food.

Moreover, the flowers of the plant are unique; indeed it is one of the world’s largest flowers. Their size is not the only specialty of dragon fruit. But the flower of the dragon plant just blossoms for one night and the fragrances on this night are beautiful with added tropical fruitiness. 

Also Read: Growing Orange with Perfection

 The hot summer months are suitable for dragon fruit cultivation. It won’t grow for the rest of the year but grows quickly once it starts growing. The fruit begins to form after the flowering takes place. For around 20 to 30 years, one plant can produce fruit. Thus, your one plant can deliver plenty of ready to eat delicious dragon fruit.

How to Grow Dragon Fruit?

The dragon plant requires little support to grow. As it is a subtropical plant, which needs a great deal of heat and humidity, here is a breakdown what do you need to feed and produce dragon fruit.

Deciding the Place and Soil

Dragon fruits must be cultivated in an open field with a clear exposure to the sun. It is not encouraging the planting of crops in areas with good rainfall. The place must be safe with a strong organic sandy loam soil with sufficient drainage.

Besides, this plant may thrive in any well-drained soil but likes to develop in slightly acidic soil, with a pH range of six to seven. For this plant, sandy soil is the best option.

In one single growing season, the dense fleshy stems can grow up to 4 m and must be accustomed and tied to a single 1.8 m high pole or trellis support. There is one another option of precast concrete poles that are widely used, and between three and four plants on one pole can be mounted. 

Farming dragon fruit is done by two methods. First is germinating the seeds and others by using stem cuttings. Let’s have a look.

1. Germinating Dragon Fruit Seeds

Growing dragon fruit plants from seeds depend on the same process as other plants. It involves preparing the soil with a well-mixed with potting mix. Then mix the seeds into the soil gently.

The soil needs the proper moisture with a cover over it with some plastic sheet. These seeds may take up to a month to germinate.

But there is an advantage to this method. The seedling grows slowly and cannot be propagated efficiently.

2. Using the Mature Stem

But it is ideal to use safe mature stem parts that have a length between three to six inches. 

Once the cutting has been sliced into three to six inches. Make a slanted cut at the base of the stem and add a fungicide at the ends and put it in a shaded area for about 5-7 days before being placed on the field directly. 

This is not necessary. But it does promote growth. When you dry or cure the stems, normally two to five days. You will get to know that when the cutting tips turn white, it’s ready to plant.

Besides, these cuttings can be obtained from the commercial nurseries as well as from pitaya growers. 

Next, you should plant the cutting in the field, they have to be about 2 inches into the soil and the cut must be positioned in the same direction as the parent plant. Water the plant every day unless the weather stays warm otherwise skips a day. 

Finally, you’re going to begin to see roots. You will soon see new growth if the growth is successful. It takes normally about 3 and 4 weeks. This young cutting will produce the fruit of its own in a few years.

At this stage of dragon fruit farming, it is necessary to focus on these few points:
  • Fertilizer – Give it fertilizer per month during the active growing season to ensure that the dragon fruit grows well. You’ll want to stop feeding your plant for a couple of months in the cold winter months.
  • Water – Since this plant is a cactus plant, it is important to ensure that it is properly watered. Water only the plant when the top of the field is dry and don’t let the plant rest in water. The soil must be wet, not drenched.
  • Light – The plant base can see a little shade, but the plant tips require full sun to ensure the plant blooms correctly. When the plant gets too much water, the fruit doesn’t perform well.
  • Temperature – Dragon fruit does not thrive in cold weather, so make sure the temperature is higher than 40 degrees Fahrenheit. The temperature needs to vary from 65 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit for optimal growth.

Dragon Fruit Pollination

The proper pollination of dragon fruit is done by the Moths, bats, and bees. But some varieties do not self fertilize at all.

In this case, the pollination techniques come into play. This technique requires the collection of the pollen from two dragon fruits. Using cotton swab softly to mark it with cross-pollinate on the stigma of the opposite herb.

This requires to be done at night, so the time between eight at night and eight in the morning is the best. 

In the case of pollinating various plants, it is recommended to use a new cotton swab for each one of these.

After this process, it will take about a month for the fruit to grow.

The fruit has a direct threat from animals such as animals, birds, and monkeys, and of course, they love the dragon fruit. 

Some growers use the shade net to shield maturing fruit from damage caused by the birds and hail. 

In Dragon Fruit Farming, the emphasis should always be on pesticides and disease control.

Pests include mites, thrips, bees, spiders, mealy bugs, slugs, nematodes, fruit flies, and mice. The birds are the most commonly reported.

Though, the diseases of dragon fruits contain stem purple, anthracnose and fungal pathogens such as fusarium. 

Identification of Ripeness of Dragon fruit

When it’s not mature, dragon fruit is green. Once, the fruit starts to mature. The exterior of the fruit shifts to red or yellow depending on the size.

Once the wings of the dragon tend to dry, to grow brown and fade. It signifies that fruit has been starting to mature and ready to eat. In case the wings are still bright. It shows that the fruit is underweight and will take more time to mature.

Once, the dragon fruit attains the stage of maturity. It can press just by a delicate touch of the thumb or fingertips on the surface. The fruit is presumably overripe if it is too pulpy. On the other hand, it’ll take several days to mature if your touch feels solid.

The rugged handling and shipping malfunctions can cause the dragon fruit a damaged skin. For instance, if the fruit is not adequately wrapped during shipping, they may hit each other. 

These may even be broken if they dropped. 

When the fruit is damaged, the flaws are visible and often smaller this is because of the lack of moisture.

Considering these few points is beneficial for the daily harvesting of dragon fruit.

  • Dragon fruits do not grow after harvesting as many other fruits and it is recommended that they should be picked once mature completely. 
  • The fruit is at its mature stage for processing once the color shifts from green to reddish.
  • If the fruit matures, the tiny leaves on the fruit side may often tend to appear gray.
  • Once the color of the fruit shifts, it is the right time to pluck the fruit. However, it is necessary to harvest a day after the color changes if the fruit is exported.
  • When a dragon fruit is ripe and ready for harvest, it can quickly twist away from the plant. When you ever pull the fruit so fast, it definitely would not be harvested


Besides the health benefits of dragon fruit, it has such a delicious taste once it matures perfectly. It is the right ingredient for a yummy smoothie and is often mixed with the lychee smoothie.

These fruits that contain the red or pink, leathery skin is tasted by the spooning out otherwise it is eaten in pieces. It is possible to process fruits into juice, ice cream or wine. The beautiful flowers, only blowing at night, are applied for the aromatherapy.

Must Read: Custard Apple Farming

How to Grow: Farming Orange for a Perfect Citrus?

Do you have your breakfast without orange juice? Isn’t it like a day without sunshine?

Orange is not just a favorite fruit of many individuals but it provides many essential nutrients. A pulpy orange has a great source of fiber that keeps a check on the human digestive system. 

The high content of vitamin C helps in lowering the blood pressure, consequently improves the heart’s health. Moreover, it is full of antioxidants that eventually boost your immune system.

There is also some mystery on how citrus fruit is bloomed by juicy skin. Simply, how to do orange farming? 

Also Read: Papaya Farming Ultimate Guide

Growing Orange with Perfection

The tropical region as well as in sub-tropical regions are perfect for the orange cultivation.

However, the dry environment is ideal for productive orange growing for the higher orange yield.

A temperature of the surface in a range of 25 degrees Celsius is ideal for both the plants as well as roots. Nevertheless, oranges are known to grow at their best and in a dry climate. The warm summer and reasonable rains between 100 and 200 cm suits more to orange plants. These conditions prove to the better climatic conditions for the excellent growth of orange plants.

Keeping into the mind that orange plants are particularly responsive to high humidity and frosts, orange farming can be prone to a significant number of diseases and dangerous insects and pests. 

Besides, it is also a smart strategy to maintain the farm’s temperature to a desirable limit throughout the growth cycle to achieve a high yield of oranges. Because the summer hot winds cause orange flowers and budding fruits to collapse. 

Deciding the Right Soil

The soil preparation before planting directly enhances the overall yield. It significantly boosts the health of your plant as well as keeps many diseases away, especially those that are sourced from the hidden pests in the soil.

Moreover, this is recommended to check your land for important minerals and nutrients to determine these important additives. 

A large variety of soils such as clay and silt soils of loam or sandy soil, oranges can be planted. But the soil with strong drainage capacity, limestone-free with strong salt absorption ability is ideal for the orange farming.

Generally, the soil ph is roughly 6.0 to 7.0. And oranges are indeed a citrus crop, the growth of these plants on soil with a pH of about 5 is a better idea for higher yields. 

Yet, it is a smart practice, at least once before planting, to go for the soil check and see if the soil is adequate or not?

In the winter and monsoon seasons, the growing farm should not be too cold as it makes your farm a variety of plagues and diseases.

In this case, providing the windshields by planting the trees across the farm not only prevents the fruits and flowers in case of a storm or heavy winds but can give additional revenue once they get mature.

