How to start Emu Farming (Complete Business Guide)

Emu farming in USA is a very popular and productive business model. Emus are among the large-sized poultry birds having connections from the ratite group and play a very important role in economies around the world. They produce productive meat, eggs, oil, feathers, as well as skin. And the best part is, they adopt in almost all types of climates and agricultural conditions.

Farmers can raise these large-sized birds in both semi-intensive as well as extensive systems. Countries like the USA, Australia, and China are the leaders in emu farming.

And the climate in countries like India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh, etc. is also very favourable for emu farming. If you are planning for a profitable emu farming business, you are going in the right direction.

Starting an emu farming business in the US is very easy, and you can start it anytime, especially if you own some land. But before starting, you need to know the right emu farming information. Factors like housing, breeding, caring, feeding, disease management, and atmosphere can make a lot of difference in a successful, profitable, and wayward, fruitless farming.

Also Read: Quail Farming – A profitable business for farmers having small lands

Some interesting facts about emus

  • Emu comes from the species “DromaiusNovaehollandiae.”
  • They belong to the group of ratite families with other birds like Kiwi and Ostrich etc.
  • Birds from ratite are known for “not flying.”
  • These birds can adapt to almost all kinds of weather and conditions, from excessive cold to extreme heat. And hence, emu farming in the US is not a challenge from a weather point of view.
  • They survive for as many as 30 years.
  • These birds are known for their friendly nature and be raised easily on the dry open farm and grassy plains.
  • An adult eum’s average weight is 45 to 60 kgs, while the average height is 5 to 6 feet.
  • Female emus can reproduce for at least 25 years.

Advantages of Emu Farming

There are various advantages associated with emu farming. Some of the main highlights of commercial emu farming are:

  • Emu meat is always in demand because of its amazing taste and nutrition. It is high in energy and protein, and low in cholesterol and fat.
  • Almost all products, including emu eggs, meat, oil, and skin, are of great value in different industries.
  • Emus don’t require a lot of food. They can easily survive in different types of affordable foods. And can give you a lot in return.
  • It is very easy to raise them even with other poultry birds and pet animals.
  • Diseases are less common in emus, and they survive healthily in almost all types of climates and conditions.
  • Emu farming is full of profits and can be an excellent source of income and employment.
  • You don’t need vast management and technical knowledge to raise emus. Only basic knowledge about how to start emu farming is enough.

How to start farming with high chances of productivity

If you own spacious land with enough nature in the surroundings, setting up an emu business won’t take many efforts. Here is a step-by-step guide on everything you need to know about emu farming – yes, A to Z of emu farming!

Location for farming

Selecting a suitable location/land is important to start emu farming correctly. And if you have your own plot of land, then you are in a win-win situation. It would help if you can keep a few important factors in mind while selecting a location for emu farming. And one of them is to ensure proper availability of clean and fresh water, cheap labor, good sources of food and nutrition, proper transportation chain, medical system, and a market near the location.

Manging emu chicks

If you want to get decent emu farming profit, managing emu chicks becomes very important. The average weight of a newly born chick is around 370 to 450 grams i.e., about 67% of the total weight of emu egg. But the exact chick weight also depends on the size of the emu egg.

Manging emu chicks

Keeping the chick inside an incubator for 2 to 3 days is important. It will ensure proper absorption of egg yolk as well as drying of the chick. Then, place them in a house with a deep litter floor. You can easily prepare litter with paddy husk. Setting up a brooder for a batch of around 25 to 40 chicks. Each chick requires 4 square feet of space in the first three weeks of its life.

Set the brooding temperature at 900F for the first ten days, reduce it to 850F, and don’t change the temperature until they are 3-4 weeks old. If you want to raise them properly, taking care of temperature is massively important.

Place enough number of feeders and water pots inside the brooder. Build a chick guard of at least 2.5 feet to ensure the chicks don’t jump and stray outside the brooder. Hang a bulb inside the brooder, and keep it on all the time. A 100 square feet area needs a 40-watt bulb for proper lighting and temperature.

Once the chicks are of 3 weeks, increase the brooder area as well as the height of the chick guard. Keep them feeding with chick starter mash for 12 to 14 weeks or until their body weight touches the 10-kg mark.

Emu chicks need a lot of playing and running space for proper and healthy growth. So, provide them with as much floor space as possible. You can easily raise around 40 chicks in a floor space measuring 30×40 square foot. Space should be drained easily and is free from any dampness.

Grower management

This is the most important part of emu farming information. Unlike most of the poultry birds, emus are big. And naturally, they need large flooring space, large feeders, and big-sized water pots. Keeping male and female emus together is not a good idea, so keep them separately after identifying their sexes. Feed them with birds’ grower mash and 10% of green for 34 weeks of age or weight 25 kg. Never raise chicks with grown adult emus to ensure maximum safety.

Breeder management
  • Usually, emu birds attain maturity at 18th to 24th month of age.
  • Ensure male and female ratio as 1:1 for proper breeding.
  • Each pair requires 2500 square feet area for comfortable mating.
  • You can grow multiple shrubs and trees to induce mating with complete privacy.
  • Plan your breeding campaign properly, and increase the number of minerals and vitamins in their food to better breed. This will ensure healthy fertility.
  • An adult emu needs one kg of food per day, but the requirement reduces dramatically during mating.
  • You will get about 15 emu eggs in the first year. And unlike most of the other poultry birds, the number of eggs increases with every passing year.
  • A female emu usually lays its first egg at the age of one and a half years.
  • The average weight of a healthy egg is 470 grams to 650 grams. Eggs are slightly greenish and are fairly tough in appearance.
  • Usually, a healthy egg takes as many as 52 days of incubation to produce a healthy chick!
  • To ensure proper hatching of eggs, you must have to maintain proper temperature as well as moisture.
  • Proper care and management are very critical for producing healthy chicks. So, you will have to be extra careful throughout the breeding process.

Feeding emus

A balanced diet and nutrition are very important for emu birds, like all other poultry birds. Fresh, high-quality foods play a very important role in keeping them healthy and disease-free. So, for profitable emu farming in the USA, never compromise with the quality of food you provide to the emus. And don’t forget to give a sufficient amount of fresh and clean water at regular intervals!

  • Care and management

Emus are among the strongest birds, and they have a very long life. Issues related to health and mortality rate are also not common. Juveniles and chicks often suffer from a few health problems like clostridial infections, coli infections, leg abnormalities, malnutrition, intestinal obstruction, and starvation, etc.

Genetic disorders, improper brooding, caring, handling, and poor diet and nutrition, etc. are responsible for these diseases. Conditions like ascarid infestations, candidiasis, lice, salmonella infection, coccidiosis, aspergilla, etc. are less common but are noticed in emus.

Vaccinating them on time is a great idea to protect them from possible diseases. Veterinary experts recommend vaccines like Lasota, Lasota booster, and mukteswar strain for good immunity.

Marketing emus and their products

You can earn a lot of emu farming profit as you can sell almost everything! Start selling emu products when they attain the marketing age. Along with emu eggs, meat, skin, feather, and oil are in great demand. You can even sell them as day-old chicks or gown birds! Selling a chick for $50 to $60 won’t be a huge challenge. And you can sell growing emu at $300 to $400. First, explore your local market so that you don’t need to be worried about transport expenses. On a larger scale, you have the whole international market in front of you!

Emu farming is definitely an astoundingly profitable business. The USA’s weather is also not a big challenge, as they can grow in almost every condition. So, follow this detailed emu farming information, visit a few emu farms around your city/town, and start your own business today!

Reference Link:

How To Plant Sugarcane – A Complete Beginner’s Guide

Sugarcane is a high perpetual crop from South East Asia in parts of the South Pacific region. It grows in warm temperate or tropical climates. The plant stalk’s internodes are rich in sugar, and the plants can grow around two to six meters above sea level.

A complex hybrid between several species and subspecies is found in any crop of commercially grown sugar cane. Sugarcane is one of the greenest cultivations because it requires minimum nitrogen and pesticides. So, let’s see what are the things to consider before planting sugarcane.


Although sugarcane can be grown in temperate climates, production in tropical climates is much higher. Short, sunny and hot (1100 to 1500 mm over the whole) and warm, colder (12 ° C to 14 ° C, 54 ° F to 57 ° F) harvest season, is suitable in combination with a medium to high rain docks (32 ° C to 38 ° C, 90 ° F to 100 ° F). The sugar produced during the dry weight of harvest varies greatly, and during the various phases of plant growth depends on the environment.

Soil Type

Sugarcane is cultivated in a range of habitats, such as red volcanic soils and alluvial river soils. The perfect ground is a combination of organic material sand, silt, and clay particles. The fields are plowed and left for a while before subsoiling is carried out. The plant needs well-drained soil, and drainages are made concerning the topographic conditions of the fields on the surface, endured, or both.

Also Read: How to Mushroom Farming

Sugarcane can thrive in the soil of different kinds: acid and alkaline soils, sandy, loamy, and rocky soils. A pH of approximately 6.5 well-drained loam is perfectly suitable, but mechanical considerations, such as compaction, are far more critical than soil composition and pH for cultivation.

Land Preparation For Sugarcane Farming

Deep tillage is required for the sugarcane. Deep tillage consists of molding board plastic, and farmers with no tractor use wood-based Sarkar tin. The sugar cane consists of two types of sowing. Cannes are planted in the moist field because the plant needs water. The width from the row is 3-5 ft.


The conventional method of preparing tillage is to plug the soil and tilt it. Sprinkle with the tractor driven disks or triumph plow 2 to 4 times at a depth of 50-60 cm.


In the sugar cane field, the secondary tillage has used those pullovers, smooth, and compacts the soil to retain humidity. Harrowing is carried out at a small depth of 12-15 cm to crush disks or rotators the clods

Know-How To Plant Sugarcane

Sugarcane is planted by replanting the mature stem of the cane. Farmers then cut some of the fully grown cane stalks to 40 centimeters in size. Special agro machinery plants sugarcane stalks that drop them into furrows and apply nitrogen to cover them in the dirt.

Poor sugar cane production results in reduced yields and a downward spiral of productivity. Efficient sugarcane production would increase productivity and levels of profit for a whole plant cycle over 5 to 7 years, as sugar cane is a multi-year crop.

Think About Mechanized Way

The average failure rate is 20–25 percent for mechanized sugarcane plantation. Considering that the grower can fix 50% of sugar cane seed failure via a secondary replant, up to 10-12% of the yield for all subsequent growing seasons can be predicted.

Culture Planting

Cuttings primarily propagate culture Sugarcane. The parts of the unmatured cane stalk, which were used to grow, are called cane seed or cane sets and have three or more buds (eyes). Seed cane in well-worked fields is cultivated. It is commonly used to open furrow artificial trees, fertilize the cane, lower this, and cover it with dirt.


