How to: Growing Lettuce In Raised Beds? Spacing Lettuce Plants

Growing lettuce in raised beds can be expensive when compared to growing in ground. However, it is highly recommended when the garden soil isn’t well drained.

Raised beds has there share of pros and cons. If you provide adequate sunlight, sufficient water and needed nutrients you can easily grow quality lettuce in your backyard. Raised beds can be made from wood or other materials. It’s also easy to take care of them.

Planting lettuce will give you fresh lettuce to eat all season. You can feel proud that your hard work has made something tasty.

You can make your own garden with some easy steps and tools. You can grow delicious vegetables like leafy greens in your garden.

What is the best lettuce Varieties to grow in raised beds?

You can grow different kinds of lettuce in a raised bed garden. These include romaine, butterhead, and loose leaf types.

Select the lettuce variety that best meets your preferences and ideal growing conditions. Crisp romaine is a fantastic option for salads, while butterhead and loose leaf lettuces are more tender with a delectable taste.

What are Benefits of Raised beds?

Raised bed use less space and the soil drains better. The use of a plastic covering offers the added advantage of enhanced soil temperature regulation, as it helps to keep lettuce from prematurely flowering in extreme heat.

Not only are raised beds more manageable for weeding and maintenance, but with the right attention they can supply a consistent harvest of nourishing greens year-round.

How do I prepare the raised bed for planting?

Raised beds can be made with different materials like wood, stone, bricks, or plastic. The sides need to be strong enough to hold the weight of the soil and plants without falling down.

The size of your bed depends on how much lettuce you want to grow. Most beds are 2-3 feet wide and 4-5 feet long.

Once you know what shape and materials to use for your garden, put in the soil and compost that your plants need. Then add the seedlings or seeds.

How to Grow Lettuce in Raised Beds?

Growing lettuce in a raised bed is easy and can give you lots of lettuce for a long time. To get started, make sure your raised bed is ready.

To begin, you must sow your lettuce seeds or seedlings. It all depends on which kind of lettuce you are planting; they may need to be spaced a few inches apart or planted in rows.

To optimize growth, make sure to plant lettuce seeds at least 6 inches apart in rows. Afterward, cover the seeds lightly with soil and water them every day.


In only 7-10 days, you can witness the miracle of seed germination occur. To ensure that your plants are healthy and strong, make sure to thin them out once they’ve sprouted.

Give your lettuce plant about 6 hours of sun exposure. Give them water regularly, too. Take care of them and they will become healthier and fuller.

  • To germinate lettuce seeds, soak them in warm water for 12-24 hours. This helps make it easier for the seeds to grow.
  • Fill a tray or shallow container with moist soil. Sprinkle the seeds on top. Put a small amount of soil over the seeds. Spray some water over them so they stay moist.
  • Put the seeds in a warm and sunny place. They need little moisture to germinate, it may take 7-10 days to grow.
  • When the plants are big enough, take them out of their current container and put them in a bigger pot or raised bed. Be careful when you do this.

Best Soil for growing Lettuce in Raised Beds

When growing lettuce in raised beds, it is important to pick the right soil.

The best soil for lettuce has a mixture of organic matter, compost, and sand. It should be light and fluffy.

This type of soil helps water and food stay in the soil. If your soil is not very good, add some old animal poop or compost to make it better.

To make sure your lettuce grows well, ensure the soil pH ranges between 6.0 to 7.0.


Watering lettuce in raised beds is very important. If you don’t give the plants enough water, they won’t grow as much and could get sick.

Check the moisture levels of your lettuce’s soil every few days. This will make sure it has enough water to stay healthy. If the soil feels dry, water your plants.

To help your lettuce, spread organic materials like straw or grass clippings around the beds. This will help keep the soil moist and stop weeds from growing.

Watering lettuce too much can cause problems. These problems could be root rot, not enough nutrients, or the plant not growing as much.

To grow lettuce in raised beds, you need to water it correctly. Check the soil regularly to make sure you don’t give it too much water.

Not giving enough water to lettuce grown in raised beds can cause problems. These include wilting, not getting the right nutrients, and the plants not growing very big.

To help lettuce in raised beds get enough water, use the right way to water it and check the soil moisture levels often.

How to water lettuce in raised bed?

When watering lettuce in raised beds, use the right method. The best way is with a soaker hose or drip irrigation system. This way water will go directly to the roots and not hurt the leaves.

Water your lettuce slowly and give it lots of water. Check the soil moisture levels a few days later to make sure the lettuce is getting enough water.

If the soil feels dry, water the plants. Check if the soil still feels dry after watering. If it does, give the plants more water.


When you are growing lettuce in raised beds, it needs to get enough nutrients. You can give it these nutrients with organic fertilizer like aged manure or compost tea.

This type of fertilizer helps feed your plants slowly over time. It gives them the nutrients they need to stay healthy.

You can also use liquid fertilizer like fish emulsion or seaweed extract to help your plants grow. This type of fertilizer will give them extra nutrients right away.


Lettuce needs 6 hours of sunlight every day to grow well. If your lettuce bed does not get enough sunlight, you might need to give it extra light or move it somewhere sunnier.

It is important to keep your lettuce away from strong winds and hot afternoons. If these things happen, it can hurt the lettuce and you won’t get as many lettuce leaves.

Pests & Diseases

Lettuce can be attacked by different bugs and diseases. These include aphids, slugs, lettuce root aphid, downy mildew, and white rust.

To have healthy plants in your raised beds, be careful with how you care for them. Check on them often to make sure they are doing okay. You may also want to use insecticides or fungicides to prevent pests and diseases.

Harvesting & Storage

When you pick lettuce from a raised bed, be careful not to hurt the roots. If you do, it will give you less lettuce in the future.

Wait until the heads of the plant have finished growing. Then use a sharp knife or scissors to cut them off at the bottom.

It is important to keep lettuce fresh and tasty. To do this, wrap the heads in a cloth or paper towel that is damp. Put them in the refrigerator afterwards.

Growth Stages of Lettuce in Raised Bed


It takes lettuce seeds 5 to 10 days to start growing. When this happens, you will see the new seedling come up from the soil and grow its first leaves.