Growing an orange plant

You can reproduce an orange tree just by seed or the shield budding often known as T-budding. In case, there is already a plant that has attained the age of its maturity. Vegetative propagation is a better choice.

Growing an Orange Plant

In case, you choose to grow an orange plant from a seed. You have a few things to learn in orange farming.

Planting By Seeds

In case, you are trying sowing the seeds to the soil directly. You can add a good mix of additives to the proper fermentation. Moreover, you can add manure to the soil before sowing the seeds. Let’s have a look at how to grow a plant using seeds,

  • Sprinkle your orange seed into the soil and mix them properly so they can mix around 1.5 inches into the soil.
  • You should take care of these seeds so that they can enough sunlight as well as properly make the soil enough moist whenever it becomes dry.

 It is worthy of notice that seed-based trees are mostly short-lived because they are vulnerable to root and foot decay. 

However, oranges plants are more productive and fast-growing if planting is done through the budding.

Besides, the oranges should be planted early in the rainy season in the case of orange farming in Florida. A comparatively small rainy season leads to less chance of plant mortality. And, a plant can be better sustained by rainwater.

Planting By Budding

In the case of planting the budding, you need a young orange tree which can be obtained from the local nursery or can be grown of its own with seeds.

Furthermore, this process requires a branch with multiple stems. And, in this process, you need to keep in mind while selecting the branches or stems. They tend to bend at the time of snapping. 

It is worthy to note that trees grown after T-budding in orange farming are more productive than others that are seed-based.

T-budding is required certain steps to follow. Let’s have a look:
  • Split the bottom of the bud stem at the 45-degree angle
  • Create a hole at in the trunk of a young orange tree
  • Slide in the slit in the trunk alongside the cut
  • Wrap both parts and tie them together with a tiny amount of tape
  •  Wait for some time as the graft starts to expand, once grown, remove the grafting tape to prevent the development

The slatted bud stem is known as the scion. The fruit is spruced and grows quickly on grafted trees than on seeds based orange plants.

Once, a tree grows enough from the initial stage. It requires special care to be the best to yield for the full capacity while orange farming in California.

Generally, a plant needs some important aspects of growth that are fertilizing, watering and pruning. 

1. Water

The water needed for orange trees is based on the local environment, however, it is required to low irrigation in fall, while frequently water in spring. The watering of a plant also varies according to the rainfall in a year.

It is worthy to note that excess watering reduces the pulp quality of the fruit. The planting depth often influences the amount of water that you provide in orange trees. 

2. Fertilization 

Fertilization in orange farming directly influences the quality of mature fruits as well as the breeding of orange plants. In case you provide some extra nitrogen in fertilizers to the growing plants. It contributes the oil to the peel. While fertilizer excess in potassium reduces peel grease. 

Usually, one or two pounds of nitrogen should be added to the growing tree for the high production of good oranges. 

And, indeed potassium, phosphorus, and several micro-nutrients will also be part of the fertilizer. 

If you are not getting enough yield from an orange-tree. It is recommended to have a soil check to see the actual amount of nutrient ratio at present.

Besides, it is not appropriate to cut the orange tree just for shape. 

Any shorter trees will be eliminated from the ground. Often, it is good to trim the weak or rotted leaves from the orange tree.

Must Read: Custard Apple Farming Was Never So Fruitful

Diseases in organic farming

1. Citrus Canker

This is a highly deadly bacterial infection for citrus trees that can be identified by the scabs on the fruit, leaves, and branches of the orange trees. 

2. Root rot 

 The soil-inhabiting fungus from the Phytophthora species causes the wilting of leaves as well as a thin canopy of the fungus.  Look at the roots for signs of rot and disease.

3. Citrus greening 

In case leaves of the orange plant are getting yellowish. A nutrient shortage might be behind such occurrence in orange farming.

Though, they can also be induced by the harmful disease of the citrus plant. Such infection can cause the leaves of the plant to wither. While fruits would be a bit sour as well as tiny and rough.

4. Sooty mold 

 This disease can lead to a branch to die. To identify this infection, you can bark peels away, for a dark sooty fungus disclosure.

5. Greasy Spot

If the leaves of orange plants have the mark of yellowish-brownish sore spots, especially under the leaf. This is a sign of another fungus disease known as a greasy spot.

As the disease evolves, the spots enlarge into oily-looking spots. These greasy spots cam hamper the growth of leaves even can make them shrink or wilt. In a plan to prevent the greasy spots, collect the fallen leaves that might counter the further spreading to healthy leaves.

However, it is good to spray the tree with liquid copper fungicide in June or July. 

And, you can apply as the second spray of the same fungicide in august or September to preserve the summer growth of your orange farming.

Apart from this, many insects such as citrus whitefly, caterpillars and aphids may damage your orange flowers, leaves, and fruits significantly.

It is best to ensure that you are informed of diseases in your area. While offering the orange trees the best conditions so that a strong and healthy tree has a better immune system to the diseases.

How Do Pineapples Grow? – A Complete Guide

The tasty nutritious pineapple fruit has its popularity matched to mango fruit.  Its yummy tangy flavor and appearance make it familiar with people. 

How do pineapples grow? Is it profitable to grow a pineapple? How to plant a pineapple? These are some common queries that come to your mind when planning for pineapple farming

This fruit is high in Vitamin A and Vitamin B. Also, has traces of Vitamin C and minerals, iron too. Caribbean, South, and Central America are the largest producers of pineapples, India holds the fifth position. Here is an overview of pineapple cultivation.

In India, it is popularly known as ANANAS. Here, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Bihar, and North-eastern states cultivate pineapple abundantly.

Preparing land for pineapple farming

Plowing, digging, and leveling are done step by step to get the land ready for pineapple farming. In the case of trenches, a space of 165 cm from center to center is required.

Treatment for suckers

The suckers need to be sorted, healthy or unhealthy. Then the healthy ones should be eliminated from unhealthy ones. 

pineapple suckers

The healthy ones are dried in the shelter and then dipped in Bordeaux mix before plantation.

The Necessity for pineapple farming

To ensure the best yield for pineapple farming always remember, a coastal and humid climate is necessary.

Season favorable for pineapple farming

The flowering season for pineapple farming is between December and March. It is advisable to maintain a gap of 12-15 months from the flowering season.

A heavy rainfall period is avoided for plantation, so it is done before the onset of monsoon rains. Too much rain in the early stage will ruin the pineapple plantation.

Soil requirement

For pineapple cultivation, sandy loam soil is a perfect choice to be made. Though alluvial and laterite soil is also ideal for pineapple cultivation. 

The basic theory behind this is it should be free from waterlogging. Also, the acidic content should be between 5.5-6.0. 

How often do we need to water a pineapple plant?

Normally, pineapple cultivation is done in tropical places enriched with a humid climate. So, the water intake of the fruit is sufficient.

No artificial irrigation is required. But when planting on a commercial basis there might be a need for additional water to get a healthy grown delicious fruit. 

watering pineapple plant

Artificial irrigation helps retain water during the offseason to nourish the plant. Thereby, facilitating water supply in deficit regions as well.

In such cases, you need to water a pineapple plant twice a week.

Also Read: Guava Farming: Planting, Spacing, & Cultivation Guide

How do pineapples grow

Let us know how do pineapples grow?  To grow pineapples a set of 4 techniques is applied like flat-bed, furrow, contour, and trench.

This is entirely dependent on the land and rainfall pattern of the area of cultivation. A contour planting is generally practiced to curb soil erosion.

To give good support, the plant -soil is moved towards the trench area. The flat-bed planting pattern is adopted as the pineapple roots are very hollow. This is how pineapples grow.

Diseases of the pineapple plant

It is a pest-free crop, though in some severe cases scale insects and bugs are its worst enemy.

Fertilizers for pineapple crop

Pineapples are high in potassium and nitrogen requirement. For good pineapple farming, they are harmful to the soil, so they are applied in minimum quantity as per the requirement. 

Nitrogen is generally divided into 6 doses. The first is applied after 2 months of cultivation and the last one before 12 months of harvest.

Similarly, potassium is given in 2 doses. Half can be applied after planting and the remaining after 6 months from the plantation.

Pineapple harvesting

After 12-15 months of planting, the pineapple crop bear flowers. It takes a complete 15-18 months to get a fully grown pineapple fruit. 

The growth of pineapple depends upon the climate, temperature, variety of pineapple, size, and type of plant material.

The month of May-August is the time for pineapple harvesting. After 5 months of flowering, the plant bears fruit. 

For canning purposes, the fruits are extracted from the plant when the fruit is not fully grown. For table use, you have to wait till it has attained a golden yellow color. 

Steps involved pineapple plantation

Pineapple farming involves a series of to be followed to ensure a good fruit. 

  1. Earthing: Pineapple is a hollow root plant. If they don’t get sturdy support, they tend to bend. To render support to the fruit the soil is moved towards the trench.
  2. Weeding: The most common weeds in pineapple farming are nutgrass and hariyali. It is done to make sure the good growth of the pineapple fruit.
  3. Mulching: When grown as a rain-fed crop means, dependent on rainwater. It is an important step. The idea behind this is to store water for an adequate water supply.
  4. Ratoon crop: Rotation crop farming is generally practiced in India. The cropped part of the fruit is used as a base for the next farming cycle.