Growing of Sugarcane requires 2,000 to 2,300 mm of water in the growing period to achieve good yields. If there is a lack of moisture, irrigation will account for the deficit by either watering or spreading water in furrows. In Texas, the USA, 8-9 months, 15 months, Japan, China, and 18–22 months, in Hawaii, South Africa, and Perú vary widely in the field. Thus, depending on the environment, growing sugarcane can take from 9 to 24 months for harvest.

One main crop is planted, followed by 3-4’ ratoon,’ or re-growth harvests. In areas with annual precipitation below 1500 millimeters, irrigation of the plant is essential. The lowest temperature is about 20 ° C (68 ° F) for good cane plant growth.

Continuous cooling weather, as well as water retention, leads to cane maturation. In a warm, relatively fresh season of the year, harvest and browning continue and last five to six months.

Using Fertilizers To Grow Sugarcane

From the start of planting, but not during the ripening phase, the fertilizer will be applied for sugar cane. Optimum fertilizer levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are very different from soil types and the environment and the form and length of the growth cycle.

Weeds in cane fields must be destroyed to secure a good crop until the cane stuffing establishes a healthy canopy to control the growth of plants. While mechanical cinnamon weeders with rakes have been built, still mostly manual, are made with a hoe. There is extensive use of chemical herbicides.


Matured for nearly three months, the stalk is dried out, and the sugar synthesis and its preparation accelerates. Natural sugars such as fructose during maturation are converted to sucrose. The application of foliar chemicals to increase the sugar cane yield was proved useful.

Polaris and Ethrelare commonly used in numerous chemistry tests. Spray Chemical Balsario in 1000 liters of water at 4.5 kg per hectare. Sugarcane ripens 6-8 weeks earlier with the spray of this compound. Chemical mûrers such as Polaris and Sodium Metasilicate, which are sprayed 6-8 weeks more first, boost sucrose milk.

Save From Diseases

There are many diseases in the sugarcane crop. Sarah is caused by an East Indian virus and is blackening and degeneration of the fanlike tops. Infection by any one of many illnesses is due to the mosaic that causes foliage mottling or spotting and sometimes curling, dwarfing, and narrowing of the leaves.

Red rot (essential in Indonesia and South Asia) has disrupted patches of red and white inside the cane, with a foul alcoholic odor when opening the rod. Caused by the Colletotrichumfalcatum fungus, red rot attracts attention by yellowing and withering of the skin and finally dies of the whole plant.

Gummy disease (important in New South Wales, Australia) is characterized by gummy development, which is induced by cell degeneration, defective gum production and by

Xanthomonas vascular bacterial. Fiji disease, an infectious disease that first occurs on Fiji Islands, has elongated white to brown swellings, followed by stunting and decay on the bottom of the stems.

Ripening In A Nutshell

Incidence of sunshine, temperature, and rainfall in sugarcane ripening (Saccharum spp.) was investigated by picking five interspecific subtropical hybrids. Ripening has been linked to sunshine and temperature events, but not precipitation.

Partial observations confirmed the freedom of sunlight ripening; however, it revealed that temperature ripening interactions had been falsified. The interacting influence of sunlight and temperature on maturation differed with the cultivar was also partly related. In the correlations between maturation and sample time, there was a significant difference between varieties.


Sugarcane harvesting is one of the most important and exciting parts of the whole cultivation process. As this is the time to see the results of your great work and dedication. To raising the full stalks and cut them into smaller segments, a cane harvester is used (approximately 30 cm). A cane transport that gathers the billets is used to track the reaper. Whether manually and mechanically, the mature cane is harvested. Any mechanical types of equipment can hack off or cut the tops of erect plants, which are transported by a tractor or light railcar into a bin trailer to the factory.

Sugarcane Farming In USA

Sugar has been a family business since its earliest days for most of the U.S. families. Today’s sugar family includes not only multigenerational farmers. The farmers who grow, harvest and care for sugar beets and or sugar cane, but also those truck drivers who transport the crops from the fields; the employees who work in factories, or processing plants and refineries.

As they collect, purify and store sugar; and all the people who work to get sugar from the packaging facilities to your table. And the best part is that Sugarcane Farming in the USA is seeing a hike. U.S. sugar industry grows sugar cane, and beets run sugar refineries and manufacture and sell refined sugars, sugar-sweetened foods, and other products.

Historically, sugar production has been significant in slavery development in Louisiana and Hawaii’s U.S. annexation. The Sugar Association is the U.S. sugar industry trade association.

Areas Where Sugarcane Farming Happens in the USA

Through the 2010s, sugar cane was produced commercially in Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Texas, and Puerto Rico. Florida sugar cane production has increased significantly since the United States stopped importing sugar from Cuba in 1960. Florida is America’s largest cane-producing region.

The majority of sugar cane is grown in organic soil along Lake Okeechobee, Southern Florida, which is situated on the southern and south-east coast of Lake Okeechobee. Sugarcane production was primarily limited to the Mississippi River Delta, which is the Northernmost cane-producing state of Louisiana, with fertile soils and warmer climates.

Must Read: How Much Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

The Louisianan sugar industry has grown into non-traditional sugarcane-growing areas to the north and west. The bulk of sugarcane expansion happened when the return on rival plants, including rice and soya, has declined. Louisiana has also grown with investment in new mixed harvests as the launch of high-yield sugar cane varieties has been implemented.

A Bit About Sugar Beet

The other primary sugar source in the United States is sugar beets. This is a versatile crop cultivated and planted annually in a wide range of temperate climates. Sugar beets can be processed for a short time but must be handled before sugar degradation. Genetically-modified crop varieties have recently been introduced. GMO plants accounted for approximately 95% of crops in the 2009/10 harvest year, up from about 60% in 2008/2009.

To Sum Up

Therefore, there is no denying the fact that the Sugarcane industry is at its peak. With the continuous rise in demand for sugar and related products, this industry may even see a boom. However, a proper sugarcane planting to harvest is required to achieve the desired results. Or the results to be proud of. For that, some traditions, along with a significant part of modern cultivation techniques, should be used.

How To Plant Spinach? Here Is Everything You Need To Know

All right, you want to know more about “How to plant Spinach?”

As both cold weather and long days cause spinach to grow easily, the trick to progress with such a plant is to start planting seeds as early as possible in spring; make low, regular plantings in delayed spring and summer; and focus on fall as the main crop season.

The key to success with this crop has been to start sowing grains in spring as soon as possible and to make small regular plantings in late spring and summer and focus on falling as a season for the main crop. Because hot and long days lead to fast spinach to bolt.

Spinach rose in the seventh century in China and spread to the Middle East and Europe. If you talk about salads, fresh spinach leaves are perfect and older spinach leaves are used in sandwiches or soups, along with stir-fry.

Also Read: Easy to grow the Fresh and Pure Cucumbers

Spinach, a super-green leafy plant, is a common plant that can be planted in certain places in spring, autumn, and winter.

Spinach has standard growth requirements and criteria, and is more flexible in raw or fried feeding and drinking. This is richer in magnesium, calcium, and vitamins than other greens and one of vitamin A, B, and C’s best sources.

Unlike other fresh seasonal vegetables, spinach is a “spring ephemeral,” beginning as a low rosette. Spinach thrives at cold temperatures; however, “bolts” or sends a stalk as summer temperatures increase.

There is a fleeting opportunity everywhere it grows as spring advances into summer, where spinach flourishes and spinach becomes effortless.

Long-regions, fortunate farmers have a second chance at dropping spinach.

Spinach Spring may be planted as long as the fertilizer functions correctly. Spinach will seed as soon as possible for six weeks of cold weather from seed to harvest.

For optimal germination, the soil should not reach 70oF (21 ° C).

• Every two weeks, there will be successive spring plantations.

• In northern climates, gardeners harvest spinach in early spring while they are planted in autumn just before cold weather. Cover young plants in winter, use a cold frame or dense mulch, and eliminate protection when soil temperatures reach 40 ° F in your region (5 ° F).

• You may also plant in fall if you live in a place with mild winters (for summer harvest, consider New Zealand Spinach or Malabar Spinach, two related heat-leafy greens). Wait until the planting area is cold enough.

Choose any place with full sun (or partial sun) and well-soil.

Start to prepare the growing field with aged manure around a week before planting. Or you might be prepared to sow seeds outside early spring when the soil thaws.

How To Plant Spinach And Garden Preparation

How to plant Spinach

We are still answering your question “How To Plant Spinach?”  Meantime, let’s also take into consideration another related question with our topic and that is “How to Grow Spinach Plants?”

Spinach grows well in every fast-garden loam. It thrives in fertile soil as long as it is not too acidic. Incorporate 3″(8 cm) compost into bed during planting.

Put 2 pounds (2 kg) of alfalfa meal in the field (per 100 square feet—9 square meters) for spring and summer season planting privileges. Mix fishmeal with 1 lb (1/2 kg) or some other cool-nitrogen from livestock for autumn and winter crops.

Spinach thrives in a more significant alkaline soil than other plants (pH 6.5-). Use finely broken shells of eggs, ground lobster covers, or woods ash when it is acidic. For most garden soils, 1-lbs (1/2-kg) per 100 square meters is enough.

See Adjusting soil pH for other ways to increase soil ph. Spinach Planting

• While seed that starts at home, seedlings are not recommended because they are difficult to transplant.

• Seeds will be 1⁄2-inch thick, slightly soil-. Sow about 12 grains, or scatter over long lines or fields.

Feed wellspring seedlings.

Until now, you might have got the answer to your question of “How To Plant Spinach?” coming up next is the steps to keep the proper spacing between Spinach plants.

Spinach Plant Spacing And Growing

1. Because of slow growth, fertilize only if needed, or use as a replacement if your soil pH is insufficient.

2. When seedlings grow to around 2 “thin to 3-” apart.

3. No planting beyond thinning. Roots are fragile, easily destroyed.

4. Mulching soil hot

5. Regular water

Spinach can withstand rain, can withstand frost and time to 15 ° F(-9 ° C).  Spinach happens to be more tender, so cover if it expects cold weather.

Spinach Plant Spacing

This step is more an answer to your question “How to plant Spinach?” So let’s begin.

·        Sow medium, or small, 1⁄2 “(1.3 cm) of deep seeds per 6” (15 cm) along the way or sow more seeds. Fill 1⁄2 “(1.3 cm) fine mulch

·        Sow in 3-4 “(7-10 cm) 3⁄4” (2 cm) baby spinach centers, 40-50 seeds per foot—harvesting 3-5 weeks


In the next step of this guide on “How to plant Spinach?” we’ll explain to you all the things. Promise, nothing will be left! So, get ready.

Spinach Growing requires daily irrigation, especially with heat waves in the spring. Drip irrigation works very well, but when the leaves get muddy, most spring ephemerals work better.