It is important to keep the soil wet when your seeds are growing. If it is too dry, the seeds won’t grow properly.

Vegetative Growth:

Once lettuce plants start to grow real leaves, they will begin to grow quickly. They will get bigger and make more leaves.

Give your lettuce the right food it needs. This will help it to be healthy when it is ready to pick.


As the lettuce plants get older, they will enter the bolting stage. The lettuce heads will start to form and the leaves will turn yellow and curl up into a ball in the center of the head. This means that the lettuce is ready for us to pick.


When the lettuce heads have formed and the leaves turn yellow, it’s time to pick them. Use a sharp knife or scissors to cut the lettuce heads at their base.

After picking your lettuce, put it in the fridge to help keep it fresh.

If you take good care of it, your raised bed garden can yield a delicious bounty of crisp and flavorful lettuce.

Lettuce spacing raised bed

When planting lettuce, leave 10-12 inches between each plant. This will help the plants grow better and give you more lettuce.

When you are growing plants in a raised bed, it is important to check the soil. Make sure the soil is loose and not waterlogged. The roots need space so they don’t get too crowded.

If you need to, put some organic mulch like straw or grass clippings around the base of your plants. This will help stop weeds and keep the soil moist.

Tips on Planting lettuce in raised beds

1. Start with quality soil: Before you plant lettuce, check the soil in the raised bed. Make sure it is good quality and has lots of organic matter. This will help your lettuce get all the nutrients it needs to grow well.

2. Space your plants properly: When planting lettuce in raised beds, leave enough room between the plants. This will give them enough sunlight and air to help them grow. It will also make sure they do not get too close together.

3. Mulch generously: Put a thick layer of mulch around your lettuce plants. This will help keep them cool, hold in water, and stop weeds from growing.

4. Monitor for pests: Regularly analyzing your lettuce plants for potential pest and disease issues is essential to preventing future infestations. Fix problems when you first notice them. That way, they won’t get worse.

5. Water regularly: Water your lettuce plants often. This will help them to stay strong and healthy. If you have trouble keeping the soil moist, you can use a drip irrigation system to water them regularly.

If you follow these tips, your lettuce in the raised beds will be successful and full of lettuce! With good care, you can enjoy a yummy harvest of crunchy and tasty lettuce.

How long does lettuce take to grow in raised beds?

Lettuce takes about 3 months to grow in a raised bed.

During these 3 months, it will start from being a seed, get bigger and bigger, and then be ready for harvesting. In perfect conditions, some lettuce might be ready to pick in 6-8 weeks.

How to Plant romaine lettuce in raised garden beds?

If you are planting romaine lettuce in a raised garden bed, it is important to choose soil that has good quality and has a lot of organic matter.

This will help the lettuce get all the nutrients it needs to be strong and healthy.

Start by tilling the soil in the raised bed. Then, spread the lettuce seeds across it and make sure they are spaced apart.

This will give them enough sunlight and air to help them grow well. Sow the seeds into the soil and then spread a thin layer of mulch or compost over them.

How long does it take for lettuce to form head?

It will take lettuce plants 2-3 months to form heads. To help this process move faster, give the plants enough sunlight, airflow, and water.


Growing lettuce in raised beds can be fun. With these steps and tips, you can make sure you get a lot of yummy lettuce all season.

If you take good care of it, you can get lots of delicious lettuce from your garden.

Follow the steps and tips for growing lettuce in raised beds. That way, your crop will be big and delicious.

If you have good soil, and space your plants apart the right way, use mulch, keep bugs away, and water the plants correctly, then you can have a great crop of lettuce.

How to Grow Lemongrass from Scraps?

Growing your own lemongrass at home is a fun and rewarding way to add a unique and refreshing flavour to your cooking. Not only is it a great addition to dishes like stir-fries and soups, but it has various health benefits.

Lemongrass is a tropical perennial plant native to Southeast Asia that is widely used in cooking and herbal remedies. It has a lemon-like flavour and aroma and is commonly used in dishes such as soups, curries, and marinades. It is also believed to have various health benefits, including aiding digestion, reducing anxiety and stress, and boosting the immune system.

But did you know that you don’t need to buy a whole lemongrass plant to start growing your own? That’s right, with just a few lemongrass cuttings and some basic supplies, you can easily propagate your own lemongrass at home. And the best part? It’s super easy and low maintenance. So put those leftover lemongrass stalks to good use, and let’s get growing!

How to Grow Lemongrass from Cuttings?

Well, growing lemongrass from scraps is easy. Just follow these simple points as given below – 

1. Cuttings

To get the cuttings for growing lemongrass, gather a few healthy stalks from an established plant. Using a sharp knife or pruning shears, cut off a few inches from the base of the stalks, making sure to leave at least one growing tip on each stalk. Put the cuttings in a clean container that is filled with water. Also, you can buy it from the nearest store too. 

2. Start Growing Roots

Once the lemongrass cuttings are prepared, it is time to start growing roots. You can either plant the cuttings in soil or place them in water to start growing roots. If planting in soil, fill a container with well-draining potting soil and place the cuttings in the soil, making sure that the growing tips are facing upwards. Water the soil and place the container in a sunny location. If growing in water, place the cuttings in a container filled with water and put it in a sunny location. Change the water every few days to maintain its freshness.

3. Watering it and Pruning

As the lemongrass grows, be sure to water it regularly to keep the soil evenly moist. Avoid overwatering, as this can be the problem of the plant rotting. Watering it every day or twice a week works well. Prune the plants as needed to encourage healthy growth and eliminate any dead or destroyed leaves.

4. Harvesting

Once the lemongrass plants are established and healthy, you can begin harvesting them. To do this, cut off the stalks at the base of the plant, making sure to leave a few inches of growth so that the plant can continue to thrive. Lemongrass can be stored in the fridge for a few weeks, or it can be frozen or dried for longer-term storage. Enjoy your homegrown lemongrass in a variety of dishes, or use it to make refreshing teas and so on.

Also Read: What Does Blight Look Like On Cucumber?

What are the Benefits Of Growing Lemongrass from Scraps?