Unusual behavior in pineapples

This is a big reason to worry, as to remain in demand pineapples must have to be perfect in taste and appearance. Else they get neglected. 

Though pineapple farming is free from any sort of infection and all still there are few challenges.

  1. More than one crown: In some cases, the fruit might develop more than one crown. In this, it gets de-shaped. Broad from the upper portion and pointed from below. Making them non-eligible for canning.
  2. Slips collar: This happens when a large number of slips appears from the base. It leads to small-sized fruit with too many slips overlapping.

Must Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Storage and market

A decent time of 15 days can be ensured to store the pineapples without removing the crown. 

For transporting the fruit to the market, they should be stored in a cool place or refrigerator at a temperature of 10-13 degrees.

Pineapple farming has a lot of market demand. It should be noted that the fruit is easily accessible to the market, to avoid losing its charm.

Health Benefits of pineapple:

This lovely crown shaped fruit is adored not only for its taste and appearance but also has some benefits as well.

  1. Rich in Vitamin C: It is enriched with Vitamin C which indicates a capacity to curb heart and joint diseases.
  2. Rich in fiber content: This helps in keeping the intestines healthy.
  3. Helps in removing excess mucus.
  4. Helps in weight loss.


You need not worry about the profitability of pineapple farming. It has already made deep roots in the market. They have a loud market domestically or internationally. 

Sold on huge margins, still have the monopoly in the market. Can be consumed in multifarious ways. Jams, fruit, jelly, spread, canned, and candies loveable in all forms.

Pineapple waste serves as fodder for the animals. Enjoys fame all over the world. The production cost is low as compared to other farming’s.

Pineapple needs no introduction. No separate marketing strategy is required.

What else you need!!! Just go ahead with your pineapple farming. Surely, you can create magic with your pineapple farming.

How to Grow Cherry Trees- A Complete Guide

Cherries are those eye-catching red stony fruit which is loved for their sweet taste. People love the mesmerizing view of the spring blooming cherry trees with white and pinkish flowers.

We just have to find out how to grow cherry trees. Growing cherries is trending these days. As they can be preserved and are much in demand. 

Apart from a common thought that cherries can grow on big grounds, you can add a look and grace to your home gardens as well.

Even, they improve your health status also. Like curing arthritis and gout. Improves blood circulation and is good for the heart also.

Let us have some insights into the entire process of cherry cultivation.

Where do cherry grow?

Where do cherry grow? Cherries thrive happily in the zones receiving enough sunlight, with a cold climate and perfect wet soil. However, this icy cold climate varies among different species of cherry.

Soil should also have a PH value between 6, which means a bit acidic. The sun rays should be on the plant for 6-8 hours.

Because excessive cold climate can make cherry plants dormant. These conditions make for a perfect cherry plantation.

Selection of seeds

You need to choose between the varieties of cherry and then analyze your climatic conditions for how to grow cherry trees. 

Selecting cherry seeds entirely depends on the climatic conditions prevailing in your area. And for the soil, you have to make it fit for growing your cherry plants.

Can you grow a cherry tree from a pit?

Well, you must be thinking can you grow a cherry tree from a pit?  In your backyard or home garden. The answer is yes.

This is an amazing idea to grow a cherry tree from a pit. You ought to have patience, as it is a time taking activity.

The trees can produce flowers very late and not sure all those turns into sweet tasty cherry fruit.

Cross-pollination adds life to the reproduction process. With enormous and dedicated management and hard work, you can have cherries from the pit. Seeds are prepared for it first. Let’s check out how.

When those pulpy balls find their way to your stomach, save those leftover seeds. Instead of throwing them, just dip them in warm water and clean them.

Allow them to dry on a paper or towel for 5 days. After that place them in a plastic container covered with a lid tightly. Now, carefully this container is allowed to rest in a refrigerator for 10 weeks.

This is a preparatory step as to how to grow cherry trees. 

Planting cherries

Remove those dormant cherry pods and allow them to rest at room temperature for 3 hours.

You need to place these tiny pods in soil pots, each with 2-3 pods in number. Place the pots in sunlight with keeping the soil moist.

You can observe seedlings sprouting from those cherry pods. On gaining some height they tend to be kept inside on colder nights. 

The moment your cherry plant starts flourishing, plant the seedlings out at a distance of 20 meters from each other.

At this point, they are 10-12 inches tall. And this is how to grow cherry trees.

Also Read: How do pineapples grow? – A complete guide

Protecting cherry trees from wildlife

The worst enemy of cherry trees is wildlife. These rabbits, reindeer, and other animals hunting for fodder end up eating these tasty plants. 

You can tie burlap around the plantation. Yes, they are effective but unwrap them when the spring approaches to ensure proper sunlight to the tiny tots.

Once they attain maturity, they become out of reach and they are safe anyways then.

Apart from how to grow cherry trees, you should also be aware of how to save them.

Do cherry trees need full sun?

You must be wondering, do cherry trees need full sun? Yes, they do.

These cute little red bulbs need full sunlight. Let’s define FULL SUN. Full sun means sunlight of 8 hours.

Yes, you heard it well, a complete 8 hours of sunlight will work wonders. It is mandatory, otherwise, they will end up having a straggly stem, discolored fruit, and that is not done.

When to plant cherry blossom trees

The amazing, tasty, and world-famous cherry blossom is the home production of Japan. These cherry blossom plants were given to the USA as a token of gift in the early of 19 century. Later the USA also started with the production of cherry blossom.

A cherry blossom plant needs explicitly nutritious and productive soil. Soil should not be waterlogged and a minimum of 6 hours of sunlight is a necessity.

Proper spacing of 20 feet should be maintained between the plants. Fertilization is the key to how and where to grow cherry.

Now, for when to plant cherry blossom trees you should wait for the frost period to get over, this supports a speedy and good growth of the plant.

Growing dwarf cherry trees

Dwarf cherry trees look cute with their smaller size. The size of the tree does not affect the size of the fruit.

If your backyard can’t accommodate tall cherry trees, growing dwarf cherry trees is an option. With these trees, you can still have that alluring sight of light bounty flowers in the spring. 

These dwarf trees are obtained by grafting. They are 6-8 feet in height so, they find a perfect place in your backyard. Initially, they can be planted in pots or containers.

Their upkeep is also easy like pruning. Sandy soils are apt for these trees. The condition remains the same. It should be a well-drained one.

How long does it take for a dwarf cherry tree to grow?

These are cultivated for their explicit capacity to withstand extremely cold temperatures. Dwarf structure and too much pulp is the outstanding feature of these dwarf cherries.

Growing dwarf cherry trees follows the same process nothing different, they are planted and taken care of, in the same manner.

With dwarf cherries, you need not wait for how long does it take for a dwarf cherry tree to grow? As in comparison to normal cherry trees bearing fruit in 10 years, you have them in 3-5 years in your backyard.

Pruning in cherry trees

In the case of cherry plantation too pruning is required. Trimming ensures the removal of dead and unwanted parts from the plant.

It promotes good health and growth of the plant. The plant is disease-free and also free from abnormalities.

Fertilization of cherry plants

Cherry cultivation needs a handful of good organic fertilizers. In 10 years, the plantation needs a combo of Calcium ammoniate, potash, and superphosphate to thrive well.

Good manure promotes rapid growth and productivity of the plant.

Growing cherry trees in Australia

Cherries do cause a bit of hassle as they are typically cold climate lovers. Don’t lose hope. Even Australia can have their cherries. Growing cherry trees in Australia is not MISSION IMPOSSIBLE. 

There are species of cherries that love Australian weather too. Some variety of dwarf cherries do well in mild cold and don’t grow too tall.

They can be grown all year-round. Those juicy, pulpy cherries can be grown at much ease.

To grow cherry trees in Australia all you need is well-drained humus soil, with a PH scale of 6.5- 7. Proper mulching should be done to ensure the soil temperature.

As cherries can’t stand too much water though need water every day in summers. The soil should be moist.

Pruning should be taken care of. And all this trouble is worth taking. When you have your cherries to eat.

Must Read: Strawberry Farming – A business that promises a “delicious” future

Wrap up

Well, the above-stated information is enough. So how to grow cherry trees is no more a query.

You have to tighten your shoes and get into how to grow cherry trees. 

Sow the seeds in this winter and you have them ready by the summer for those yummy shake toppings.

Cherries look good for Christmas gifting and are delicious too. Now with all the complete knowledge about growing cherries, you can accomplish your goals for having home cherries.

They are easy to grow, don’t require a gross procedure. Especially those dwarf cherries beautify your backyard with the bunch of red pulpy cherry fruits hanging on them.

Apart from satisfying your taste buds they are contributing towards health as well. Anti-oxidants help in curbing cancer growth. Good for the heart as well.