During a humid day, a spray of overhead water cools the leaves and the vegetation in the afternoon under the plant and reduces the overnight temperature to 60-70 ° C (15-21 ° F).

Spinach Plant Spacing – For Garden

Before you begin for anything. You first need to understand the area, so you know whether it’s for you.  When it comes to a garden, it may stretch from a small part of your yard to a vast plot of land.

However, the size of your rows can vary based on your planting, repair, and harvesting equipment needs.  So, it’s good, to begin with, a smaller garden field.

Spinach seed kits have been designed for medium-sized gardens and large farms.  The specifications that are usually defined here would be suitable for your room.

You want to plant each seed about 3 to 6 inches apart.  The explanation this has a variety is because the scale of the spinach plant growing varies.

You will notice that most of the spinach plants have a diameter of around 4-5 inches. This can be noticed when the spinach is ready for harvesting.

For baby spinach, you should grow spinach plants early so that it can be smaller in diameter.

A classic farm or a decent size garden plot would need to have perfect rows of the distance between the spinach plants.  A row is required to cultivate, grow, water, and harvest your spinach plants safely.

The soil where spinach plants will stay remarkably undisturbed. It is better than the soil is almost loose and shallow to ensure the roots of spinach plants grow efficiently.

Getting large enough rows allows you the requisite exposure to the spinach plants.  Most of the gardeners prefer the average row width of spinach plants in between 12 and 18 inches. 

Spinach Plant Spacing – Square Foot Garden

Square foot planting is something that gardeners love in 2020.  A square foot garden is a way of utilizing a square foot area for every herb.  Let’s presume you’ve got a garden area measuring 4 feet by 4 feet.  You’d have 16 square feet or 16 micro square areas to grow your vegetables.

If we talk about per square foot, then the landscape area is 12 inches by 12 inches. Spacing recommendation for planting the spinach requires you to plant a total of 9 spinach plants in a growing square-foot field.

You leave a spacing of approximately 4 inches in diameter between each plant.

The most simple and easy way is to draw two horizontal and two vertical lines to get the spinach plant room correct in the square foot. Remember, the lines should be evenly spaced.  It will provide you with an option of nine mini squares to plant your spinach seeds.

You each spinach seed in the center of this mini squares.

Gardeners or planters consider this method to be one of the best and easiest ways as you can draw these grid lines.

Don’t forget that you ought to be prepared to cultivate, to grow, and to harvest your spinach plants. We will talk in detail about How to harvest spinach later in this article. Before that don’t miss the fact that

To harvest your spinach plants you can only have a limit of 4 square feet if you can reach them on opposite sides.

This will differ because you can just achieve this level, so bear this in mind when designing your square foot garden field.

Spinach Plant Spacing – For A Container

Should you want to appreciate the delicious food, planting spinach in a pot is a perfect way.  With a few basic guidelines, you can quickly find out the place for your jar.  Bear in mind that such instructions are focused on our knowledge.  However, container gardening can be a little different based on your needs, so use these tips as a reference.

The depth of your container will eventually decide how many spinach plants you should bring there. You would need to plant the spinach plant in a way to give it a distance of around 3-5 inches in diameter.

How To Harvest Spinach?

The trick to harvesting spinach leaves is to collect leaves from outside the plant to enable the centers to develop larger. It helps the plants alive so that they can start growing more seeds.

If you want baby spinach leaves, collect them when they are around 2 inches wide.  Usually, baby spinach is eaten raw or sautéed gently since it is delicate.  If you’re trying to prepare or freeze spinach, you’ll get more solid yields if you’re waiting for larger-4 inches or longer plants.  Many leaves reach 6 inches or longer, depending on the type.

Usually, while processing spinach, you may pinch the leaf at the stems with a fingernail.  You may also use scissors or kitchen shears to cut the seeds.  Only make sure you have the entire blade and a little bit of the plant.  If you cut off a leaf without a base, it’s going to go pretty quickly.

The spinach plants continue to grow in the morning.

Bolting is where they continue sending a seed stalk and finally fruit.  Unless you allow that to happen, the leaves can turn acidic and nearly inedible. When you observe that the mature plants are developing taller in a short period, it is a warning that a seed stalk is growing.  At this stage, pull the whole plant up and pick all the leaves.

How To Harvest Spinach Plant – Know-How

During the autumn, mature spinach plants should hang on to sharp frosts.  If you find out or expect that the temperatures seem like they’re going to drop below 30 degrees F at night, go ahead and dig out the plants and pick all the leaves you can find.

We recommend freezing spinach for long-term preservation.  To extract some soil or dust, wash the leaves.  Instead, you can blanch them while plunging them in boiling water for at least 1 minute. 

Then pull them out and dive them into an ice-cold bath to cool off.  It will allow them to maintain their vivid green hue.  When the spinach leaves get cold, drain them quickly on the paper towels. 

So, bring together a couple of leaves to turn them into a ball-we want ours about the size of a baseball. Squeeze the ball to wrong as much water as you can. 

Then, cover the spinach ball in plastic wrap and place it in an airtight bag and lock it in the freezer.

You can put a few spinach balls into a 1-gallon jar. The spinach can last up to a year in the fridge.


We are sure that the steps are given above present to you a clear idea from Planting Spinach to its harvesting and so on. Using this guide, you can grow the perfect spinach. You need to follow all the detailed steps wisely and strictly adhere to them. 

Must Read: Planting and Growing Okra Step by Step

Is Quail Farming a Profitable Business?

Raising and nurturing quails for commercial purposes, like many other poultry birds, is known as “quail farming.” It is an immensely profitable business, especially for small farmers struggling with their budgets. As a quail farmer, you can produce both eggs and meat and make decent money by selling them.

Raising quail is surprisingly easy, entertaining, and lucrative. You don’t have to do a lot of work to maintain your quail farm, because quails are one of the smallest poultry birds and are pretty easy to maintain.

Japanese scientists are known for starting the farming of quail birds, and the commercial quail farming gained a lot of property in Japan, and then almost all around the world. Like all other bird farming ventures, including chicken, duck, and turkey, quail farming is very profitable. You can start your quail farming business without thinking much about the area, conditions, and weather, etc. In this guide, we are trying to deal with various aspects of quail farming. Let’s discuss everything in detail.

Also Read: The A to Z of Commercial Sheep Farming – A Step to Step Guide

Why quail farming is a great business idea?

  • Quail eggs are considered as the most nutritious eggs, especially when compared to other poultry eggs.
  • These little eggs are even suitable for diabetic patients.
  • Quail eggs contain a decent amount of protein, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, B1, and B2.
  • The demand for food and nutrition is only increasing with time, and quail bird farming can play a crucial role in meeting that demand.
  • Farming of quail birds requires very small initial labour and capital.
  • Farmers can raise quail birds even with other poultry birds for egg and meat production.

Other interesting qualities of quail birds.

  • They are very small in size, and hence it is very easy to raise a lot of birds in a small area.
  • The average weight of an adult quail is between 150 to 200 grams, and the weight of eggs is around 7 to 15 grams.
  • Female quails usually start laying eggs at the 6th or 7th week of their life, and they can continuously lay one egg every day, of course, if they remain healthy.
  • A healthy female quail lays as many as 300 birds in the first year of its life. The production of eggs reduces gradually after the first year, and the bird produces almost half the number of eggs in the second year.
  • The Californian quail is considered as the most beautiful and handsome of all quail breeds around the world. It is California’s state bird since 1932 and is mainly raised as a pet or simply as a hobby.
  • Quail egg is very healthy for humans, as it contains 2.47% less fat than a chicken egg.
  • A lot of people also believe that quail egg helps prevent diabetes and blood pressure.
  • Like other birds, quail don’t incubate their eggs themselves. You will have to use brooder chickens or an incubator to hatch their eggs.

Life cycle and laying habits of quail birds

A healthy quail usually survives for 3 to 4 years. The average weight of a newly born quail chick is around 6 to 7 grams. They are very weak and sensitive in the beginning and become stronger after a couple of weeks. As mentioned earlier, they don’t incubate their eggs at all, and hence, you should keep one male quail for every five female quails. Quails generally lay their eggs in the afternoon, and the presence of decent light enhances the egg-producing capacity of quails. Eggs weighing around 9 to 11 grams having a hard and smooth shell are ready to hatch and produce chicks.

Starting a quail farming business

Quail bird farming is very easy and straightforward to start, as it doesn’t require a huge space. But having a proper business plan can make life very easy for you. Your plan should include breeding, feeding, caring, housing, and strong marketing strategies. Let’s have a look at the initial steps for a successful quail farming business.

Selecting from a wide range of quail breeds

Presently, there are as many as 18 quail species are available. It means the scope for profit is immense. Some of the species are suitable for meat production, while some are very good for producing eggs. So, if you are clear whether you will be raising quail for meat or eggs, it will be massively helpful for the future. Some of the most popular quail breeds for farming are mainly divided into two groups.

Layer Quail Breeds

  • British Range
  • English White
  • Pharaoh
  • Tuxedo
  • Manchurian Golden

Broiler Quail Breeds

  • American Bobwhite
  • Indian White-Breasted

Management Practice

  • Keep the cage clean

This is massively important if you want to keep your quails healthy. Clean the cage thoroughly at least every couple of weeks to prevent diseases due to bacteria and mites. Wash the water containers and feeders regularly, and refill them every day with fresh food and water.

  • Lighting

Ensure decent enough exposure of light to your quails. It doesn’t matter what types of quail you are raising; proper lighting is a must. Almost all quail breeds need at least 8 hours, but not more than 15 hours of lighting.

  • Keep the surrounding calm.

Avoid unnecessary noise around the quails. Try to keep the surroundings as calm as possible. A noisy atmosphere can be dangerous for quails like most of the other farming birds. Quails need proper sleep to stay active, funny, and healthy. Either transfer them in a dark room in the evening or adjust the place accordingly to balance enough light throughout the day and darkness after evening.

  • Don’t forget to collect eggs daily.

If you want to have fresh and healthy eggs, ensure collecting them at once every day, especially during summer. Try to keep eggs in a cool place; keeping them in a fridge is a great idea!

  • Ensure gentle taming

Taming is important, as well as a tough part of raising quail. It is pretty challenging to tam the fully-grown quail. But, if you know how to handle them, it can be fairly easy. Try grabbing them and playing with them occasionally. Offer them foods with your hands, visit them multiple times throughout the day. In short, always be very gentle while taming your quails.

  • Clipping

You wouldn’t want to do this, but you don’t have any other option either! Unlike chickens and ducks, quails are amazing flyers, and they can go a very long distance, especially if they are afraid. Clip their wings regularly to ensure they don’t fly easily. Sounds a bit harsh? But, that’s the part of bird farming business.