There are numerous benefits to growing lemongrass from cuttings, both, for the home gardener and for the environment. Here are a few key benefits of growing lemongrass from cuttings:

  1. Healthy: Lemongrass has numerous health benefits, including aiding digestion, reducing anxiety and stress, and boosting the immune system. By growing your own lemongrass, you can have a fresh, sustainable supply of this beneficial herb.
  2. Easy to grow: Lemongrass is a relatively easy plant to grow and can be grown in a variety of containers, making it suitable for those with limited gardening space. It prefers well-draining, slightly acidic soil and plenty of sunlight, and is relatively low-maintenance once established.
  3. Versatile: Lemongrass has a wide range of uses in cooking and home remedies, making it a versatile and useful plant to have on hand. It can be used in dishes such as soups, marinades, and curries, or steeped in hot water to make a soothing tea. It can also be added to homemade bath and body products for a refreshing and invigorating experience.

Also Read: Is Lawn Fertilizer Safe for Vegetable Garden?

Common Problems with Lemongrass

Growing lemongrass is generally a low-maintenance and trouble-free process, but there are a few common problems that may arise. Here are some common problems with lemongrass are – 

  1. Yellowing leaves: If the leaves of your lemongrass plants start to turn yellow, it could be a sign of over-watering or under-watering. Be sure to water the plants evenly and only when the soil is dry to the touch. Yellowing leaves may also be a sign of a nutrient deficiency, in which case adding a fertilizer formulated for herbs may help.
  2. Pests: Aphids and mealybugs are common pests that can attack lemongrass plants and damage the leaves. To prevent pests, keep the plants well-watered and avoid over-fertilizing. If pests appear, try using natural remedies such as neem oil or horticultural soap to control them.
  3. Slow growth: If your lemongrass plants are not growing as quickly as you would like, it could be a sign of insufficient sunlight or poor soil quality. Be sure to choose a location with plenty of sunlight and use well-draining, slightly acidic soil. Adding a fertilizer formulated for herbs may also help to promote healthy growth.
  4. Stunted growth: If your lemongrass plants are not growing very tall, it could be a sign of insufficient sunlight or over-watering. Be sure to choose a location with plenty of sunlight and avoid overwatering the plants.
  5. Root rot: Root rot is a common problem that can occur if the soil is consistently waterlogged or if the plants are overwatered. To prevent root rot, be sure to use well-draining soil and water the plants evenly, only when the soil is dry to the touch. If you notice that the plants are suffering from root rot, removing the infected plants and improving the soil drainage may help.

Check this out: How Much Sunlight Does Broccoli Need?

Caring for Lemongrass

Caring for lemongrass plants is relatively easy and requires only a few basic steps. Here are some tips for caring for lemongrass:

  1. Water the plants evenly: Lemongrass prefers well-draining soil, and watering by 1 inch per week is best. Be sure to water the plants evenly, avoiding over-watering or under-watering.
  2. Choose a sunny location: Lemongrass requires plenty of sunlight to thrive, so be sure to choose a location that receives at least six hours of sunlight per day. A sunny windowsill or patio is a good choice.
  3. Use well-draining soil: Well-draining soil is important for preventing root rot, a common problem with lemongrass. Be sure to use a well-draining soil mix which is rich and loamy soil.
  4. Fertilize the plants: Adding a fertilizer formulated for herbs can help to promote healthy growth and prevent nutrient deficiencies. You can use slow-release fertilizer for lemongrass.


Growing lemongrass from scraps is a sustainable and cost-effective way to have a constant supply of this delicious and beneficial herb. Not only does it reduce the reliance on store-bought lemongrass, which may have been grown using pesticides and other chemicals, but it also provides the opportunity to have a fresh and healthy supply of lemongrass at your fingertips. 

The process of growing lemongrass is relatively simple and requires only a few basic materials and tools. With proper care, including regular watering and fertilizing, and choosing a sunny location, your lemongrass plants will thrive.

Is Lawn Fertilizer Safe for Vegetable Garden?

Have you ever considered using leftover lawn fertilizer to give your vegetable garden a boost? After all, it’s all-natural and good for the grass, so it must be good for your vegetables, right? So, is lawn fertilizer safe for your vegetable garden? No, you can’t use it, as lawn fertilizer can harm your vegetable garden to a great extent.

Before you go spreading that bag of lawn fertilizer around your vegetable garden, it’s important to understand the differences between fertilizers formulated for lawns and those formulated for vegetable gardens. While both types of fertilizers are designed to nourish and promote healthy growth, the specific needs of grass and vegetables are quite different. 

Lawns and vegetables garden have diverse nutrient needs, and using the incorrect kind of fertilizer can lead to over-fertilization or even toxic buildup in the soil.

What are lawn fertilizers? 

Lawn fertilizers are specifically designed to provide nutrients to grass and other plants that are commonly found in lawns. These fertilizers typically contain a combination of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential nutrients for healthy grass growth. 

Is Lawn Fertilizer Same As Plant Fertilizer?

So, are lawn fertilizers the same as plant fertilizers? In some ways, yes – both types of fertilizers contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and both are used to provide nutrients to plants. However, there are some key differences between the two.

The common N-P-K ratios for the lawn are 6-4-0 and 29-0-5. Lawn fertilizers typically have a higher ratio of nitrogen compared to phosphorus and potassium. That is because nitrogen is essential for healthy grass growth, and a higher ratio of nitrogen can help to promote leafy green grass.

Plant fertilizers, on the other hand, may have a different NPK ratio depending on the specific needs of the plant being fertilized. For example, a plant fertilizer for vegetables may have a higher ratio of phosphorus, which is essential for strong root growth and fruit production. Here are some examples of NPK ratios that are commonly found in plant fertilizers: 2-7-4, 3-4-4, 10-10-10, and 24-8-6

Also Read: Why Are My Potatoes So Small?

Risk of Using Lawn Fertilizer On Vegetable Garden

There are several potential risks to consider when using lawn fertilizers in a vegetable garden.

One risk is the possibility of contaminating the soil and water with excess nutrients. Lawn fertilizers are typically applied at a higher rate than plant fertilizers, and using too much can lead to excess nutrients in the soil. Another risk is that they contain too much nitrogen, which can kill your vegetable plant.

Also Read: How Much Sunlight Does Broccoli Need?