So, you have enough on how to grow cherry trees just execute it and enjoy the yummy cherries from your backyard.

How to: Grow Strawberry Farming – Complete Guide

Strawberries farming is one of the best alternatives to traditional crop farming in the USA. A large number of farmers around the country are growing strawberries for commercial purposes, and are making decent money. But, unfortunately, a lot of them are also struggling to earn a livelihood, because they are doing it the wrong way.

If you also want to secure your finances through growing strawberries, you should follow this detailed guide at every step. This guide is an overview of all the aspects related to commercial strawberry farming.

The guide focuses on starting a strawberry farm in almost every region in the USA. All the points are collected from a publication in CIS 93, written by B. B. Davis, D. L. Barney, and J. K. Fellman, and published by the Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Idaho.

Here are the most important points we’ve taken from the publication to make your strawberries growing efforts as fruitful as possible.

The economic importance of strawberries

As many as 76 countries produce strawberries for commercial purposes. China, the USA, Mexico, Turkey, and Spain are the top five producers, but the production is only increasing in various other parts of the world including Asia, Central, and North America, and North Africa. And the demand is getting larger and larger with every passing year too!

The development and of California’s strawberry industry is itself a story, and the rapid expansion of the industry at local levels in other parts including Central and South America, Australia, China, and the Mediterranean region is clearly visible to the global economy.

In short, if you are planning to start strawberries farming (you are most probably doing so, and that’s why you are here), your economic future is amazing! You’re going to make loads of money, of course, if you are determined enough to do the hard yards, especially in the beginning. So, let’s start with our guide.

Also Read: Cultivation of Custard Apple

Preparing the land for the strawberry plants

Most of the producers start preparing land for commercial strawberry farming in late August. Strawberry plants are actually perennial, but most of the farmers consider them as annual. The land is properly fertilized before farming and harvesting strawberries.

After fertilization, farmers focus on mounding soil into plateau-like rows, and then they cover the soil with black plastics.

Usually, the drip tape irrigation is also placed in the ground while covering with plastics. Experienced farmers use a specialized tractor-machine to accomplish all the tasks related to growing strawberries from scraps. The drip tape is very useful for watering and fertilizing strawberries throughout the growth period.

Perfect climate and soil for planting strawberries

The temperate climate is the best option for growing strawberries. It is considered as “short-day and long-evening” plant and needs 10 days of sun-exposure of not more than eight hours to initiate flowering.

Strawberry plants remain dormant throughout the winter. The plants continuously grow and flower during the spring season, when the days are longer than those of winter. Some varieties also grow in a subtropical climate and grow very slowly even in winter.

Based on their response to the light, strawberries are divided into two groups i.e.

  1. The overbearing varieties that give buds during both short and long periods of light.
  2. The varieties that are common for commercial purposes and develop buds in the presence of short-light periods only.

When we talk about soil, strawberries farming needs properly-drained soil with medium loam. The soil should contain a decent amount of organic matter and should be slightly acidic (with a pH from 5.7 to 6.5).

If the soil is highly acidic, there won’t be proper root formation in strawberry plants. And soil rich in calcium makes strawberry leaves yellow, which is not a good sign at all. And, runner formation is also very good in light soil which is rich in organic matter.

You should prefer manured green land for proper growth and timely budding of plants. Don’t even think about alkaline soils or soils that are infected from nematodes.

Different varieties of strawberries

There is a wide range of strawberries available around the USA. Some of the varieties introduced from California like Solana, Tioga, and Torrey, etc. are very good for farming. For hilly areas, Dilpasand, Srinagar, and Sovereign varieties from India and neighboring countries are perfect.

For strawberries farming in warmer areas of the USA, you should choose from Blackmore, Premier Florida-90, Klonmore, Missionary and Klondike, etc.

Propagation of Strawberry plants

Runners that are prepared after the blooming season are used for propagation. Multiple runners are used for successful propagation. The target should be to use every plant with a good root system to successfully set the plantation. If properly nurtured and cared for, a single plant can give up to 18 runners.

Best season for planting strawberries

In the hills, September to October is the best time to plant crowns and runners. And for plain areas, January to February is the perfect window for planting. If planting happens too early, the overall quality and quantity of fruits are expected to be affected.

And if it is too late, runners start developing in March, and the crops are usually not very good. So, depending on the atmospheric temperature and other climate factors, August to October is the perfect strawberry growing time.

You should give priority to uprooting runners from the nurseries. Keep them into bundles before planting in the field. Keeping them in cold storage before transplanting is also a great option. You should irrigate the soil regularly to reduce the stress of water in the leaves.


Before planting, the land should be properly prepared by harrowing after deep plowing. There should be enough amount of organic manure in the soil before planting. Flatbeds, hill rows, and matted rows, all are suitable for planting strawberries. But in irrigated areas, you should plant on ridges.

The distance between the two plants varies according to the variety of plants as well as the type and area of the land. Usually, strawberry farmers follow a standard spacing of 30 cm. X 60 cm. In an ideal “strawberries growing condition”, a population of 22,000 plants per acre with the spacing if 30 cm. x 30 cm. is followed.

The plants should be planted in the soil with roots in a straight position. There should be enough air in the soil for healthy growth. The growing point is usually just above the surface of the soil. Plants should be decently irrigated at the beginning with no dry spots on the surface.

How to ensure proper care of plants

The straight roots of the strawberry plants spread closer to the surface. Therefore, you will have to maintain decent moisture in and around the soil. Young plants should be free from weeds, and there should be light and regular hoeing.

Horticultural practices related to the strawberry crops

Strawberry Farm

Farmers prefer covering the soil with mulch throughout the winter to protect roots from cold injury. The mulch protects fruits from the soil, conserves moisture of the soil, and controls the decaying of fruits. And for strawberries farming, straw mulch is the most preferred one. Black alkathine mulch is also used, especially before and after the winter.

Requirement of irrigation

Strawberry is a shallow-rooted plant, and less amount, but more frequent watering in each irrigation. Excessive irrigation usually converts into increased incidents of Botrytis rot, and growth of excessive stolons and leaves at the expense of flowers and fruits. Strawberry plants are also very susceptible to drought, so insufficient watering can also damage the plants completely.

In the case of newly planted runners, you should irrigate frequently after planting. Otherwise, plants will start dying, even before their proper growth. During September and October, especially if there is no rain, you should irrigate the plants

A couple of times in a week. In December and January, irrigation once in a couple of weeks is ideal. The frequency of irrigation is usually increased once the fruits appear on the plant to ensure larger fruits in a decent number.

How many strawberries per plant?

Well, it depends entirely on a lot of factors including conditions, rain, soil, variety of strawberry plants, care, irrigation, etc. On average, a healthy plant yields 150 to 400 grams of strawberries.

Using fertilizers and manures for strawberry plants

A fertilizer dose of 25 to 50 tonnes manure, 75-100 kg. N, 40-120 kg. P205, 40-80 kg. K20/ha. maybe needed depending on the variety of plant(s) and soil type.

Intercultural operations

Harrowing and plowing are the two methods through which strawberry crop is kept free from weeds during the first season. Applying plastic sheets and herbicides are also preferred in some regions.

How to protect strawberry crops from different pests and diseases?

Cutworms and red spider mites are the most common pests related to strawberry plants. You can control spider by using 0.25 percent water-soluble sulfur with 0.05 percent monocrotophos. And a dusting the soil before plantation with 5 percent chlordane or heptachlor can control cutworms.

Blackroot rot and red stale are the two major diseases affecting strawberries farming. Fungus Phytophthora fragariae is responsible for both of them.

Black root rot can be controlled by increasing the resistant variants like stelemaster, and red stale can be managed by maintaining the vigor of the plants and rotating the strawberry crops with other crops like beans, legumes, and peas, etc.

Virus diseases like crinkle, dwarf, and yellow edges also affect strawberries crops. And raising the crop in hilly areas is the best way to avoid these diseases. Strawberries are known for throwing various chlorotic plants, which usually results from genetic segregation – and should not be confused with virus infections.


When the half to three-fourth of each strawberry fruit starts changing its color, you should get the indication that the harvesting time has arrived. Depending on the growth and weather conditions, you can do the picking every second or third day – prefer morning hours for picking. Small baskets and trays are preferred for harvesting at the end of strawberries growing season. To avoid damage due to excessive heat, keep those baskets or trays in a shady place.

February to April is the best time for the ripening of strawberries grown in plains. And May and June are suitable for harvesting in places with higher elevations. If you want to transport them in distant markets, try to harvest when fruits are still light in color. For transporting them in local markets, harvest them when they are fully ripe.

Post-harvesting care

Strawberries are perishable fruits. Therefore, they are packed in shallow, flat containers of different types including bamboo, cardboard, trays, and papers, etc. with not more than two to three layers of fruits. Avoid washing them, as it causes bruises and makes them lustreless – and of course, can completely derail your marketing strategies.