  • Feeding

If you want to gain decent profit through your quail farming business, feeding your quails adequately is very important. Provide them with healthy, nutritious, and well-balanced food. And they don’t require a lot of food either! A healthy quail munches on only 20 to 30 grams of food in a day! That’s it! Feed them with healthy and fresh foods to maintain their health and, in result, decent productivity.

Here is the age-wise diet chart for raising quail healthily

 0-3 Weeks4-5 WeeksAdult
Broken wheat485050
Sesame cake232222
Kipper fish201614
Rice Bran689
Broken oyster shell2.253.254.25
Mineral mix0.250.250.25
Total (percentage)100100100
  • Water

In addition to ensuring a healthy and nutritious diet, you will also have to maintain the availability of enough fresh and clean water for your quails. They won’t drink a lot of water, but there should be multiple pots of water every time so that they can drink whenever they want.

  • Egg Production

As already discussed earlier, quails need adequate light to produce eggs on time. Providing artificial heat and light is also a great idea.

To maintain the breeding process properly, keep one male quail for every five females.

Keep the surrounding very clean as well as dry.

Select highly productive breeds to ensure better egg production.

Different types of quail at different ages need different periods of light. You can understand this through this chart.

AgeTemperature (Celsius)Light (Hour)
1 Week3524
2 Week3024
3 Week2512
4 Week21-2212
5 Week2112
6 Week2113
7 Week2114
8 Week2115
9 Week2116
Beyond Ninth Week2116
Some essential equipment to keep your quails healthy and happy
  • Water container

Quails are pretty small in size. And hence, all types of quail need small containers of water. Avoid placing deep too deep containers to ensure they get water very easily, and to avoid the risk of drowning. Keep the container full of fresh, clean water.

  • Feeder

To ensure feeding all birds adequately, keep the number of feeders equal to the number of birds. Your aim should be to ensure all the birds can have easy access to both food and water.

  • Small plants

Quails love small plants, and if you can pot a few small plants around their housing, they will be very happy. Quails are very curious about their surroundings and love a little bit of nature around them. Just ensure that the plants are not toxic to your quails.

  • Provide enough hiding spots

Quails love small hiding spots. And you can provide those spots by placing a few large hamster huts inside the cages.

  • Sand Tub

Dust is a massively important part of quails’ survival. They need a dust bath on a daily basis to be happy and healthy. And dust can also play a key role in keeping parasites away. Place a few sand tubs around the quails, but away from water containers to make your quails feel comfortable.

  • Diseases affecting quails

Diseases are not very common in quails as compared to poultry birds like chickens and ducks. Proper care, clean atmosphere, and healthy nutrition, etc. are enough to avoid diseases while raising quail. Although diseases in quails are not common, a couple of diseases noticed in quails are:

  • Coccidiosis:

It is the most common condition affecting quail. Improper hygiene around the quails is responsible for this condition, as the protozoa invade the intestinal walls of quails. Some clinical signs of coccidiosis are diarrhea with a bit of blood, decreased feed and water consumption, sudden weight loss, ruffled feathers, and droopiness, etc. If you notice any of these signs, don’t waste any time and contact a qualified veterinarian.

TIP: You can mix two grams of coaxial 20 per two-liter of water and give them thrice a day to manage coccidiosis.

Must Read: Growing the Avocado – The Healthiest food

  • Ulcerative enteritis:

It is a highly contagious, acute condition affecting chickens and quails. Bacterium clostridium colinum causes this disease. There are ulcers in the caecae and intestines of the quails. Ulcerative enteritis is the biggest cause of quails’ death worldwide, with a mortality of 100%! Clinical signs may include drooping wings, listlessness, watery white feces, anemia, diarrhea, ruffled feathers, retracted necks. Ulcerative enteritis can completely derail your efforts of quail bird farming. Therefore, even in one bird, if you notice any of these symptoms, don’t waste any time and give proper treatment. Otherwise, it won’t take so long to affect all other birds!

TIP: One-gram streptomycin with a little amount of water is pretty effective against ulcerative colitis. But you should not forget to get in touch with a veterinarian.

So, that’s all about our guide for quail farming. Whether you are raising quail for meat or eggs, you should keep these basic but important points in mind. If you are smart enough, you can earn decent benefits from this low investment farming. Hopefully, you are now in a better space to start your own business. Both quail meat and eggs are a rich source of nutrients and are in demand from shop owners and the general public. Don’t think much about marketing scopes, as you will find it pretty easy to market your products. Good luck for the future!

Garlic Farming – Planting, Care, Harvesting-A Complete Guide

Garlic is an essential bulb crop grown. Its scientific name is Allium sativum. It is used as a spice too. Compared to the other bulb crops, garlic has a high nutritive value. Garlic can be  transformed into different forms like chilled garlic, dehydrated garlic flakes, dehydrated garlic powder, garlic oils etc.

They grow perfectly well 1200-2000m above sea level. These bulb crops are consumed by people as a spice. However, garlic originated in southern europe but it is being consumed all over the world these days. Garlic farming can be carried out in too hot or too cold weather conditions. Maintaining optimum temperature is necessary to get a healthy crop.

It is a low maintenance cash crop. You can gain amazing profits by planting and selling garlic. 

The U.S is the number one importer of garlic in the whole world.

Growing Garlic at Home

Soil requirements for garlic

Firstly discussing the soil, well-drained loamy soil that is rich in humus will be most suitable for garlic cultivation. The soil should also have sufficient potash. Sandy soil or loose stool is not much preferred as it can degrade the quality of the garlic and the difference in weight of the garlic bulbs could also be seen.

 In addition when heavy soil is used for garlic production, then during the harvesting period the bulbs break and become badly discolored. pH range of 5-7 pH is suitable for proper growth and yield.


Garlic can be grown in a wide range of climatic conditions however  the extreme conditions are intolerable. A moderate temperature whether hot or cold is suitable for garlic Farming.

Bulb formation will be affected in extremely hot conditions.  Garlic needs some cool and moist conditions for growth. Bulb formation occurs when the weather’s hot  and days are long. 25-30°C is the most suitable temperature for bulb formation.

Diffrent Varieties of Garlic:

Some varieties of garlic like agrifound Parvati, agrifound Parvati 2, agrifound white, yamuna safed, yamuna safed 2, yamuna safed 3, GG-4,  Ooty 1 etc. are very productive and disease resistant. Some other varieties are G-41, bhima omkar , bhilma purple, pant lohit etc.

There are basically two main varieties of garlic that are hardneck and softneck.

1. Hardneck:

This variety of garlic is very cold and should not be grown in winters. In this flower stems are produced that have to be cut off  so that the bulbs can reach their maximum potential. However these flowers or scapes are edible mainly in summers in salads or by adding in fries.

This variety has one ring of the clove around it unlike the other variety. This variety cannot be stored for a very long time as other varieties. It’s taste is also lighter than softneck garlic. For example Korean red ,duganski, Siberian, music, chesnok red, German red, and Spanish Rosa. etc. 

2. Softneck:

Similar to it’s name, this variety remains soft after harvesting. This variety is usually a warm climate variety. Softneck garlics have a strong and intense flavor. This variety has bigger bulbs. For example silverskin, inchelium red, California Early and California late.

Next comes the great headed and the wit and wisdom 

  • Great headed: 

This garlic doesn’t taste much like garlic. It tastes more like the onion than the basic garlic. Bus and cloves are large in size. 

  • Wit and wisdom:

This variety of garlic has healing properties.


Propagation for garlic crop is carried out by planting cloves or aerial bulbils. Most of the time aerial bulbils are preferred over cloves as they are very productive.

Garlic planting: 

For planting garlic, the land has to be thoroughly prepared by ploughing repeatedly. After that 10-20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM should be added per hectare.

Garlic sowing can be done by three following methods : 

1. Dibbling

2. Furrow planting 

3. Broadcasting

When the garlic is planted at small gaps, then the size of the individual garlic decreases however the overall yield increases. Organic manure is also very helpful in good crop production. Hence 20 tonnes of well-decomposed FYM per hectare during field preparation.

Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium can also be added in the field. Nitrogen has to be given in two doses. The first dose has to be given during plantation and the other one after 30 days of plantation. 10 kg of Borax has to be added per hectare for improved yield and enlarged bulb size. 

Climatic conditions for garlic cultivation: 

A combination of different climatic conditions is necessary for cultivation of garlic crops. It’s basic need is a cool and moist climate for development of bulbs and proper vegetative growth.

However, a warm climate is much suitable for maturation. But garlic cannot tolerate extreme weather conditions. Exposing the crop to low temperature for a long time can decrease the yield of the crop.


Garlic crops need to be moist because of the special root development. Firstly the field has to be irrigated lightly before plantation. In garlic farming, different types of irrigation systems are used for example drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation system and the furrow method.

A few years back it was reported that drip irrigation method has a significant effect on crop productivity. In the drip irrigation system the pipelines are laid throughout the field and crops are irrigated drop by drop. In this the wastage of water is very very less. Even evaporation is also less in this system as compared to the sprinkler system.

Although it also has some disadvantages like the watering tapes has to be replaced within 1-3 years. The droppers may also get contaminated.

Sprinkler system: in this method the water is sprinkled all over the field like rain. However this method has some disadvantages too. This method is quite expensive. In this method a lot of water is wasted and a lot of energy is also required to create the water pressure. It may have a negative impact on the cover sheet for example this may cause any disease. 

Inside dirt: It is also called an underground drip irrigation system. In this the system for irrigation purposes need not be changed for years. This system doesn’t obstruct the tillage. It doesn’t require yearly expansion. In this system the water is delivered directly to the roots.

Disadvantages of inside dirt drip irrigation system: It’s difficult to diagnose  the malfunctioning as to check one part the whole system has to be checked which is a quite difficult job. It also needs high maintenance. A care system  also has to be arranged so that the roots don’t grow inside the tubes or pipes. This system has a higher initial cost as compared to a simple drip irrigation system.

These are the few methods of irrigation. In the initial stages, irrigation has to be done every 3rd day. But afterward, the crop can be irrigated once in 15 days. These intervals go on increasing as the crop reaches its maturity stages. When the crop is ready to harvest, the irrigation needs to be stopped.

As we know that garlic being small in size is planted very close to each other so manual weeding could be a very difficult job and expensive too. And not doing this can cause a lot of damage to the crop.

So the only option left to treat weeds is a chemical method, herbicides or weedicides have to be used to vanish off the weeds. Some examples of these weeds are linuron, pendimethalin, and tribunil, etc. 

When is Garlic Ready to Harvest:

After 130-150 days of plantation the garlic crop is ready to harvest  but it also depends on the soil type, climate conditions etc. When the upper part of the crops becomes yellow and starts drying and bending. It should not be harvested too early as it results in poor quality of garlic.

Hence before digging up the whole crop, one should take out the same samples to check out the quality of the crop and also whether it’s ready for harvesting or not.