What to Avoid When Fertilizing Vegetable Garden?

Fertilizing a vegetable garden is an important part of maintaining healthy and productive plants. However, it is also important to be aware of potential mistakes that can be made when fertilizing, as these can lead to problems with the plants and the soil. Here are some points to avoid while fertilizing a Vegetable garden – 

1. Over-fertilizing 

One common mistake that is easy to make when fertilizing a vegetable garden is using too much fertilizer. While it is vital to provide your plants with the nutrients they need to thrive, using too much fertilizer can lead to excess nutrients in the soil. It is important to carefully follow the instructions on the fertilizer label and use the appropriate amount for your plants.

2. Not testing the soil 

Before fertilizing your vegetable garden, it is vital to test the soil to determine what nutrients it is lacking. Different vegetables have different nutrient needs, and it is important to provide them with the right balance of nutrients. Soil testing kits are readily available at garden centres and online, and they can help you determine the nutrient levels in your soil and choose the appropriate fertilizers.

3. Using the wrong fertilizers 

Another mistake to avoid is using fertilizers that are not suitable for vegetables. Lawn fertilizers, for example, are formulated for grass and can harm your vegetable garden. It is vital to choose fertilizers that are specifically formulated for vegetables like the N-P-K ratio 2-7-4, 3-4-4, 10-10-10, and 24-8-6. Provide the necessary nutrients in the appropriate balance.

4. Ignoring the pH of the soil 

The pH of the soil or the measure of its acidity or alkalinity can also affect the availability of nutrients to your plants. Different vegetables have different pH preferences, and it is important to choose fertilizers that are appropriate for the pH of your soil. Soil testing kits can help you determine the pH of your soil, and you can choose fertilizers that are formulated for the pH range of your soil.

5. Avoid Synthetic Fertilizers

Do not use synthetic fertilizers in your vegetable garden as they contain compounds which are harmful to your plant. Make your own compost or go for an organic one. 

Check this out: Do Asparagus Need Full Sun to Grow?

How to choose the safe and right fertilizer for your vegetable garden?

Here are some points to keep in mind while choosing the right fertilizer for your vegetable garden – 

  • Choose a fertilizer that is specifically formulated for vegetables. There are many plant fertilizers on the market that are specifically suitable for vegetables, and these products will provide the necessary nutrients in the appropriate balance for your vegetables.
  • Pay attention to the NPK ratio. The NPK ratio refers to the ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the fertilizer. Different vegetables have different nutrient needs, so it is important to choose a fertilizer with the appropriate NPK ratio for your specific vegetables.
  • Consider using an organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizers are made from natural sources, such as compost or animal manure, and they can be a safe and effective option for vegetable gardens.

Why Organic Fertilizer is a Good Choice?

There are many benefits to using organic fertilizer, including –

  • Improved soil health: Organic fertilizers help to improve the structure and fertility of the soil over time, as they add organic matter to the soil. This can lead to healthier and more productive plants.
  • Safe for the environment: Organic fertilizers are made from natural sources, and they do not contain synthetic chemicals that can potentially harm the environment. They are also less likely to leach into the water supply, which can be a concern with synthetic fertilizers.
  • Safe for humans and pets: Organic fertilizers are safe for humans and pets, as they do not contain synthetic chemicals that can be harmful if ingested. This is particularly vital for vegetable gardens, where products are consumed.
  • Sustainable: Organic fertilizers are a sustainable choice, as they are made from natural sources and do not deplete the soil of nutrients over time. This means that they can be used repeatedly without causing long-term harm to the soil.


The use of lawn fertilizers in vegetable gardens can be a bad choice for you. Yet, it is vital to carefully consider the potential risks before using a lawn fertilizer in a vegetable garden. Lawn fertilizers are formulated to provide a higher ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and potassium, which is beneficial for grass growth, but may not be suitable for vegetables. 

It is vital to choose a fertilizer that is particularly made for only vegetable gardens. By following proper fertilization techniques and selecting the appropriate fertilizer, you can help to ensure that your vegetable garden receives the nutrients it needs to thrive without exposing it to unnecessary risks.

Blossom End Rot On Watermelons

The watermelon plant belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family that produces flowers. It produces delicious fruits that are eaten worldwide and are full of nutrition. But it can be affected by various harmful diseases.

Blossom end rot is also one of them. This piece of content provides detailed information on Blossom End Rot on Watermelon. 


  • The appearance of the burned portion of the fruit of the watermelon plant. 
  • Formation of light brown spots that turn into lesions that darken and dry over time. Sunken leathery spots are also visible. 
  • Decaying of fruits at a fast rate. 

Although the disease is not contagious, the removal of infected plants is a must. 

Causes of Blossom End Rot On Watermelons

  • Water is taken into plants through their root system. It is utilized by plants and some of it evaporates. Water evaporates from the leaves of plants. This situation occurs when the sun warms up the plant surface. Water from leaves transpires and more water takes its place and thus the plant does not burn. The leaf surface is smooth, water movement from other parts to leaves is easy and quick.

On the contrary, fruits have harder skin. Thus, the movement of water is not fast as the pull of water is slow. 

Therefore, the bottom portion of the fruit deprives moisture and burns. It usually darkens or appears shriveled. Decaying also starts occurring eventually. More organisms like insects can attack easily. 

  • Imbalance in Ca levels is also a major cause of blossom rot in watermelon. Ca is immobile relatively. But due to heavy transpiration Ca be moved to leaves in high amounts making fruits deprived of them. 

Prevention of Blossom End Rot On Watermelons

Soil conditions

Proper soil conditions are so important to ensure healthy growth in plants. In case the soil fertility of your planting site is unfit, a variety of diseases and abnormalities are bound to occur. Infected plants are of no use and even distracts from a healthy crop. 

Therefore, getting your soil tested is highly recommended. It will aware you of things that your soil has more or what it lacks. Moreover, it is important to know the pH level of the soil. 

All you need to do is, take a small sample of soil and take it to the nearest lab for agricultural testing. It will provide you proper details about the nutrient level and pH level of the soil. 

This will make sure you provide only necessary nutrients and do not overdo it. 

In the case of watermelon, 6.5 on a pH scale is perfect for its growth. Anything above or below will lead to complications. 