Yielding also depends on various factors including varieties, conditions, care, and rain, etc. If you yield 20 to 25 tons of fruits per hectare, you’ve grabbed the jackpot! But if the conditions are ideal, even 50 tons of fruits per hectare have been reported.

  • Grading: Grading is also an important aspect of a successful strawberries farming strategy. Factors like size, color, weight, etc. are considered before proper grading.
  • Storage: You can store strawberry fruits in cold storage at 32 degrees Celsius up to 10 days. If you are planning to transport them to distant markets, don’t forget to pre-cool them at 4 degrees Celsius within the first two hours of harvesting. After pre-cooling, you can ship them in refrigerated vans.
  • Packing: Packing is done based on grading and transportation distance. Perforated cardboard cartons with paper cutting as cushioning material are preferred for first-grade fruits. And low-grade fruits are packed in trays or baskets.
  • Transportation: Road transport by lorries or trucks is the easiest mode of transport because you will find it easy to travel from orchards to the market.
  • Marketing: Most of the farmers, especially the new ones prefer contacting trade agents at local levels to get a decent price. We recommend this to you as well!

To be honest, strawberries growing is not the easiest of options to start your business. But if you are determined enough to do the hard work in the beginning, there is a lot to take.

Strawberry farming is considered as one of the most profitable farming in the world. It does demand a lot of hard work, care, grit, and determination.

But, once you successfully go through the first season of farming, you will find it considerably easy in the subsequent seasons. It is full of fun, taste, tang, and a lot of profit. So, keep delivering the delicacy, keep growing strawberries, keep growing fruits! Happy farming!

How to: Growing the Avocado in Backyard?

Do you ever realize that what happens to your body after eating an avocado? The fruit is loaded with fiber just like many other vegetables and fruits. Besides, the potassium-rich avocado helps to reduce the blood pressure and, regular use of avocado attenuates weight gain to normal individuals over time.

Meanwhile, it is interesting to know where avocado grow.

This fruit crop is native to tropical America. And, it has been grown in Mexico initially, later it expanded to Central America as well as surrounding areas. Today, it is grown in the USA, Dominican Republic India, Colombia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Brazil, and many other countriesall over the world.

Also Read: Farming Orange for a Perfect Citrus

This fruit is a single seed and is primarily eaten for its outstanding health content. Avocados can be a portion of a superfood diet, loaded with nutrients, many of which are lacking in the contemporary diet.

Initially, the avocado trees were planted to protect the other crops. Today, however, this fruit is mainly cultivated as a cash crop. It can thrive in all climates and environments. Moreover, the capital required for the cultivation of avocado fruit is less and it provides the greatest return on a successful yield in a season.

Today, it is the best decision to start a business venture of avocado farming because the starting cost for growing an avocado tree is relatively less to other fruit plants. 

Moreover, this fruit crop needs little care and maintenance to reach the highest fruit yield.

Growing Avocado Tree

 It is hard to deny the nutritious value of the avocados. But, in case, you are contemplating avocado farming. It requires huge patience. And, once a plant starts to produce fruits, you will not regret your decision.

The price of avocado is relatively high because of its high consumption and nutritious values. The high demand for this healthy fruit is determined by its benefit to the human body.

The growth of a successful avocado farm depends on proper preparation and the right place.

Deciding the site for avocado trees

The atmosphere and weather play the most critical role in the growth of an avocado tree. There is a need for suitable climate conditions for the safe growth of plants and optimal yield in the case of commercial production.

The temperature varying from 15 degrees Celsius to 30 degrees Celsius is the finest for the avocado farming. 

It is recommended throughout cultivation time. This signifies that throughout its whole existence a pleasant environment is expected. 

It is noteworthy that if the temperature falls below freezing or increases above 40 degrees Celsius, avocado trees tend to die. 

In the short period of spring, when the flowers bloom, if the weather gets cooler and rainy, bees won’t come to the air and eventually, fruits won’t flourish.

Just like other crops, avocado cultivation thrives well in highly organic and fertile soil. In the process of determining the quality of soils, it highly recommended getting the soil tested for the exact information for nutrients presence.

This helps in adding the appropriate amount of fertilizer to your field. Thus, at the time of soil preparation, the shortage of micronutrients and macronutrients may be covered.

Avocado trees and plants can grow to red soil, dark brown soil or in almost any kind of soil even the reddish-brown soil. 

However, the safest way to high yield is developing avocado plants or trees on reddish-brown soil or dark brown soil.

As soil is the most crucial criterion when deciding a place. The avocados are highly responsive to poor drainage and sensitive to the Phytophthora which thrives in poorly drained soils. 

Moreover, the soil should be rendered in such a manner that there is no issue with water stagnation. The soil’s strength and efficiency must also be strengthened by well-rotting manure.

It is worth to avoid windy areas. Placing the plant on slopes faced away from the winds and discard planting on western slopes in warm areas as the sun may be very warm and could sunburnt fruits. It is appropriate to sow windbreaks for securing your trees from the heavy winds.

How to Plant Avocado

Choosing the variety for avocado farming 

The avocado has several varieties to choose from but Hass is better than the others because it has the potential to grow year long.

Moreover, it contains more than twenty percent oil with high-fat flesh and buttery texture. While the rough and robust surface makes durable to transport.

Method of Propagation

If you are trying to establish a commercial farm it worth use the grafting method and budding method for plantation of an avocado tree. The plantation with grafting method also assures stable growth and early fruit-bearing in the crop.

While growing an avocado from the seeds require a different level of care and maintenanceYou may have to wait for several years with the seedling before you see the fruits.

How to graft the avocado tree?

The major commercial production of avocados comes from grafted avocado plants. Yet, it is not feasible to say in the avocado cultivation that anyone can graft them.

In this process, one young tree is combined with a separately obtained branch contains single and multiple buds.

As both of them grow together, a reinvented tree is produced. However, when grafting, if the scion is grafted near the base plant’s root, but still on a stem, it has a higher chance of success.

If you want to do it on your own, follow these steps carefully.

  1. Make a vertical cut in the center of the stem
  2. Next, interpolate one or two externally obtained branches with healthy buds in this cut, 
  3. Including two or three buds into stems increase the chances of success

Planting Distance


The distance between plants is crucial in avocado farming because the avocado is a long term crop. And, it would be wise to make sure that there should be enough plants on the farm, so recovery is possible in case some plants do not succeed in the case of the grafting.

While one can decide the density for the plants and each method have its pros and cons.

1. High Density

In high-density plantings, ensure that two trees have the distance from the 3m to 6m. Such plants give fruits earlier than the others but they require pruning of plants at a certain period. While in warmer areas, it is not suitable to grow avocado too much dense.

2. Low Density 

In low-density plantings, ensure that two trees have a distance ranging between the 8m to 10m. They are easier to manage but might have high maintenance costs because trees have much space between them that allows sunburn or birds to deter the fruit more than the others.

The medium-density spacing, for example, 6m to 8m, works as a solution to the multiple problems for the spacing.

Must Read : How To Do Watermelon Farming

In total, an avocado tree requires about 10 years to be able to produce fruit. 

Nowadays, however, with an improved avocado variety, the planting of commercial avocados will yield fruit in their plant age 4-5 years. 

Irrigation of avocado trees

Systematic irrigation has a strong effect on avocado cultivation. For the successful planting, it is recommended to give water to this seed just after the planting. Then, try to irrigate the seed at a period of three or four weeks. During the hot and dry season, the crop requires to be irrigated more frequently such as two-three weeks.

Besides, in cold weather, it is worth doing the mulching. For this, shade the plants with dry leaves and grass. 


Relevant manure and fertilizers play a significant role in increasing productivity up to several times. This crop reacted quite well to the high nitrogen content of the high manure. Potash, Potassium, and Phosphorus are needed in an equal portion for new plants.

Diseases in Avocado Farming

1. Phytophthora root rot

Root rot, caused by the soil-borne Phytophthora fungus, is very prone to avocado plants. It requires continuous care. Once infected, the tree would disregard an appropriate root structure and would not be able to function without root maintenance.

Chemical root treatment, as well as replanting, could help to cure this disease.

2. Tree Cankers 

 Sores are considerably not so serious; however, they are extremely visible. In some cases, these sores, especially in the trunk, can leak gum. The cankers can cut out the branches.

3. Sun blotch 

 The dangerous incurable illness can affect avocado tree farming. Fruits generally are scarred, twigs can become red or yellow or triangular cracks in the bark. Infected trees are typically smaller, but they do not show any sign than the reduction in the yield.

4. Pests 

Tree borers, caterpillars, or mites can destroy the growth of the plant as well as fruit. Thus, it is recommended to spray a considerable amount of insecticide to prevent any harmful pest or insect.

The avocados should be picked at a mature age in avocado farming California. Once the color of the fruits changed in the case of green to yellow, the fruits get maturity. 

Is Custard Apple Farming Profitable?

The custard apple, Annonareticulata L., is commonly ranked among the influential representatives of this family, both in the tree and in the berries. Its descriptive English name has been widely misapplied to particular species and the hybrid ATEMOYA, and it is often incorrectly referred to as “sugar apple,” “sweetsop” and, by Spanish-speaking men, “anon” or “onion,” in India as “Ramphal.”