So slightly pull up one or two bulbs but one must keep in mind that digging should not be started until the top is completely Yellow. When the garlic head is divided into plump cloves and when the bulbs have thick, dry and papery covering the garlic is ready to harvest.

Timing is also very important in this process as if the harvesting is done early, the covering of the bulb would be thin and may Get damaged. And on the other hand, if harvesting is done late, the garlic along with it’s skin can split up and may become prone to diseases.

Harvesting has to be done very carefully as directly pulling the garlic out can also damage it hence it has to be first dug up very carefully and then carefully brush the garlic to remove the soil. Then hang them upside down for good air circulation.


Garlic is prone to some diseases like basal rot( Fusarium culmorum ), white rot ( sclerotium cepivorum) Downy mildew (Peronospora destructor), Botrytis Rot (Botrytis porri), and Penicillium Decay (Penicillium hirsutum).

Control: use disease free seeds, avoid overcrowding, one should dispose of the infected part properly, also make use of appropriate fungicides, using well drained soil can also prevent these diseases. Regular weeding should be carried out.

Seeds should be treated with warm water before sowing to avoid infections. Virus-free cloves should be planted. Soil beds should be prepared properly. These are some methods to control these diseases.

How to store garlic

Mainly garlic has to be stored in a well ventilated room. As the garlics have to be hung from the leaves so a proper support should be there in room for hanging the garlics. Cured Garlics can be stored for maximum 8 months at normal temperature.

However, before storing the garlic it should be properly cleaned and trimmed. The outer papery layer has not to be removed but the dirtiest wrappers can be separated. This garlic has to be stored in cool, dry, and dark places.

The temperature for storage should be 4°C or 40°F . In this way these can be stored for several months. It should not be stored in a moist place or refrigerator. The flavor of the bulbs enhance as it dries up.

If the crop is stored properly, it can last throughout the season. If you have to cultivate the crop next year again, then save some of the largest pieces to plant them again. 

Plant protection

Thrips can cause dropping of leaves and degrade the quality of garlic and even the storage quality too. A chemical named methyl  demeton 25EC 1 ml per litre can check on thrips. 

How profitable is garlic farming

One can get an average yield of 32-48 quintals per acre of land.

If one has to grow garlic on a commercial scale then this article may help you to know more about this. Firstly one has to get the good quality seeds according to the demand and quality. For cultivation of garlic land has to be prepared, ploughing has to be done where again some investment would be required for machinery for land preparation.

Plantation is the next step that can be done by different methods like dibbling, furrow planting, or broadcasting and each method has different costs. Then some Intercultural operations have to be carried out like weeding and earthing up etc where again some money has to be applied.

Hereby we can say that at  each step some investment is required like every other crop and it’s worth it as one earn a very good profit from this crop


Garlic is mainly used as a food or spice . It can also be used as a medicinal herb or oil. It has a unique taste and its own different aroma. It adds a very different flavor to food and makes it more delicious as demanding.

Beside food it is helpful in many of the medical conditions and provides great refeif. According to some preclinical studies, garlic is said to have some compounds that are helpful in cancer and cardiovascular diseases.  Garlic has some outstanding roles in human health as well as medicines and is also a very profitable crop.

Papaya Farming – Ultimate Guide

Do you want to start a Papaya farming business? Here we have listed a comprehensive business strategy roadmap for beginners with profit margin, expense, and papaya farming techniques. However, before we tell you anything about Papaya farming, let’s first get familiar with this plant and the cultivation techniques that you should use to get the maximum output.

About Papaya

Papaya (Carica papaya) could be an early-living and dying fruit tree. These fast-growing trees can bear fruit in the first year of planting, if possible. However, a multi-hour sub-freezing temperature will destroy an exposed plant. Papaya plants are so cold sensitive that they should be grown in warm areas. Throughout the year, warm areas will have papaya flowers and fruit on the plant.

How long does Papaya farm take to grow?

It may take eight to 10 months before the fruit is ready to be harvested after planting a small plant in the field. In the number of months that Papaya will develop and bear mature fruit, the environment has a role to play. In hot areas, harvesting from seed can take six to nine months, but zones that are more temperate need 9 to 11 months to be able to grow fruit from seed. When planted later in the year, the colder autumn and winter weather slows down growth and increases the time required by the plant to produce fruits for harvest.

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Papaya cultivation and harvesting

When the tree has bloomed, wait for five to eight months for the fruit to be harvested. This time depends on the temperature and the state of the fruit. Papaya trees bloom during the year. After the first year, the fruit and flowers on the tree should be supplied continuously.

The form of flowers on a tree decides whether, after many months, you can see fruit. If the tree has male flowers only, it won’t be fruitful. Trees that have only female flowers, or both, can bear fruit if adequately pollinated. Vigorous flora hangs from long stalks, while female vegetation has short stalks and a bulge at the ovary’s base.

Edible flowers like female flowers are available on short stalks and have the stems that are typical of male flowers.

How to know if your papaya plant has fully grown-up

As there are often fruits in various stages of tree development, it will help to recognize the ripe ones when to pick them. The fruit’s color is the primary measure of maturity. Choose fruits of one to three-fourths of the yellow rind.

The green fruit is not ripe and after harvest does not sweeten. Depending on your growing conditions, 30 to 150 fruit can be obtained each year from your papaya tree.

Papaya farming blueprint for business

You must conduct an economic analysis to validate the use of various production inputs and the revenues received. Fixed costs are primarily in initial land growth in papaya farming. Fixed prices may include fixed labor salaries and repair of farm machinery and other miscellaneous expenses.

The cost varies between manufacturing methods and input costs, including fertilizers and pesticides. It also includes payments for irrigation, intercultural, mining, transportation, and other management activities. Calculate the gross production expense. Calculate and record the anticipated profitability and ROI in your business plan.

The more uses, the better business prospect
  • Papaya is used in many ways. And, its several uses opens the opportunity to explore the business scope from the same. So, let’s know more about it.
  • Sometimes Papaya is taken in the breakfast or dessert fruit.
  • Papaya is also loved as a diet fruit.
  • The culled Papaya can be fed to the pigs and or other cattle.
  • Papaya is used as an ingredient in a variety of fruits across the world whereas unripe fruits and leaves are also used as a vegetable.
  • Papain, which is milky latex obtained from the Papaya after a process of the incision. And, then latex is dried and sold in the powder form.
  • The latex powder is then used in digestion aids, tooth-cleaning powders, and so on.

Papaya farming and health benefits

1. Papayas are high in starch, vitamin C, and antioxidants that avoid arterial cholesterol build-up.

2. Single Papaya will meet more than 200% of your daily vitamin C requirements, which makes it ideal for developing a more robust immune system.

3. Papayas have a low sugar content (8.3 gm. in a cup of Papaya) and glycemic index. This property produces excellent papaya fruits for diabetics.

4. Papayas are rich in vitamin A and flavonoids such as beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lutein that keep mucous membranes safe in the body.

5. Just 120 calories include one medium-sized Papaya. It also helps in the pursuit of weight loss.

6. Papaya is rich in many nutrients, such as vitamin C, which will keep you stress-free.

Papaya cultivation and agro-climatic condition

A tropical fruit, Papaya. Sub-tropical sections, however, also develop well. It’s frost-sensitive. The ideal temperature is 25-30 ° C and 16 ° C minimum. Appropriate pH is between 6 and 6.5. The foothills enjoying mild winters are suitable for papaya cultivation. Low temperature and frost restrict higher-altitude cultivation. Excessively cold nights cause slow fruit maturation and mediocre quality in the winter season.

papaya plant

Papaya cultivation and soil suitability

The right soil type is well-drained or sandy loam soil with enough organic matter. Sticky and calcareous soils aren’t pleasant because the soil can trap rainwater. It could be lethal to the crop. In this scenario, create a better-raised ground and drainage ditch. Furthermore, you must keep the field with enough soil moisture required to grow papaya plants.

Also, a ripening dry climate is fantastic for fruit quality. Additionally, in the same region, continuous cropping can result in reduced production. A slightly messy field is compared to a perfectly flat area. The region’s hilly soil is ideally suited to well-drained organic matter.

Steps involved in papaya farming

Now, it’s time to dive deeper into the steps involved in papaya farming. Therefore, those to better utilize your farming skills.


You’ll need seed papaya propagation. Second, you must collect seeds. You can receive from ripe, big, healthy fruits, mainly from pest-free female plants. Often seeds fail to germinate because seed viability is lost in about 45 days.

Germination of seed

The equilibrium temperature is 21-27 ° C, and 19-29 ° C of extreme emergence. It takes 1-4 weeks after sowing, depending on the weather. Treat with Thiram (TMTD) W.P. Until, sowing young to combat fungal diseases.

Sowing the seed

In 8 – 9 cm long, 8 cm long, and 8 cm high or black soft plastic containers, you can use the clear plastic bag. The bags require drainage space. You may also use a plastic seedling tray. It is a new form of seedling for good seedlings.


When the seedlings are 15-20 cm tall, a razor blade will open the bag. Now the seedlings are set for evening transplantation in pits. You may plant three seedlings about 15 cm apart in each hole. Watering is vital after transplantation for rapid recovery from transplant shock.

Adding Manure

The plant requires continuous fertilization as fruiting begins at maturity. From day one, you will prepare for fertilization. Because a five-month transplant-to-first flowering cycle is essential for papaya plant nutrition. You will stop manuring 6 months before harvesting the crop.

Now it’s about cropping

Male papaya plants typically thrive and start flowering after three months of transplantation. When their presence is detected, you will delete most of them. Of successful female flowers, however, around one male tree is kept for every ten female trees. Papaya starts flowering about five to six months after transplantation.


Currently, irrigate every winter ten days or every summer week. However, it varies with soil, climate, and irrigation methods. You may use a loop, furrow, or drip irrigation. Be sure, however, to avoid water meeting the stem. Irrigation can avoid frost damage to plants.

Papaya cultivation and plant protection

You need proper disease management to get the optimum yield. The major diseases are powdery mildew (OidiumCaricae), anthracnose, and stem rot.

Another possible condition is a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) frequently and gently extracts weeds at the early stage. Never deep soil tillage, however, because the plant has shallow roots. With 43% lasso E.C, you can apply herbicide once before an emergency.  


Overall, Papaya takes six months to bloom. And, five more for processing. However, it can vary with climatic conditions and management. For shipment to distant markets, fruits should be harvested when the apical starts to turn yellow, and latex is no longer milky.

In the cold months, fruits will stay on the tree to produce deeper colors and get a better flavor. In papaya cultivation, in the first 15 to 18 months, a tree with proper management produces 25-40 fruits weighing 40-60 kg.

Pest and disease control

The frequently found pests are fruit flies, aphids, red spider mite, stem borer, gray weevil, snail, and grasshoppers. They are all regulated by spraying prophylactic substances including 0.3% dimethoate and 0.05% methyl gemstone.