Fall is a perfect time to test the soil before sowing watermelon seeds in the spring season.

Next, if the soil lacks in Ca, it leads to blossom end rot in watermelon. After checking soil 3 months before planting, add lime to the soil to overcome Ca deficiency. 

Get the soil tested every 3 years for proper growth. If soil is problematic then annual testing is suggested. 

Must Read: How To Do Watermelon Farming?


Keeping the soil moist at all times with proper and regular watering is a must to avoid this disease. 

The water content of soil changes and keeps fluctuating from dry to wet at times of watermelon blossoming is inadequate. This can lead to melon blossom end rot in watermelons. 

Irregular watering leads to uneven intake of Ca by watermelon plants. 

However, this disease can be caused even when there is a proper amount of Ca. if there is improper water at the time of fruit formation or blossom developing. 

To avoid disease, 1- 1.5 inch water level should be provided during fruiting periods. 

Nitrogen Content 

If nitrogen is present in limited amounts in soil, blossom end rot can occur possibly. 

The work of nitrogen is to increase the size of leaves in plants. If nitrogen is found in an improper amount, the size will be affected obviously. 

Due to this, more Ca is directed towards fruits. This leads to an imbalance in Ca amount and causes Blossom end rot. 

Watermelon rotting on Vine

Watermelons rotting on the vine are possibly visible in conditions like Blossom end rot, Belly Rot, Gummy Stem Blight, Bacterial Fruit Blotch, and Rind Necrosis. 


  • Watermelons should be planted in well-drained soil to ensure proper watering and moisture conditions. This ensures plants develop a deep and large root system to absorb healthy amounts of Ca from the soil. 
  • Mulch can also be used to retain moisture in the soil. It compresses weeds too. 2-4 inches of mulch is perfect for watermelon plants. It holds moisture in the soil by blocking evaporation. 

Watermelon Growing Problems

Growing watermelon is not a piece of cake. It comes with problems. There can be watermelon plant problems that affect fruiting and render plants useless. 

Few diseases and abnormalities are mentioned below-

  • Leaf Curling- leaves curl under and turn yellow. They get deformed and can be easily identified. Aphids are tiny, oval creatures that reside on the underside of leaves and lead to this abnormality. It releases a sticky substance known as Honeydew. It is advised to use insecticidal soap. 
  • Leave discoloration- leaves start turning yellow, pale green, or brown. Spider mites can be a possible reason behind this. Spraying water can help in getting rid of such insects. Infected leaf removal can be better as it protects the whole plant. 
  • Tunnels on leaves- Trails or tunnels are observed on leaves. It is caused by leaf miner larvae. Cultivate a garden to decrease this disease occurrence. Larvae get destroyed upon cultivation. 
  • Water-soaked blotches- leaves get infected and suffer from the appearance of water-soaked blotches. Angular leaf spots can appear which turn yellow or crisp. Pruning leaves infected by this disease can prove helpful. Do not wet foliage much as wetting leads to disease. 
  • Bitter Fruits- inadequate pollination can cause bitterness of fruit and misshapen fruits. Dry soil and high temperatures also lead to this condition. Poor soil fertility is disastrous. 


Blossom end rot is a harmful condition in plants that destroys fruit and makes them inedible. Infected fruits cannot be treated to turn them into healthy ones. But, prevention is better than cure.

Therefore, following the preventive measures mentioned above can assure you healthy and edible fruits of melon. 

Why do my broccoli leaves turn yellow?

Broccoli is a crop that requires high amounts of nitrogen from the soil. If the soil lacks nitrogen, then the broccoli leaves can turn yellow. Hence the main and common reason for broccoli leaves turning yellow is a deficiency of nitrogen.

In this, the lower parts get affected first and it continues towards the whole plant. In critical conditions, the whole plant can even turn yellow and die. This broccoli is edible but can taste bitter. One can also cut off the yellow part and use the rest. 

Besides, leaves don’t just turn yellow due to less nitrogen but this can also be due to lack of other nutrients. Along with a lack of nutrients, moisture stress can be another reason for this.

So to stop your broccoli leaves from turning yellow, one should make sure that your plants get enough nitrogen and all other nutrients along with proper moisture. Also to keep your broccoli fresh, you should avoid wrapping your vegetable in plastic and use damp paper towels instead before storing them. 

Why do my broccoli leaves turn yellow:

Broccoli is a crop grown in cold climatic conditions. It requires sufficient light. It requires Sandy soil that is rich in nitrogen and has a slightly acidic pH. There are mainly three situations where the leaves of a broccoli plant can turn yellow.

The first one of them is becoming yellow with time also called maturity yellowing, the next is due to lack of nitrogen and the last is any fungal disease. 

Getting yellow as it becomes mature:

The head or the main edible part of the broccoli is made up of very small flowers. When the broccoli becomes mature, ready to harvest then these flowers turn yellow and start to produce seeds if they are not harvested for a long time.

However, these seeds can be used for the next generations. When the main part becomes mature, the buds start expanding and till the flower bursts, the head part of the plant turns yellow. This yellowish broccoli hence lacks all the nutrients and is also bitter. 

Lack of nitrogen:

As told earlier, broccoli needs a lot of nitrogen from the soil. If the soil lacks nitrogen, then the broccoli leaves will start turning yellow. Starting from the lower part the leaves gradually turn yellow to upwards. In uttermost conditions, the whole plant can turn yellow and die at the end. 

Any fungal disease:

Fusarium oxysporum is a type of fungus that affects broccoli plants that can cause yellowing of the leaves of the plant. This fungus mainly enters the plant through the new roots or through old roots during transferring the plant to the main field. This fungus makes its way through the stem to leaves resulting in the leaves turning yellow. This fungus is very dangerous and kills the plant.  

Along with these above-mentioned reasons some diseases are also the reason behind the yellowing of leaves. Downy mildew is the first disease that is accountable for the broccoli leaves turning yellow. It is also a type of fungal disease.

Must Read: Growing the Microgreen Broccoli

The fungus named Peronospora parasitica causes Downy mildew. This fungus can act upon both seedlings as well as the mature plant part. In this, the leaves of the broccoli turn yellow. High moisture content supports this fungal disease. In this disease, mainly the leaves at the bottom get affected. 