It also received very few appropriate geographic titles. Most widely used as an alternative term in English-speaking regions is bullock’s heart or bull’s heart.

The custard apple tree isn’t pretty. It’s upright with a rounded or spreading crown and 10-14 in (25-35 cm) thick base. Height from 15-35 ft (4.5-10 m). The poorly smelling leaves are evergreen, alternating, oblong or narrow-lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, 2-5 cm thick, with visible veins. The flowers are fragrant, small, with three outer fleshy, thin petals up to 2-3 cm long, light green outside and pale-yellow with a dark-red or purple patch within in the middle. Never completely open bulbs.

Origin of the Custard Apple

The custard apple is thought to be native to the West Indies but was brought to southern Mexico in early times from Central America. Fostered and naturalized as far south as Peru and Brazil. It is usually grown in the Bahamas, often in Bermuda and southern Florida. It was planted in South Africa in the early 17th century and is cultivated as a fruit tree in South Africa.

The tree grows in India, particularly around Calcutta, and runs wild in other places. It has become relatively popular on Malaya’s east coast, and across Southeast Asia and the Philippines, though especially esteemed nowhere. This was stated extensively naturalized in Guam eighty years ago. It’s unclear in Hawaii.

Custard Apple Quality

No named cultivars are registered, but the fruit quality from various trees differs considerably. The yellow-skinned forms are preferable to the brownish and have smoother, juicier meat when well packed. Seeds of a purple-skinned, purple-fleshed type were planted in Florida, and the tree developed unremarkable quality fruit. Keep the quality factor in mind when planning about custard apple farming.

Must Read: How To Do Watermelon Farming?

Propagation techniques

Custard apples can be propagated in three ways: gene, budding, and grafting processes. Seed: seeds usually produce custard Apple. Budding: Chip-and-shield budding will even spread it. Budding happens in spring as the sap begins flowering. Grafting: Whip grafting succeeded in increasing yield and efficiency. Plants usually propagate custard apples.

For rain-fed conditions, when they attain a height of around 20-25 cm, seedlings can be grown in polythene bags packed with garden soil and planted in the field when the monsoon begins.  

Custard Apple farming zone

The custard apple prefers low-lying, dark, fertile soil with enough moisture and durable drainage. It develops to full size on oolitic calcareous in south Florida and grows wild in light sand, and numerous other soil types in the New and Old-World tropics but is undoubtedly less competitive in less suitable locations.

Custard Apple Farming: Planting Custard Apple

Here we are going to discuss various steps associated with custard apple farming, and in other words, agriculture begins with the planting. So, let’s explore it step by step.

 1. Getting seeds

You can get sugar apple seeds from your nearest garden center or, if you have a friend, you can get seeds from the flesh with the help of your friend. You can also order seeds from the online retailer. If you get seeds from the flesh of a custard apple, you will have to wait a week before planting the seeds from the fruit. They don’t germinate well if you immediately place them in the dirt.

Cut the custard apple fruit and extract the big, black seeds. Put them in a seed envelope, wait a week before planting. If you bought seeds from a garden center, you need not wait until planting.

2. Soak the seeds

While germination can take thirty days, soaking your seeds will speed the process. Wrap the seeds in a paper towel. Soak seeds with some water. Place the paper towel seeds in a bag. Let your seeds soak three days before planting.

3. Finding a sunny spot

Because custard apple is a tropical tree, you want a bright spot to start seedlings. You’ll want to place your seedling tray in front of a window facing south, so the seed gets more than enough warmth and light. If you don’t have a window facing south, you will grow lights. So, all in all, you need a sunny spot for custard apple farming.

4. Putting potting soil in a seedling tray

You’ll need at least two to three inches deep seeding tray with drainage holes that you can find at a garden store. Fill the seed tray with new compost from the garden shop, as opposed to garden soil. You would like to moisten the soil until planting the seeds.

5. Put the seeds in the soil

Plant two or three centimeters deep in your seedling tray. They will be one-and-a-half cm apart. The plants will germinate within 30 days. 

Moving to the next step

Now it’s time to move outside. And transplant the seed out there.

Also Read, Papaya Farming Ultimate Guide

1. Choose warm climates

In hot or near-tropical weather, plant your custard apple tree. Since sugar apples can survive drought, you can plant it in a dryer environment. Cooler temperatures are not anticipated, so stop planting it outdoors in winter or night cold areas.

2. Transplant in the spring

In spring, you can transplant your custard apple tree or whenever the climate reaches between 23-24 Celsius. You will consider a place with a wind cover, plenty of suns, and not prone to waterlogging.

3. Choose the sunny area

Custard apple is a tropical plant growing well in South America, Asia, and Africa, so enjoy the sun! You will plant it in a warm, wind-protected spot.

4. Soil should get good drainage

Use fertile, well-draining apple-tree soil. You can grow it in sandy, calcareous or hard loam soil because it tolerates a variety of soil types. However, avoid waterlogged soil and ensure proper drainage.

5. Dig a hole

As custard apple trees have deep root systems, the planting hole should be twice as full as the seedling root ball. The hole depth will suit the root ball size. Place the root ball in the hole, cover and cover the seedling

6. Watering the plant

Water your tree rarely but extensively. Custard apples have mild watering requirements and withstand drought, although they drop leaves if the drought is severe.

7. Using organic fertilizer

To get the tree started, you’ll want a full fertilizer. Using organic fertilizer to boost root system growth.Using 3-10-10 fertilizer to increase yield in later years.

8. Giving shape

To shape your custard apple tree, you’ll want to trim it in spring. You’ll find it grows in several parts, which can get very unwieldy. You’ll want to trim back to shape the tree and extract any old berries.      

custard apples
Irrigation of Custard Apple

Custard apple cultivation does not require watering to grow relatively good crops if successful water storage is impaired by micro catchment in the rainy season. Irrigation during flowering and fruit production is essential.

However, in the absence of water harvesting in the post-monsoon season, two or three irrigations aid in fruit quality and higher growth. Fruit collection yield per field and consistency are superior in pulp/segment irrigated plantations.

With each carrying, plants receiving daily water thrive. Pruning, fertilization, and irrigation are essential for optimum production. For regions with water-limiting schemes, pool, trickle or drip irrigation help in the judicious usage of water. Fruits are grown in low rainfall zones.

Land forming may be used to drain rainwater around the plantation. Contour terraces, contourite, and micro-catchments often help effectively using water. Plowing and mulching during rainy season allows retaining moisture further

Custard Apple Varieties

Some custard apple fruits are tiny and produce plenty of seeds and nothing to consume. On the other side, certain custard apple varieties grow broad fruits with just 5-7 seeds and all substance to enjoy. Custard apples are two major types, both short, juicy and flavored. Break them in two, pinch the meat with a tablespoon and enjoy.

  • Pink Mammoth: Good quality fruits are enormous. It may weigh up to 3 kg and have very few seeds, nearly seedless. This is custard apple’s most popular commercial form.
  • African Pride: The fruits are smaller up to 500-800 gm. But this type of variety of custard Apple has more seeds than the Pink Mammoth. This fruit starts growing sooner. Skin blackening and other fruit issues are susceptible.
Custard Apple Cultivation: Seed benefits and business opportunities

We know that the benefits of the seed of custard apple have nothing a lot to do with its cultivation. But when you plan for custard apple cultivation, you must be aware of the benefits of its seeds. The reason is straightforward, its seeds are in massive demand in the market.

So, more needs will create more opportunities for you in terms of business. For say, through custard apple farming, you will not only be able to sell the product but also its seeds can give you some good company. So, without wasting any time, let’s quickly get to know about the same.

1. Eradication of head lice

Are you sick to scratch your head because of the insects and nit? Has everything failed, such as the dandruff shampoos? Seek the seeds of the custard apple. Only take some, grind in powdered shape and blend into a paste with a little water. Apply on the head and give 10 minutes to rest.

Wash with sparkling, clear water. This process will yield great results twice a week for a month and leave your head entirely safe.

2. Works as a pesticide

The same blend can also be used for your home garden as a pesticide. Regularly spray a few of the riddled plants for 10 to 15 days, to avoid leaf-eating insects.

3. Use in pharmaceuticals

Its seeds are commonly used by drug makers because of their emergency contraceptive properties that have been scientifically confirmed. It’s used to manufacture drugs to cause abortion.

4. Use in Biogas

Countries like Germany and several other European countries use these few wonders to generate biogas for commercial purposes. The grains of this fruit contains methyl-ester-rich trapped fatty acids that cause gas production.

5. Commercial pesticides farming

The custard apple seeds are also combined with neem seeds to create a new powerful bacterial pesticide used in industrial agriculture. The pesticide produced from such seeds is natural and ecologically harmless. The use of custard apple seed pesticide is perfect for human health.