The growing diseases are powdery mildew, anthracnose, damping off, black spot, nematode, and stem rot. Essential control measures are growing disease-resistant crops, choosing well-drained soils, practicing crop rotation, and growing seedlings or plants under net households.

Intercropping with a barrier crop such as corn mulching the bed with silver and plastic film that immediately destroys infected plants and replants the crop to avoid this virus infection.

Yield from papaya farming

All cultivar yields are different. Suitable plants are estimated to produce 34 kg fruit per plant per year, which amounts to around 38,000 kg fruit per hectare. The total area under Indian papaya farming has increased in recent years. Papaya’s nutritional and medicinal value has resulted in heavy consumption within the country, i.e., only 0.08 percent is exported. Thanks to conventional agricultural methods, exports are also less competitive. Delhi and Mumbai are Papaya’s main markets. The country’s overall production accounts for 54-lakh tones/year.

What is the cost of papaya farming?

Papaya farming costs will rely primarily on the farmland location. The cost components are farmland acquisition, planting expenses, irrigation expenses, fertilization facilities like labor shed, and land growth. Other than farmland costs, papaya farming costs aren’t much.

How much profit can you mine?

The margin of profit in papaya farming depends on the land area and the diversity of Papaya growth. In general, papaya farmers get their entire investment payback in around 2-2, 5 years. However, in the end, we would say that the amount of profit entirely depends upon your practices and techniques you use for farming.

Guava Farming – Planting, Spacing, & Cultivation Guide

Guava fruit is well known for its good flavor and aroma. Its scientific name is Psidium guajava. Guava is also called the ‘apple of the tropics’. Guava is rich in vitamin c and minerals. It is also rich in antioxidants. Guava has many health benefits. Guava is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions.

Guava Farming is a very profitable business. Guava helps in curing many diseases. Guava is also helpful in losing weight. In 2019 the production of guava all over the world was 55 million tonnes. Guava trees start fruiting after 3-4 years of plantation. Guava is mainly grown from seeds or by vegetative propagation. Guava trees are very productive and adaptable.

Guava Farming: 

  • Description of the guava plant:

Guava tree has smooth, thin, and brown bark that peels off and reveals a greenish layer below it. The maximum height that a guava tree can reach is 33ft or 10m with a trunk of 10 in (25cm).

The leaves of this tree are evergreen. These leaves are oval and long, having a short petiole. These leaves are leathery in texture and when guava leaves are crushed, they have a nice aroma. The white flowers grow independently in the leaf axils. These flowers have 4 to 5 petals. 

  • Description of guava fruit:

The skin color of the fruit ranges from light yellow to pale green or sometimes pink. When you peel off the skin of guava, a layer of sweet flavor full and tangy flesh is present. The color of flesh can be white, yellowish, light pink, dark pink, red.

When the fruit is immature, it is very hard and astringent. When guava ripens, some of its varieties have custard-like consistency however the others are crispy. Mainly the central pulp is of the same color even if the surrounding flesh is lighter or darker. It is very juicy and has hard yellow seeds in it. 

  • Different types of guava fruit:

Guava fruit has many different varieties. Some of these common varieties are given below:

  1. Ruby supreme: This variety of guava is oval. It has a medium to large size. It has a pungent smell. Its flesh is thick and sweet. Comparatively fewer seeds are present in this variety. Ruby supreme guavas are excellent to eat fresh. This variety has good productivity.
  2. Red Indian: red Indian guavas are round in shape and have medium to large size. This variety has a strong odor. It has a sweet flavor and its flesh is red. It also has good productivity. 
  3. Beaumont: The fruit of this variety is large. Its color is either green or light yellow and has pink flesh. Beaumont guava fruit can weigh up to a pound. 
  4. Red Malaysian: This variety has very unique foliage and flowers that are deep red. These flowers are also used for decoration. This variety is frequently grown for ornamental uses. 
  5. Mexican cream: It is our next variety of guava fruit. These guavas have yellow skin and cream-colored flesh that is a bit spicy. It is mainly medium-sized. 
  6. Safeda: In this variety, the skin of the fruit is very thin however the flesh is thick and white. Fewer seeds are present in this variety. This is a very famous variety and grown widely. However, branches of safeda are brittle and can break continuously. 
  7. Bangkok apple: These fruits are large-sized and have thick flesh. It has fine color and taste.
  8. Lucknow: It is medium-sized fruit and round shaped. It has creamy white soft flesh with a sweet and pleasant flavor. It is a good quality fruit and has fewer seeds.

Propagation of the guava plant: 

Propagation of guava depends on the variety of fruit, the fertility of the soil, and the available irrigation provisions.

At what distance the trees should be planted?

A distance of 5to 8 m should be maintained between the trees. Standing spacing between them should be 6 × 6 m where 112 trees could be planted in one acre. High-density planting can lead the branches to grow towards the sky. This results in long compact trees that give a high yield in the initial years. 

Usually, seed propagation for guavas is not much preferred as the juvenile phase of seeds is very long. Seed propagation gives lower yields and poor quality of fruit.

However, if seeds have to be used for propagation, then these seeds should be sown immediately after it’s extraction from the ripened fruit. Soaking these seeds in water for 12 hours a day or soaking them in hydrochloric acid for 3 minutes gives 90% of germination. After one year the seeding is ready for budding.

Inarching is another way for the propagation of guava but this method gives a limited number of plants from the mother plant. Though budding is a very successful method of propagation it needs a large amount of labor. Another successful method is layering but again the condition is that a limited number of plants can be produced from a mother plant. 

The easiest and pocket-friendly vegetative method for the propagation of guava is marcotting. In this method, the parts of the hardened shoots of a selected variety are dragged. After this step, a mixture of moist earth, compost, rooting hormones is gathered at the spot. If this method is successful, roots will appear in 3 weeks. Seedbeds are also a good method for vegetative propagation of guava 

Must Read: How Long Does it take a Kiwi Plant to Produce Fruit

Fertilization of guava trees:

Different fertilizers are used in different regions. Fertilizers have to be provided regularly to produce high-quality flowers and fruit. Regular fertilization also helps the plant to grow faster. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in the ratio of 6:6:6:2 are applied to the guava tree. 

Pruning of guava plants: 

Pruning of the plants is very important at younger stages as this helps to build a strong framework and avoid week crotches. Pruning if fruiting trees is important to prevent overcrowding. The plants are aimed as low headed trees as this makes the hand picking of fruits easy. Pruning is also helpful in increasing the size of the fruit and yield as well. 

Pest and diseases: 

Pest control is very important for good productivity and disease-free plants. Mainly fruit flies, stem borers, nematodes, thrips, mealy bugs, scale insects, and some more are the pests found in the guava field. These pests can be controlled by chemical spraying or using pesticides. 

Some other cultural practices can also be adopted to avoid fruit from getting destroyed. For example, removing the infected fruit or plant part so that it doesn’t infect the whole plant.


Some of the diseases of Guava plants are fruit canker, will, fruit rot, anthracnose, grey leaf spot, or more. More details about the diseases are given below:

Guava wilt:

The symptoms of this disease are: in the early monsoon, light yellow foliage starts appearing and loss of turgidity and epinasty can also be noticed. Later on, plants can show unthriftiness along with this, premature shedding and defoliation can also be seen.

Some of the small branches can become bare and may stop producing new leaves and flowers and eventually dry up. Fruits on all these affected branches are left underdeveloped, hard, and Stony. And finally, the plant dies at the end. In this disease, the roots also get rotted from the basal region. The bark also gets weak and can be easily removed. Discoloration can also be noted. 

How is it spread? This can be spread from the sick soil in Virgin areas. It can also be spread from water. Any root injury also promotes wilt diseases.

Fruit rot:

Symptoms of this disease can be mainly seen in the rainy season. White cotton-like growth can be noticed on the affected part that develops very fast. This pathogen can cover the entire surface within 3 to 4 days. When the humidity is very high, at that time the fruits that are near the soil get affected very easily. Below the white covering, the skin of the fruit becomes very slushy and its color becomes light brown to dark. 

How does it spread? This disease is mainly spread through wind or rain. It is also spread through pathogens. It can be also spread from the infected plant material like soil etc.

Fruit canker:

The symptoms of fruit canker can be seen mainly on the green fruit and rarely on the leaves. At first, brown-colored or rust like unbroken circular and harmful patches can be seen on the fruit that leads to infection. The crater-like thing can also be noticed. In some severe cases, a large number of cankerous stops can also be seen. The infected fruit doesn’t develop completely and is very hard. Sometimes tiny rusty spots can also be noticed on the leaves. 

How do fruit cankers spread? This disease is mainly spread through Pathogens. Anyone infected or injured by fruit or plant part can also be responsible for this. 

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Alga leaf and fruit spot: 

In this, the algae infect the Immature fruit and in this small brown velvety lesions can be seen on the leaves or leaf tip. The spots on the leaves may vary in size, there may be small tiny spots or big patches. The color of the fruit can change to dark green, black, or brown. In this, the size of fruit enlarges 

How does this disease spread? This disease is an air-borne disease and hence air and rain can be the carrier of the disease. Pathogens are another carrier of this disease. 

Stylar end rot:

The main symptom of this disease is a change in the color of the region lying just below and adjoining the persistent calyx. Such areas gradually increase in size and turn dark brown.

Afterward, the affected part becomes slushy. Despite these all symptoms of the discoloration of the pericarp, the mesocarp tissue also shows the change in color, and the diseased area is marked by being pulpy and light brown in color in contrast to the bright white. 

How does the disease spread? Again pathogens are responsible for this disease and these are spread through the wind. 

Irrigation if guavas: 

Usually, no irrigation is needed during the monsoon months unless and until there are long spells of drought. In the initial year when the plants are very young with a shallow root system, they should be irrigated even at 2 to 3 days interval in the dry season. Trees in the age group of 2-5 years should be irrigated at intervals of 4 to 5 days. 

How to harvest guavas? 

Fruiting starts after about 2 to 3 years of plantation. However, the yield of the fruit depends on the age of the trees, or how the trees are planted ( pattern ), and other cultural practices. The proper yield can be seen after 10 years. After 10 years 100 to 150 kg of yield can be seen every year. Guavas can be harvested at any time in the year. However if one wants the best taste, flavor, and aroma it can be obtained when the fruits are ripened. 

When these guavas are grown at a commercial level, the ripening can be noticed when the fruit starts turning yellow. If the fruits are to be transported to some faraway place, then they should be harvested when they are light yellow and yellow can be harvested for locals. 


Guava farming is a profitable business but it needs a lot of hard work and time. 

With harvesting possible at any time of year, it can bring profits to you for a lifetime. All you need to do is beware of the necessities of guava plants and then you can get fruits whenever you wish.