Prevention of Downy mildew: For avoiding this, one should plant the crops at sufficient distances. Also, take care that you water the crop near the roots so that the leaves don’t get wet. Besides this one can also use chemicals or fungicides to control the disease.

You should spray the fungicides at weekly intervals after transplanting the plant. Use these fungicides on the leaves present at the bottom. Avoid fungicides when the temperature is more than 35° C. 

The next one is an Alternaria leaf spot. It is again a type of fungal disease in which Alternaria species is responsible. This disease occurs when the conditions are warm as well as moist. You can see small dark shade spots on the stems as the symptoms of the disease.

In the matured plants round spots of brown color can be noticed on the leaves and the leaves gradually turn yellow with time in this disease. A temperature of 15 to 35 °C supports the disease. 

How to prevent and treat this disease: one should clean up all the debris after harvesting. This disease can also be very easily spread through the infected tools or wind or splashing water or through insects hence one should take care of all this. Other than this one can also use chemicals and fungicides to control the disease.

Black rot is the next disease that is spread by bacteria named Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris. In this disease mainly the parts above the ground get affected. In this V-shaped lesions of yellow color appear on the leaves that expand with time. 

For black rot disease, no chemical cure is available so the plant must be prevented from this disease. For this, all the debris should be removed from the field.

Also, weeds should be cut off from time to time. Seeds of infected plants should not be used at all. Wind, splashing water, insects, etc. are also the reason behind the disease. High temperature and moisture also support the disease so these conditions should be avoided. Disease-free tools should be used in broccoli farming. Also, the seeds should be free from infection. 

Bottom line:

There are many different reasons for broccoli leaves turning yellow. They may be insufficient nutrients or some diseases. So one should provide sufficient amounts of required nutrients to the crop and also keep a check on the symptoms so that if any disease is there it can be treated on time.

Why Are My Radishes Growing Above Ground

Radishes are a healthy and versatile plant. They can be consumed as toppings on salads used in western dishes too. The juice of radishes is full of nutrition. It is also cooked as a vegetable in various parts of the world. Along with all of this, radishes are so easy to grow and consume. 

But while growing radishes you can face some problems too. Problems that occur while growing radishes can be woody stems, bitter taste, cracking in roots, not forming bulbs, too hot taste. And while growing radishes, one question you might ask is, why my radishes are growing above ground?

Here we shall discuss why radishes grow above ground and solutions to this problem too. 

First, check out these numerous benefits of radishes. 

They can be eaten raw or can be cooked too. Only half a cup of radish has enough vitamin C to fulfill your daily need. It also has nutrients like vitamin K, vitamin B6, potassium, niacin, phosphorus, riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. 

Along with this, extracts in roots of radish have the power to kill cancerous cells. It is also great for bowls. To add to this, radish consumption can control blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Gastric ulcers can be cured by radish juice. Natural antifungal agents are present too. 

Why are my radishes growing above ground?

There can be few reasons behind this and they are mentioned below-

1. Imperfect Soil

If soil is not fit and does not match the required criteria for growth then abnormalities are obvious. Soil should be loose and crumpy to grow perfect and healthy radishes. In case, the soil is too compact, roots do not get enough space to expand. Therefore, first, they grow small in size.

Next, when they have no space to expand, they push themselves out and radishes start growing above ground. This situation can be prevented by loosening soil a little. It provides enough space to grow freely and thus, they do not pop out. 

The soil must be loosened and well maintained with compost and dry leaves up to 14 inches. 

By the time radishes start popping out of the ground, the problem would have increased very much without you noticing. Thus, if they come out by a quarter of an inch, check soil integrity. 

2. Seeds not sown deep enough

Seed packets bought from the market suggest sowing seeds up to ½ inch inside the ground. Scientists suggest that seeds must be sown at least one and a half inches deep in the ground for perfect growth of radishes. Sowing seeds above can lead to roots or main bulbs coming out of soil early. 

Sowing seeds deeper ensures proper growth and maximum output. 

3. Temperature of soil 

Soil temperature becomes unsuitable for radish growth when radish seeds are not sown at the correct time. The best time for sowing seeds in the spring season.

Sowing too early or too late makes them face too cold or too hot soil temperature which affects the growth of radish. Further, temperature above or below 80F is not suitable for radishes. Therefore, radishes come out of the ground. 

Must Read: Radish Farming: Planting, Harvesting, & Diseases

Tips to prevent radishes growing above ground

  • Make sure soil is loose and crumbly up to 12-14 inches deep. 
  • Use compost and dry leaves to make soil fit for radish growth. 
  • Seeds should be sown at least one and a half inches deep for maximum output. 
  • Maintain good moisture in the soil to avoid bitter radishes. 

Radishes turning long and thin 

There can be various reasons behind radishes turning long and thin. First of all, understand that the growth of leaves generally determines when they are to be pulled. Sometimes, leaves can be healthy but radishes below-ground can be long and thin and unfit for consumption. 

You can check growth by pulling the main root out a little. The main taproot is strong and deep and does not get affected much. However, tiny roots attached to the main one can get damaged by harsh pulling. So, be careful while checking. 

Now if your radishes appear to be long and thin then this might have occurred because of your little mistakes like- 

  1. Overcrowding- Radishes grow below ground and require enough space for proper growth. If they don’t get enough space due to overcrowding then they grow long and thin. Radishes should be grown 2-3 inches apart. This makes sure each one gets enough space to grow fully. 
  2. Sunlight- 6 hours of sunlight are a must for healthy and fully grown radishes. Alteration in sunlight periods affects growth and makes them long and thin. 
  3. Regular watering- radishes require a lot of water to grow. Shortage in the water supply makes them long and thin. However, too much water can destroy them so care must be taken. Radishes can bolt if hot water is supplied.
  4. Temperature- 80F is the optimum temperature for radish growth. If the temperature is above 80F, radishes start producing flowers. 
  5. Nutrients- improper intake of nutrients causes thin and long main roots. If high nitrogen content is added to the soil, radishes focus more on leaf growth than root. 