We have not mentioned these benefits for the sake of mentioning. Instead, we have tried to broaden your idea about the business opportunities you can develop out of these benefits. You can transform any of the benefits into a profit-making business when it comes to custard apple cultivation.


The custard fruit is excellent, but the seeds are very poisonous, and unintentional ingestion can lead to abortion, as it is slightly hazardous. The insecticides developed from the grains should be kept from the eyes because they are capable of even temporarily blinding a person. So although you enjoy a dish packed with this healthful fruit, first take care to take off all the seeds.



Pumpkin Farming: how to plant, grow, and harvest pumpkins correctly and properly

There is no fall without pumpkins. Be it big, mini, orange, white, carved, and most importantly pie or any other kind, almost all love pumpkins. Pumpkin farming is done mostly over a large patch of land, for better quality and size. Pumpkins are used in cooking as well as in carving during Halloween for decorations. Several pumpkin farms sell well in other seasons. Farming is easy to maintain if you have sufficient space. These crops will flourish just about anywhere with the right care.

Steps to Follow for the Best Fruit

Pre planting preparation

Pre-planning is important even if you are growing pumpkins as they are very tender. Pumpkin plants grow as a vine, which can easily reach 20 to 30 feet long in the course of its growing season. 

Also Read: Sweet Potato Farming Information Guide

Pre-plan the time to plant seeds:

Pumpkins do require a long growing season. Generally, it takes 75 to 100 frost-free days to grow. So, it is advised to carry pumpkin cultivation by late May in Northern locations and by early July in the extreme Southern places. Plant the seeds after the frost has passed. If you are planning for a fall harvest, then plant them in late spring or early summer. Again, if pumpkins are planted too early, they may soften and rot.

Selecting a site to plant seeds:

Pumpkins prefer full sun. Pick a site with full sunlight to light shade. A spot under a tree or in the shadow of a building would not serve your purpose. Pumpkins grow annually on heavy grown vines. The site should also have lots of space for sprawling vines. An open space of 25 to 30 feet will serve your purpose of pumpkin cultivation. A Pumpkin farm does not take the whole yard. Besides, it should also have a good drainage system. The site should not have standing water after heavy rains as well as a shelter from cold wind.

Preparing the soil to plant seeds:

Pumpkin seeds do not germinate if your soil is cold. Beware; the seedlings are destroyed by frost. They prefer very rich soil, which is not too soggy. Checking the soil temperature is also very important. The soil temperature should be at least 70 degrees Fahrenheit as pumpkin is a tender crop. You need to wait until the soil is warmed, naturally. Otherwise, pumpkins will start to rot. An extra boost for your pumpkin farming is to prepare your soil beforehand. Digging holes to plant the pumpkin seeds and filling them with a mixture of compost one week before planting seeds is advisable. 

Choosing the seeds:

You can choose your yield from three different varieties of pumpkins. Here are three varieties of pumpkins for you to grow in your backyard: pie-pumpkins for cooking. Large decorative pumpkins to carve out for Halloween.Mini pumpkins for decorating purposes again.

Planting the seeds

Pumpkins grow well when the seeds are planted in the ground directly.

Plant the seeds in wide-spaced rows:

Plant the pumpkin seeds in rows. They will creep along with the vines. Depending on the variety of your pumpkin seeds space the rows 6 to 10 feet apart. Mini pumpkins will take small space to grow while the larger ones need more space. The Bush-type variety of pumpkins needs 8feet space in all directions to grow fully. They grow on shorter vines.

The perfect depth to plant the seeds:

The most important step towards pumpkin cultivation is to build the pumpkin-hills. The pumpkin-hill is a small hill built on the ground. Accumulate the soil where you want to plant the seed then give it a shape of a hill using your palms. The hill keeps the soil warmer by allowing the sun to heat it faster. It improves the cultivation by providing natural drainage. Plant the seeds 1-2 inches deep in the hills. You can plant 2 or 3 seeds within a few inches from one another.

Covering the seeds:

After you have properly planted, your seeds now cover them up with compost. The compost mixture prevents the growth of weeds and nourishes the seeds planted. A thin layer of compost mixture in the areas where you have planted your seeds is enough to nurture your seeds properly.

Taking care of the plants

Taking the right care of your seeds will do the magic for your pumpkin farming. With proper care, the plants will sprout within about a week.

  • Watering:

Every plant needs watering, and pumpkin is no different. When the soil temperature is low, it is the right time to water the pumpkin plants. Pumpkins are very sensitive to moisture. Over moisture will injure the plants. Adding more water to wet soil will do no good for farming. Rather adding less water to dry soil is ideal. Let the water soak deep into the soil before adding further water. As the roots grow deep into the soil, the water must reach the plants deeply.

In pumpkin cultivation, you need to water deep down at least 6 inches to moisten the soil. Water only the stem of the plant. Avoid watering the leaves. Wet leaves are the ideal place for fungus to grow. Powdery mildew is one of them. It causes the plant to die by bewildering the leaves of the plants. Watering in the sun is more preferable than in the night. Use a garden hose equipped with a mist ling nozzle for watering the plant. Decrease the amount of water as the pumpkins grow and turn orange in color.

  • Pollinating the blossoms:

The first thing that comes to anyone’s mind is how do pumpkins grow. Pumpkins depend on bees to pollinate their blossoms. If you do not see active bees in your gardens, self-pollinate using your hands. You must get your female flowers fertilized to get the pumpkins.

Must Read: Growing the Avocado – The Healthiest food

The female flowers show up later with a swollen base below the petals, which helps you to identify them. Male flowers show up first. They are thin and straight flowers. Self-pollination includes transferring pollen from the male flower to the female flower. An artist’s brush will help you in this process.

Wear gloves on your hands. Brush the male flower with the artist’s brush to collect the pollen from it. Going to the female flowers, brush only the center of the female flower to allow the pollen to settle on them. Be gentle with the blossoms as they are very delicate. In the mornings, the female flowers remain open for half a day.

After that, they shut themselves up and do not open until the next morning. If you accurately do the self-pollination then you will surely get the best results out of them. Too many fertilizers will reduce the rate of pollination. It will negatively influence your fruit set.

  • Fertilizing:

Adding fertilizers to your pumpkin farm encourages the growth of the plants. When the plants first sprout add the fertilizer to keep them healthy. Go to a local nursery and choose the fertilizer accordingly from them. Side dressing is also important. It means spreading the fertilizer around the plants close enough for their roots to eat-up.it is ideal to side-dress the vines once a week after the blossoms start appearing.

  • Controlling weeds and pests:

To make most out of your pumpkin cultivation, make sure you control the weeds and pests growing around them. Monitor your pumpkin farm throughout its growing process to have control over them. Weed the patch often to prevent the growth of them around your pumpkin plants.

Planning a weed a few times a week is good for your farming. Conserving your soil moisture by cleaning the weeds is also important. Beetles grow on the plant leaves and eat the plant tissues. Check the leaves to remove them. Scrape them off the whole plants twice a week to save the plants. Aphids threaten garden plants a lot.

They mostly grow on the underside of the leaves of the plant. Taking care of a pumpkin farm is highly recommended, otherwise, they will kill your plants. Spraying water on them will do the work. But, spray the water in the morning so the leaves get enough time to dry under the sun.

Squash bugs are another variety of pests that grow especially later in summer. Poor light will enhance the growth of pests. Go to your local nursery and ask about organic pesticides if necessary. 

Harvesting the pumpkins

pumpkin harvest time
Check the pumpkins:

Pumpkins typically take 95 to 120 days to fully mature after they are planted. Check to see whether they are ready to harvest or not. They should have a bright orange color. Their shell should be hard. Do not harvest the pumpkins if they are still soft. Allow them to become hard before cutting them from their plants. Their stems will remain soft. But, the vine will start drying out itself. They will also start to wither on their own.

Cut the stems:

Do not break the stems; it will destroy your pumpkins. Cut the pumpkins from the stems with the help of a pair of shears to keep them intact. While you cut the stem make sure to leave the stem a few inches long. A liberal amount of stem (3 to 4 inches) will increase the life of the pumpkins never after cutting.

Store the pumpkins:

After cutting the pumpkins from the plants keep them in a cool and dry place. Wet and moisture places can make them rot. Keeping them away from humidity, damp, and direct sunlight is advisable. They do not need any kind of refrigeration also. Pumpkins can be kept for many months after harvesting. To avoid molds and fungi, a little spray of mild chlorine before storage does the work perfectly. Maintain a storage temperature of around 55 degrees Fahrenheit. 


Just remember to water well and often. Watch the plants often for pests. Clean the ground and make it weed-free. Fertilize regularly. Last but not least is to watch the fruit grow bigger and bigger! Handle the pumpkins gently or they may bruise. Follow the above-given steps to make the most out of your cultivation.

Kiwi Farming, Planting, Growing & Harvesting

Kiwi farming is predominantly carried out in the USA, Japan, Italy, China, Chile, France, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand.  Kiwi is also known as Chinese gooseberry is an edible berry that has high medicinal and nutritional value. Kiwi is a deciduous vine fruit which is oval in shape and it is about the size of a Chicken’s egg.