Growing Cucumber – How to Plant, Grow & Harvest?

Cucumbers are worthy of each salad courtesy it’s health benefits. Cucumbers have a mild, refreshing flavor and a high amount of water. You will also feel dehydrate and enjoy eating them in hot weather. Generally, most of the diet conscious people use cucumber in their diets.

Moreover, it has a variety of applications in several beauty products due to its richness of vitamins and minerals.

Growing Fresh and Crunchy Cucumbers

Cucumbers farming

The fresh cucumbers have a special crunch with every bite. Cucumber farming would be a different experience.

Whatever the space you have, you can grow cucumbers. They can be cultivated in pots, bags or directly on the field successfully.

Also Read: Sweet Potato Farming Information Guide

Two main types of cucumber are outdoor and greenhouse. Plants of greenhouse cucumber make long, smooth fruit similar to those sold in the supermarket. 

On the other hand, others are called ridge cucumbers. It’s usually shorter and covered with red skin. 

Crunchy cucumbers, fresh from the garden are in a league of their own, so if you’re wondering whether to grow them or not, the answer should be a resounding yes.

Some of the cucumber varieties are more suitable for cucumber farming in the UK, either outdoors or in the greenhouse. 

Generally, the outdoor cucumbers also called ‘ridge cucumbers’ have resistance to the cooler climates and are often spiked or rough to the touch. Greenhouse cucumbers are a bit smoother fruits but do need that extra warmth to grow to the full capacity.

Some varieties prefer sheltered environments just like a greenhouse and others mature better out, in a sunny environment.

How to Sow Cucumbers

The mid-spring is the ideal time to sow the cucumber seeds into small pots with a general-purpose potting mix. Sowing depth of cucumber seeds is about an inch 3 cm deep.

Cucumbers germinate at least 20 degrees. This usually takes 7-10 days. Thus, you have to wait for a launch at the end of the spring.

 After germination, you should transfer seedlings to the place which has good sunlight and put them there until these are sufficiently large to transplant it. 

Once the seedlings start to appear, for better growth of a healthy plant remove the weakest from the pot and leave one per pot.

The liquid fertilizer is better for cucumber farming. Thus, a liquid fertilizer high in potassium is the initial diet plant within every two weeks that keep these hungry plants moist most of the time.

Must Read: How to harvest onions?

Growing Greenhouse Cucumbers

Greenhouse cucumbers can be transplanted into beds, large containers of potting soil. The other way to set the plant to grow is by setting two cucumbers per bag into bottomless pots set on top of the growing bag.

These will help to trap moisture and ensure cucumber plant care every time you water, instead of it running off over the surface.

Put in place supports such as bamboo canes, vertical wires, strong netting or trellis. Train vines up their supports then pinch out the growing tips when they reach the top to encourage side shoots. Take out the tips of side shoots to leave two leaves beyond each fruit.

Feed plants every two weeks with a liquid fertilizer that’s high in potassium and keeps these thirsty plants moist at all times.

You can exclude all male flowers from greenhouse cucumbers. This prevents bitter-tasting fruits. It’s effortless to identify female flowers by the slight swelling of the embryonic fruit behind each bloom.

Growing Outdoor Cucumbers

When the soil warms in late spring or early summer, outdoor cucumbers should be planted. For the perfect plantation, accustom the plant to a newer climate for a week or two preparations slowly for a week or two.

On the other hand, you could sow seeds directly to their actual rising places in warmer climates.

Cucumber farming considers the healthy, fertile soil just like other plants. Thus before planting, you can collect plenty of well-rotted organic matter such as manure. 

It is ideal to set the plants at about 18 inches apart when you raise your cucumbers upward using supports like a trellis. Alternatively, position them about three feet from each other if you let them scatter over the soil surface.

The outdoor cucumber needs insect pollination. Therefore, the plant needs the involvement of male and female flowers. Thus, you should not remove the male flowers.  There is no need to remove male flowers as greenhouse cucumbers. It is important to have this marriage for better and high yields.

Feeding to the cucumber

Cucumbers are typically grown at the same location as other vegetables in the case of a greenhouse. And, in this case, farmers usually use the same feed for all vegetables. 

In the case of the cucumbers are provided the more effective and balanced fertilizer. The yield is higher.

High nitrogen requirement in cucumber feed

A small cucumber plant has a larger leaf that is even greater than the leaves of other plants. 

As nitrogen is the fuel for flower growth. Cucumbers need more nitrogen than other major nutrients such as magnesium, calcium, iron, and manganese. 

 In the case of organic, the high liquid nitrogen feed would benefit cucumber farming to the full capacity.

Cucumber Plant Diseases

1. Powdery Mildew

The fungus emerges first as several white spots on the cucumber leaves and grows quickly as very small, threadlike powdery areas. It seems like a cotton-dumpling demon that absorbs plant nutrients, so if you don’t handle it, it can contribute to a serious infestation. The yield will be greatly affected, even if they mature.

When you just begin to see the mold on the leaves of the cucumber or if you had previous problems and want the chance of powdery mildew to be reduced, milk is an all-natural effective barrier to funguses. Dilute and spray the milk on the plants in the ratio of 10 parts water to 1 part milk.

Baking soda has solid household applications and can be applied to this list as “treating powdery mildew.” A 1 tablespoon soda solution in a gallon of water is adequate to be successful, but a soap or dish soap would need as an additive. Some growers often add oil, neem or standard cooking oil.

Sprinkle the mixture again early in the day, and then rinse in the evening. The persuasive mildew requires a very favorable pH to survive and baking soda is enough essential to render the leaves desolate. 

2. Bacterial Wilt

Bacterial wilt affects the fruits in cucumber farming more intensely. Infection is recognized with often witty and dried branches, often even overnight. 

One simple way to prevent bacterial wilt is by cutting off a wilted stem at the base and rubbing the cut with your fingertip.

 If you take off your finger gradually, the plants have bacterial wilting threads out of the cut. There is no remedy for this cucumber decay.

3. Fusarium wilt 

Fusarium wilt is another issue with the cucumber plant which is a difficulty to treat and overcome. In dry climates, the pathogen is much more widespread and can damage, in addition to cucumber, a wide variety of vegetables.

The dropping leaves is the beginning of this disease. This can be identified by the slicing the main trunk of an infected fusarium wilt vine. If it’s the base is spotted with dark stripes. The fungicidal soil drenches the remedy of this infection while treating the soils before plantation can prevent the unfortunate loss. 

4. Cucumber Mosaic

At any stage, this disease will invade cucumber plants and the virus spreads systemically in the plant once the plant is infected.

Symptoms appear 7 to 14 days after infection and develop most quickly at low temperatures.

 A pale or dark green mosaic or mottling develops first on the youngest leaves. The outer borders curl inward. New leaves are stunted and twisted.

Flowers can exhibit strange properties like green petals. The fruit of contaminated plants is often smaller and somewhat skewed, and display light and dark green mosaic patterns on the surface.

In this case, it is important to buy the treated seeds for cucumber farming that often highlighted at the label.

Harvesting the right cucumber

The cucumbers are best plucked before their seeds become hard as they are preferred eating as immature.

While a yellow and mature cucumber is of the highest quality when it is uniformly green, firm, and crisp. 

Cucumbers that are left on the vine for a longer period would get tough skins and eventually lower plant productivity.

You should collect fruits during the cucumber cultivation every few days at full harvest time as they grow rapidly once at the peak.

Storage of Mature Cucumber

Although a fresh cucumber has the highest level of water content and crunchiness.

Cucumbers are over 90 percent water. This is ideal to store them wrapped tightly in plastic wrap to retain moisture. if there is a need to store them for a longer time, you will keep them for a week to 10 days when stored properly in the refrigerator.

Also Read: Growing the Avocado

Ivy Gourd Farming: Planting,Care, and Harvesting

Friend’s today we are adding a new member to your farming list. Ivy gourd farming is new on the bucket list. You will be glad on knowing the benefits it adds to life. 

This cucumber-type appearing vegetable belongs to the Eastern part of Africa. It is also cultivated in the tropical part of America, Asia, the Pacific, and the northern part of Australia.

It is also popular by the name of the scarlet gourd. Ivy gourds are inclined towards climbing.

You can find the most commonly used in Indian dishes. But it is adored and relished worldwide for its contribution to health.

To find out what Ivy gourd farming is? This article will cover every nook and corner related to Ivy gourd farming.

Types of Ivy gourd

There are only two types of Ivy gourds: Striped and non-striped.

Soil, Climate requirement, and land preparation

For good Ivy gourd farming, you must have sandy loam soil enriched with nutrients. It should also not waterlog. 

You should restrain from using acidic, alkaline, or other sorts of heavy soils. The PH range of 6-6.5 should be maintained.

A humid and warm climate is what these ivy gourds love and crave. The temperature range should fall between 20 to 32 degrees for a good yield. 

Though the Ivy gourd cultivation can be done at any point of time during the year. For amazing results rainy season or warm weather is preferred.

No great efforts are to be made for getting the land ready for cultivation. Just thoroughly plowing should be done to entangle the soil and check for weeds, if any.

After that, a good quality manure should be applied to the soil. The ground is now ready for Ivy gourd cultivation.

Also Read: Radish Farming: Planting, Harvesting, & Diseases

How to plant Ivy gourd

Vegetative propagation is the planting style popularly practiced in Ivy gourd cultivation. The propagation is processed either using stems or by seeds.

But through seeds they take at least a year to reach a plant. When opting for stem cutting propagation, you should fix the width to 2 cm and the length to 20 cm of the stem.

Those stem cuttings should go 6 cm deep into the soil having a basin width of 60 cm. And the same way you can proceed with other cutting while maintaining a gap of 2 cm. This is the way how to plant Ivy gourd in the field.

How to grow Ivy gourd from seed

How to grow Ivy gourd from seeds is an interesting process. Get some scarlet gourds from the supermarket and cut them to remove the seeds.

After this, you can immediately sow these seeds, without stressing about the weather conditions. That means they can be planted at any time just to avoid scorching summers. 

Remember, the temperature range between 15 to 27 degrees work wonders and promotes sprouting at a faster rate.

Though, planting can be done through seeds also but it is not a good idea. There are harms of adopting this procedure.

There are chances of disagreement between the seeds and true fruit. And it is evident to end up without any fruit, for you need to plant female and male plants next to each other.

Must Read: Snake Gourd Farming

Season for plantation

The Ivy gourd cultivation should be done before the onset of rains or in the spring season. As these are perennial, so replanting should be done at least after 4 years. There must be 2 metre bamboo stick should used to render support to the plant.