Radish leaves turning yellow 

Various conditions can result in the yellowing of leaves like overcrowding, lack of sunlight, competition for weeds, irregular watering, pests, or diseases. Few diseases that lead to yellowing of leaves are- 

  • Septoria leaf spots- this condition leads to yellow spot formation on leaves. Well-drained and nutritional soil prevents this disease. 
  • Club rot- yellow leaves, tumor growth, and swelling in roots us seen. It can be prevented by crop rotation. 
  •  Downy mildew- Angular yellow spots appear on leaves along with the white or grey fungus. 

Holes in Radish leaves 

Flea beetles can lead to holes in the leaves of seedlings or small transplants. Larvae of flea beetles feed on radish leaves and make holes in them. 

Holes eaten in the leaves of radishes by flea beetles, early June.

Cultivating them often can help get rid of flea beetles. The Garden should be kept clean to avoid pests. 


Radishes are an easy to grow and versatile plant. They take only 3-4 weeks to grow and ready to eat as such. But growing radishes can be accompanied by the above-mentioned problem too. Therefore, take steps to prevent and cure these ailments and you can grow perfect radishes that are fit for consumption.  

Why Are My Spinach Leaves Turning Yellow

Spinach leaves turn yellow with age naturally. Spinach is succulent and has rich green leaves. However, if you observe yellowing at a young age in spinach leaves then it might be a problem. Growing spinach can be accompanied by various problems and spinach leaves turning yellow is also one of them and quite a common one. 

Generally, healthy spinach leaves are dark green. But yellow leaves in spinach plants can occur due to various reasons. These are discussed below in detail- 

Factors leading to yellowing of spinach leaves

There can be various reasons that can lead to yellow leaves in spinach. Situations leading to this problem can be diseases or unhealthy soil conditions. Too much heat and water can also cause the yellowing of leaves. Further, nutrient deficiency caused by lack of compost or fertilizer use also results in the same. It can be a little difficult at times to judge the problem and work on solutions with so many possibilities. Along with this, the temperature is also a yellowing causing factor. 

Symptoms of certain diseases can be the same as improper soil conditions. To add to this, boron deficiency and fusarium wilt disease cause the same symptoms in spinach plants. 

Fusarium wilt

Fusarium wilt also known as fusarium yellowing is a fungal disease. This disease causes the yellowing of spinach leaves. It also stunts the growth of plants. It infects the vascular tissues of the plant. Causing agents of this disease live in soil and can be carried easily by cucumber beetles. 

Nutrient deficiency

Various nutrient deficiencies can lead to the yellowing of leaves in spinach. Either insufficient amounts of nutrients or lack of nutrients can develop this situation. Nutrient deficiency can be due to low or high soil pH. Also, sometimes nutrients do not get absorbed due to damaged roots. Yellowing can be caused due to deficiencies of manganese, boron, magnesium, zinc, or nitrogen. 

  1. Iron- this deficiency is caused due to waterlogged soil. Veins remain green sometimes but leaves turn yellow. Yellowing in this case starts in younger leaves then moves to older leaves. 
  2. Magnesium- yellowing areas between veins of older leaves are observed in magnesium deficiency. 
  3. Nitrogen- all leaves become yellow in nitrogen deficiency. It first occurs in lower older leaves. Nitrogen present in plants moves to new young leaves thus causing old yellow leaves. 
  4. Boron- boron deficiency causes yellowing and stunted growth in spinach. 

Must Read: Why Are My Papaya Leaves Wilting

Spinach growing problems 

Spinach can be affected by various elements and problems can be caused by them. 

Growing crops in the wrong season can cause defective growth. The best time for the growth of spinach is early spring. Seeds should be sown a few weeks before summer. Next, late summer sowing can be performed for a cool fall harvest. 

  • Seedling not germinating- if seeds are sown too shallow then they do not get the required conditions and fail to germinate. Dry conditions and too high temperature can also lead to this condition. The soil must be moist and noncompact. 
  • Eaten or cut off leaves- Cutworms are found curled under the soil. They eat and damage stems, roots, and leaves. a 3-inch paper collar should be formed at the base of the plant to avoid this. 
  • Dark water-soaked stems- High humidity, cool and moist soil causes fungus growth. To avoid, the soil should be well-drained. 
  • Bolting- plants and flowers bolt before leaves are ready to harvest. Too much sunlight and warm temperature cause bolting. 
  • Leaf curling- deforming, yellowing, leaf curling can be caused by aphids. 
  • Round water-soaked spots- this is caused by a fungus known as anthracnose. It develops in highly humid conditions. Plants can die back and infected plants should be removed and thrown away to avoid further spread of disease. 

Why are my spinach leaves turning white?

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White rust on spinach leaves

Spinach leaves turning white can be a symptom of a disease called white rust. This disease is caused by Albugo occidentalis. Symptoms at the initial stage resemble downy mildew symptoms. It can be difficult to differentiate between the two. However, at further stages, you can distinguish between them. 

Chlorotic spots start appearing on the upper side of spinach leaves. These turn white eventually and give the appearance of white leaves. When the white blisters release spores, they turn reddish-brown. 

It Can cause wilting and death of plants in end. Fungicides can be used to prevent it. 

Prevention measures 

To prevent such a situation, you must take care of a few things mentioned here. Otherwise, you will continue to grow plants that are unfit for consumption. The soil must be well-drained and not compact. Loose and properly irrigated soil ensures the good growth of spinach plants. It would be rich in organic matter which contains necessary nutrients. The pH of the soil should be 6.4-6.8 for healthy growth. Yellowing or bolting can be caused at temperatures above 75 degrees. 

Also Read: How To Plant Spinach? Here Is Everything You Need To Know

You can avoid high temperatures by planting spinach in early spring or fall. Insect diseases caused by aphids can be prevented by using natural aphid predators like ladybugs and other insects. 

The fungal and viral disease can be caused by clean growth and usage of resistant varieties. 


You need to be aware of problems that lead to yellowing leaves in spinach first to cure them. In case of a pest attack, insecticidal soap can be used to remove pests. Fungicides can be used to treat the fungal disease like fusarium wilt. However, virus-infected plants should be removed and thrown away to stop the further spread of disease. 