The fruit grows on a vine that is as high as 30 feet tall and is woody. The fruit has fibrous, thin, tart, and fuzzy edible skin. The fruit is similar to grapes as it is also grown in clusters. Kiwi has light green or golden colour flesh inside and has tiny black edible seeds. Kiwi is soft-textured and has a unique flavour.

Kiwi is rich in Vitamin C and vitamin B and other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Kiwi can be consumed fresh or can be mixed with other fruits in desserts and salads. The kiwi fruit is also used in the preparation of wines and squash. In India, Kiwi farming is done in Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Jammu & Kashmir.

Health Benefits

Kiwi fruits are excellent antioxidants and anti-aging agent. Thus it aids in the improvement of the skin. The respiratory and cardiovascular system also benefits from the consumption of the fruit. The presence of serotonin is beneficial to treat sleep issues. Furthermore, the kiwi fruit also has antifungal and antibacterial properties.

Types of Kiwi Fruit

Hayward is a New Zealand variety that is grown globally. However, kiwi fruit is majorly available in three varieties: Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiaarguta), Super-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiakolomikta), and Grocery store kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosa).

Hardy kiwifruit is also known as ‘bowerberry’ and it grows on the trees that are as tall as 100 feet in Siberia, Korea, Japan, and China. This variety of kiwi fruit can tolerate low temperatures.

Super-hardy kiwi fruit is smaller but smooth-skinned. It can grow in temperature as low as -40°F. The fruit is also known as ‘arctic beauty kiwi fruit’.

Grocery store kiwi fruit is also known as fuzzy kiwifruit. This variety of kiwi is large in size and is the most common and edible variety.

The other types of kiwi fruit known are Tewi, Bruno, Monty, Tomuri, Elmwood, Saanicheton, Abbott, Chico, Gracie, Dexter, Matua, Allison, and Vincent.

Where do Kiwis Grow?

It is essential to cultivate a crop in a correct season and with ideal soil requirements. Kiwi fruit can be grown in well-drained, fertile, and moist soil. The presence of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus is essential during the vegetative stage of the fruit.

The best pH range of the soil should be from 6.3-7.3 to get maximum yield from the crop. The ideal kiwi fruit farming weather is low temperatures. However, kiwi needs protection from moisture throughout the year. The fruit should also be shielded against frosts. The ideal temperature for growing kiwis is below 38°C. A temperature higher than 38°C can cause sunburn to the crop.

Kiwi fruits can be grown where almonds, citrus, and peaches are abundant. However, the leaves are more susceptible to cold in comparison to the peach or orange trees. The young plant of kiwi fruit can be harmed if the temperature falls below -1°C while the vines that are mature can handle the temperature lower than -12°C. It is essential to protect the young flowering shoots from wind as it can damage the crop easily.

How to Grow Kiwi from Seed?

To grow kiwi from the seeds or planting a kiwi from seed is not a hard job. The first step is to collect the seeds of the kiwi fruit from the available ripe fruit. The gooey membrane needs to be separated from the seeds and thus seeds have to be placed in water and then blended. With the help of the colander, wash the seeds in the sink. The cleaned seeds can then be transferred to the paper towel.

A plastic ziplock is used to store the paper towel containing the seeds. The ziplock is later placed into warm container. The sprouting process takes around 2-6 weeks. Once the seeds start the sprouting or germinating, the paper towel is split into small pieces. The seedlings are then transplanted into the pit made on the small pot for 2-3 months. Keep the kiwi vines in adequate sunlight as the plant requires light.

Also Read: Strawberry Farming – A business that promises a “delicious” future

Steps of Kiwi Fruit Germination

  1. Separate seeds out of a ripe and organic kiwi and then clean them by water rinsing. The easy way is to place the seeds in the cup, add water and then swish them. Later on, remove the water out of the cup. This process has to be repeated multiple times for proper cleaning.
  2. The small container or cup is then filled with lukewarm water and the kiwi seeds are transferred to it. The cup or container hasto be placed in the warm environment such on the warm window sill, in front of heater, or on the top of the computer. The seeds are to be kept in water for about a week or until they start separating. The water present in the cup has to be changed daily to inhibit the bacterial growth.
  3. As soon as the seeds begin to open, they are ready to get transferred to mini greenhouse. The paper towel is soaked in lukewarm water and placed on the plate on which the seeds are distributed. The distributed germinating seeds are then covered with plastic container and placed in the area getting sufficient sunlight. It is recommended to make small holes in the container to allow the air to flow smoothly. This is the ideal condition for the seed to germinate faster. The kiwi seeds would be ready for planting only after 2 days in the greenhouse.
  4. Once the seeds are germinated properly, it is the right time for the planting process. But before planting it is mandatory to prepare the container or pot. The soil in the pot should contain sufficient moisture and this should be done by transferring the soil in a bucket and then mixing water to the soil until it is damp in nature.
  5. The container should be completely filled with the moist soil. An inch of space should be left below the rim of the pot.
  6. Now the seeds are ready to be planted. The pots are then sprinkled with the seeds keeping few inches distance from each other. It is advisable to plant each seed in a separate tiny pot to make the transplanting process easy and smooth. Once the seeds are in the pot, spread a thin layer of soil over them. The seeds should be planted at a depth of around two times their length.
  7. Once planting is done, water the seeds using can or squirt bottle. Transfer the pot in a warm and sunny area to get sufficient light. Take care of the seeds by watering and feeding them regularly.

Nutritional requirements and Fertilizers for Kiwi Plant

A dose of fertilizer consisting of 0.5 kg NPK mixture with 15% N and 20 kg farmyard manure is suggested every year for the plant.  High amount of chlorine is also required by the plant as its deficiency can negatively influence the development of roots and shoots of the plant.

Contrary, high level of sodium and boron can be very harmful to the plant. The two equal doses of nitrogen are applied. The young vines get the necessary nutrients of the fertilizer from the soil as the fertilizer is mixed to the soil. The entire soil surface is provided with fertilizer once the plant attains maturity.

Propagation in Kiwi Farming

On the commercial level, the crop is propagated by planting vegetative cuttings or via grafting technique.

Spacing in Kiwi Farming

Planting the crop at a sufficient distance is essential to get maximum yield out of the crop. The distance varies depending on the propagation method used. For the commercial plantation of kiwi, Pergola Training system or T-bar training system are used. In the Pergola system, the row to row distance is about 6m and the plant-to-plant distance is 5-6m. In case of T-bar training system, row-to-row spacing is 3.5m whereas plant-to-plant distance is approximately 6m.

To increase the pollination rate, male plants should also be planted in the garden and the ratio should be 1 male to 6-8 female plants. Insects are also a useful vehicle for pollination of the crop as this fruit plant aren’t self-pollinating plants.

Intercropping in Kiwi Crop

The initial kiwi farming can get the benefits if vegetables and leguminous crops are planted together with the kiwi crop.

Diseases and Pests in Kiwi Plants

Rots in the roots of the plant can be caused by Phytophthora soil fungi and majorly in the soil containing water. The humid conditions results in the development of Botrytis cinera rot that causes infestation in young fruit.

Irrigation in Kiwi Fruit Farming

Watering the plant at regular intervals is essential for the setting of crop as well as fruit. The complete growth cycle of the crop requires adequate amount of water. The hardy kiwi crop gets ready for harvesting in 3-4 years. Thus, this crop is in need of water for at least 3 yearsin the field.

However, it is essential not to over water the crop. Once the crop gets the necessary water content, it spreads its foliage to the surface of the soil resulting in the mulch formation. The process of mulching lowers the water requirement of the plant by reducing the evaporation rate. Mulching also aids in controlling the weeds.

A kiwi crop needs a regular water supply mainly during the drought and hot conditions. The commercial farming of kiwi requires irrigation in around 10-14 days’ interval is preferred for best yield. Providing the water as per the need of the plant is one of the best ways to get the maximum production. 

Harvesting and Yielding of Kiwi Fruit

The plant starts producing fruit after 4-5 years. The initial yield is small but it increases gradually as the plant attains maturity. The ripening season of kiwi fruit is September and October. If there is presence of frost, the plant needs to be harvested before the fruit ripens. The ripening process can be done in refrigeration. Once the skin of the kiwi fruit starts to turn brown in colour, it can be snapped from the stalk. The other method to check whether fruit is ready for harvesting is to observe black seeds in the sample kiwi fruit.

Due to the difference in temperature, the fruit matures later at high altitudes and early at lower altitudes. After the harvesting is done, the stiff hairs present on the surface of the fruit are removed by rubbing the fruit against coarse cloth.  The fruits that are hard are sent to the market and within two weeks they become edible.

The yield of the crop relies on various attributes such as method of irrigation, soil type, tree age, variety, and climatic conditions. On an average, approximately 100 kgs of fruit can be collected per harvesting season.

Storage of Kiwi Fruit

The harvested fruits can be stored in the cool place for approximately two months. This storage doesn’t require refrigeration.