Ivy gourd plant care

A proper Ivy gourd plant care ensures a good quality of Ivy gourd. Following things should be kept in mind while taking care of the plant:

  1. Spacing: The spacing pattern remains the same as cucumber plants. At some point in time, they start searching for a company and tend to get attached.
  2. Weed Control: During the early stages of Ivy gourd cultivation weeding is a must to do activity. As it is inclined to reproduce many other small plants and twigs effect the plant growth.
  3. Water Supply: At the budding stage, it should be watered properly. Once attaining growth, the water supply can be stopped.
  4. Pruning: This adds life and energy to the plant. After pruning, don’t dump the cut branches and small twigs as can regenerate.
  5. Pest Control: The major enemies of Ivy gourd cultivation are Thrips, mites, Aphids, and Whiteflies. Their spread can be checked by treating them chemically.

Harvesting Ivy gourd farming

These scarlet gourds are ready for harvesting in a 3-month time. A hand sickle or a cutter is an advisable tool to be used owing to its small size and to avoid any damage to the vine. 

This harvest results in a yield of 12 to 15 tonnes per hectare in Ivy gourd farming.

Benefits of Ivy gourds

  1. Diabetes control: The leaves of this plant when consumed in a raw state helps in controlling the sugar level in the blood.
  2. Checks obesity: It keeps so obesity free by accelerating the metabolism rate.
  3. Reduces fatigue: Rich in iron provides a backup for energy level. As it reduces the iron deficiency in the body.
  4. Corrects the functioning of the nervous system: Ivy gourd is a bag full of nutrients and vitamins which are associated with the healthy functioning of the nervous system.


There is nothing much to discuss Ivy gourd farming. One thing is clearing its farming is not very much profitable like other veggies.

Still is not a bad idea to go for Ivy gourd farming. Not on a large scale but can be executed profitably as a small-scale farming option. 

Go ahead and do share your Ivy gourd farming experience. Stay connected for more updates.

Bell Pepper Farming: Planting, Growing, Pruning, & Harvesting

Bell Pepper crop is mainly grown when the weather is warm. These crunchy Bell peppers have some sweetness in them however they lack a component called capsaicin that gives it the heat. The external skin of the bell peppers is very smooth and provides a shield to crunchy flesh present inside.

Bell Peppers are hollow from inside and have so many seeds in the middle, attached to the white-colored membrane that lies along the wall. These are also known as the colored capsicum that is mainly red, yellow, and green. These have vitamin C and vitamin A in them.

Organic capsicum farming needs a temperature of 15 to 25° celsius and these grow very well at a height of about 2000 meters above the sea level. Bell Peppers can be grown in greenHouses and in greenHouse cultivation one can get up to 120 tonnes of yield to each hectare. 

Climatic conditions for growing bell pepper:

Bell Peppers can be cultivated in cool as well as warm conditions however extreme weather conditions are intolerable. So in summers to avoid too much heat, shading can be done. 20 to 25° C is the best temperature for germination as well as fruit set. 

Selecting the planting stuff for bell pepper plantation:

First of all, all the materials that you select for planting should be healthy. All the stuff should be diseases and pest resistant. Coming to the seedlings, for bell pepper plantation, the age of seedlings should be about 40 days. The seeding should be up to 20 cm long.

The crop should have a fine rooting system. The stem of the seedlings should possess a few leaves on it during the plantation. Selecting a good variety of all the planting material is very important for good quality fruit and high yield as well as good production. 

Must Read: How to Germinate Chilli Seeds

Soil preparation for bell pepper: 

The soil has to be properly loosened and make a nice tilth. After this beds are prepared to have heights of 45cm and 75cm wide. But before this step either vermicompost or properly decomposed organic matter along with sand and sawdust should be added to the soil.

Afterward, the beds are soaked with 4 Percent of formaldehyde and then are protected with polythene for about 4 to 5 days. Later on, these polythene covers are removed. Then the beds are to be raked regularly every day to remove the fumes of formaldehyde that are stuck in the soil. Sandy and loamy soil are best for these capsicums. For bell pepper, the pH of the soil should be 6.0- 6.8. Along with all these, this plant also requires a lot of care. 

Planting and Pruning of bell pepper:

When the seedlings are completely ready, then these are planted in the rows that maintain a distance of 60cm between them and the distance between the plants has to be 30cm. Imidacloprid is sprayed on the seedlings to prevent any pest infestation.

Pruning of bell pepper

During plantation, the bed should be watered, as the bed has to be completely wet during this process. After this, the seeds have been sown in two lines on the beds. Plastic mulches can also be used for this purpose as it also helps in controlling weeds and saving water.

Irrigation of the bed has to be done daily until the seeds are set up well. Later on, the drip irrigation method is used to irrigate the field with 2 to 3 liters of water to each square meter every day.

Pruning is started after about 20 days of plantation and this has to be done after every 7 days.

After the completion of 4 months, this activity has to be done once in 10 days. The seedlings of bell pepper are planted in a zig-zag pattern on the beds. 

Diseases of bell pepper: 

Mainly the disease is fungal diseases that include damping off, grey mold, pythium, powdery mildew, fruit rot, etc. 


This is a disease of seeds that occurs when the plant has just started to grow. Pythium and Rhizoctonia solani are carriers of this fungal disease. In this disease, fungi destroy the root system of the plant. Some plants having this disease may have the potential to grow mature however these fungi will cause root rot and gradually kill the plant.

Growing the seedlings in an inert medium can help avoid this fungal disease however the reason for this disease can be poor sanitation in a greenhouse or improper soil, or climate or not irrigating on time can also be responsible for this.

When this crop is grown at a commercial level, the seedlings are transplanted from the greenhouse to Rockwool where the best conditions are provided and chances of any disease are also very less. Selecting fresh and healthy seeds and growing the plant under ideal conditions can help control the disease. 

Root rot or pythium crown disease:

This disease is not very common and usually occurs after the dumping of the disease. The main reason for this disease is stressful conditions in the greenhouse. This disease can be under control by growing the plant in ideal conditions and maintaining the temperature in the root zone and irrigating them from time to time. 

Fusarium stem or fruit rot:

In this dark brown soft, and black lesions appear on the stems. This fungal disease is mainly caused by Fusarium solani. These black lesions may also be seen around the calyx and this degrades the quality of food.

Fusarium stem or fruit rot of bell pepper

To avoid this fungal disease, the greenhouse should be neat and clean and some sanitation should be exercised to prevent fruit rot. The plants that are infected should be immediately and carefully removed from the greenhouse to avoid the spread of disease to every plant.

The greenhouse should be properly ventilated so that it has good air circulation and talking about the humidity, it should not rise more than 85 percent otherwise it will be harmful. 

Also Read: Why Are Bottom of Tomatoes Turning Black: Blossom End Rot

Gray mold fungal disease:

The fungus Botrytis cinerea is responsible for gray mold disease. It is a very common disease. High humidity and bad air circulation favor this disease. In this disease, the fungi get into the crop from the wounded area where greenish colored lesions develop.

gray mold fungal disease in bell-pepper

These lesions griddle the stem and the plant dies at the end. The gray mold infection is usually found in the wounded area or calyx in the beginning. To avoid this fungal infection, proper air circulation has to be maintained and the relative humidity should not be more than 85 percent. 

Powdery mildew:

This is the next disease of bell pepper. This disease is mainly caused by Leveilluta Taura. This disease was first reported in Canada. In this disease, the overall crop yield decreases by 10 to 15 percent. In this disease, the white powdery layer can be seen on the surface of the leaf. 

These were some of the fungal diseases and their symptoms and control. Next comes the diseases caused by viruses. 

  • PMMV:

Pepper mild mottle virus: In this disease, any part of the plant can get infected. This disease is very difficult to detect until the plants start fruiting. In this disease further, the growth of a plant can be infected. Symptoms of this fruit occur well before the stunting symptoms and include the development of obvious bumps on the fruit as well as color streaking and green spotting when the fruit matures to color. The fruit is very sharp from the corners and may also develop sunken brown areas on the external skin.

Daily use of skim milk as a dip while handling the plants helps to prevent the spread of the virus in the crop. Skim milk has the protein that helps to bind to the virus and disables it. The virus is secure in the sap of the plant. This virus easily expands from plant to plant.

Once the plants start fruiting, PMMV (pepper mild mottle virus) can be easily detected in the plant through its symptoms on the vegetative parts of the plant. Infected plants should be pulled out very carefully and crushed because the virus can survive in a dry plant also. If all plants bear normal fruit, then it means that the plant is known disease-free and the use of skim milk can be stopped.

  • Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)

Tobacco mosaic virus disease can be found in greenhouse pepper throughout the world. Initially, the symptoms of this virus can be noticed on the surface of the leaf-like an injury with the main veins. Along with this wilting and leaf drop can also be observed. Also when the new plants start growing, then also these symptoms and this disease can be found in the plant and even it degrades the growth of a new plant.

To avoid this virus disease-free seeds should be used. The utility of skim milk dip can be helpful. The fully grown plant may carry the disease without showing any symptoms of the disease plants. 

  • Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

Tomato spotted wilt virus TSWV has a long list of hosts that upsets almost 300 different species of plants. Thrips are the main reason for the spread of this virus, these thrips are the main problem in the greenhouse plants.

There are blackish-brown round shaped spots or tan spots that are surrounded by a black margin. 

 When the fruit ripens, the color of the fruit changes with orange to yellow spots having a green margin. Green spots can also be noticed at the backside of the ripened fruit that is red, yellow, or orange. 

Control of this virus:

This virus can be controlled by checking on the thrips and controlling them. In the starting, knowledge about thrips control and the other reasons for the spread of this disease should be gathered. One should take care of all the symptoms to avoid the disease.

Check on weed is also very important as if you don’t cut off the weeds it will suck all the necessary nutrients and the plant quality will degrade. Ornamental plants should be kept away from the greenhouse as they can also be a source of the virus.

Harvesting of bell pepper: 

The activity of harvesting can be initiated after completion of 2 months after plantation. However red and yellow capsicums take 3 months to become mature. Harvesting is done at the interval of 10 days and is carried out for almost 200 days.

Harvesting of bell pepper

After harvesting these can be stored in a cool place. These fruits are wrapped properly and then stored at a temperature of about 8° C and can be stored maximum for two months. After wrapping the capsicums, these can be packed in cartons of different sizes according to the need.  

Tips for growing bell peppers: 

  1. Mulching should be done from time to time and properly for good quality and high production. 
  2. Irrigation also has to be done properly as bell pepper needs deep watering. Especially in dry conditions watering should be done on time otherwise the fruit will taste bitter.
  3. Bell Peppers are warm climate crops and need proper sunlight for good growth.
  4. Using the correct fertilizer is very important as this greatly affect the crop yield
  5. Staking is not compulsory in bell pepper however it can help the crop to keep it off the floor. 
  6. Keeping a check on the pests is very important to avoid the diseases and hence suitable insecticides or pesticides should be used


Bell pepper farming is a very fun activity as well as a profitable business. One should take care of all the necessary activities and take proper care of the crop.