If soil is too acidic, consider adding lime. And if the soil is too alkaline then you can add coffee ground or commercial acidifiers to make pH acceptable. 

Add compost to the soil to balance the pH of the soil. 

Organic compost or fertilizers can help overcome nutrient deficiencies. 

You must test the number of nutrients present in soil so that the proper amount of nutrients can be added manually. Adding nutrients vaguely can increase certain nutrients and affect plants negatively. 


Growing spinach can be accompanied by various problems but a little care and thought while growing them can prevent disease and such problems. Preventive measures are taken before can produce healthy and edible crops. 

Why Are My Papaya Leaves Wilting

Papaya, also known as Carica papaya is herbaceous perennial. It belongs to family caricaceae. They are known to have originated in Caribbean in Central America. Papaya plants are generally grown in tropical or subtropical regions. They are native to Mexico and Southern America. In the USA,  they are grown in Florida, Texas,southern California and hawaii. Based on their region of growth, the colour of this fruit varies.

The papaya plant bears edible fruit called papaya. The plant is treelike and usually unbranched. Stem of the papaya plant is hollow along with the petioles. Leaves are palmately lobed and arranged spirally on the top.height of plant is 2-10 m and its life span is around 25 years. This plant is found as males, females and hermaphrodites too.

Papaya is a tropical plant that bears pear shaped or melon like fruits. It is a little difficult to grow it because of its sensitive nature. Also, they cannot bear too cold temperatures, high winds and shades. Plus, papaya plants are very susceptible to diseases. Shortage of water, disease and attack by nematodes can result in wilting of leaves in papaya plants. 

Male plants usually bear many flowers while female flowers bear either clusters of solitary flowers or very few flowers. Fruit of papaya is edible and is consumed by masses. It is a fleshy berry which has smooth skin on it. Skin of papaya is green and turns red, yellow or orange as it matures. Flesh of fruit is succulent and thick. Its colours vary from yellow,red to orange. Also, it contains numerous blackwrinkled seeds in it. 

Basics of Papaya Plant 

Plantation should be replaced every 3 years to ensure productivity to be maximum. Another name of papaya is pawpaw. 

They can be eaten fresh. Along with this,  people make jams, jellies, candies, and juice of papaya too. Young  leaves and green fruit of papaya can be cooked and consumed as a vegetable. 

Growth of papaya

papaya is a tropical plant. It grows very well in temperatures ranging from 21C to 33C. They require rainfall of at least 4 inches per month for proper growth. However, proper irrigation can also ensure undisturbed growth of papaya in dry areas. Avoid growing papaya plants in areas with risk of floods or waterlogged soils. They are also very sensitive to high winds and can easily get toppled in winds. Therefore, avoid their growth in windy areas. 

Seeds can be planted out in soil and areas which receive good sunlight. But they can also grow well in containers at the start. They are grown in sterilized soils in nursery to keep diseases at bay. You can sow 3-4 seeds in one container.

Once they reach a height of 20 cm, they are ready to be planted outside. They generally grow well on hills or ridges. This is because of these places aid drainage. In addition to this, space them 2-3 m apart to ensure proper development.

Care and maintenance of Papaya

First of all seeds of papaya plants must be sown properly in well-drained soil. Proper Water supply must be ensured. Proper watering is required to grow papaya successfully. If water is not provided in the required amount that results into dropping of leaves, fruits, or flowers. Small fruits of papaya have a very small sugar content and cannot be consumed raw. In later stages, the supply of water can be reduced. 

 They are highly susceptible to diseases and weeds. Keep the area clean and weed free. 

Mulch can be used to suppress weeds around papaya plants. Moreover, mulch has added benefits and retains moisture in soil. Regular use of fertilizer is advised to provide proper nutrition to plants. Giving required nutrients to plants helps is production of sweet and healthy fruits. 

Commercial plants can be fertilized for about 2-4 times in a year. While, plants grown for personal use in gardens can be fertilized with ¼ cup of  fertilizer every fortnight. When plants grow and reach the age of 7-8 months, fertilize them with 1-2 lbs of fertilizer every couple of months. 

Also, these plants do not require pruning. But you can remove dead leaves from the plant without worrying. 

Harvesting of Papaya

Harvesting takes around 22- 26 weeks for plants to mature. However, fruits can be picked anytime when ⅕ of fruit surface turns yellow. In addition to this, sweetness of fruit increases with time. Therefore, if you wish your fruits to have high sugar content, pick them a little later than usual. For removal of fruits, they can be either twisted or snapped. You can also use a knife to remove them. 

Common diseases and pests- papaya plants are very susceptible to diseases. There are numerous microorganisms and pests that can affect these plants badly. Some of the common diseases and pests of papaya plants are mentioned below.

  • Anthracnose and charcoal spot- This disease is caused by fungi named Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It causes light brown margins in circular lesions on plants. Also, small water soaked lesions are found on plants. Fungicide can be used to control the disease. 
  • Black rot- Mycosphaerella caricae is responsible for this disease. It causes black sunken rot on young fruits. Young fruits start withering and dropping from the plant. This disease can be controlled by proper use of fungicide. Alos, fruits can be dipped in 48C hot water for 20 min to kill the fungus. 
  • Black spot- This is also a fungal disease. It leads to formation of circular water soaked lesions. Centre of lesions becomes bleached in later stages. It can be controlled with fungicide. 
  • Powdery mildew- Infection of all tree parts is observed in this disease. White mycelial growth occurs on the upper leaf surface. Infected area on the plant becomes light green. For getting rid of infection, avoid sprinkler irrigation systems. Also, remove the infected part to avoid further spread. Fungicides can be applied in case of severity.
  • Pest called as Papaya mealybug feeds on papaya plant and destroys it. It also causes plant stunting, early leaf and fruit drop. Lady beetles can be used as a natural enemy against mealybug. However, usage of chemicals can kill lady beetles and result in an outbreak of mealybug. 

Cause Of Wilting Leaves In Papaya Plant 

The Main reason behind wilting of leaves is insufficient watering, attack of nematodes and diseases. 

Here are a few diseases mentioned that can result in wilting of papaya leaves. 

  • Apical necrosis-  this is a viral infection. In this disease,papaya leaves start curling downwards and wilt. Leaf margins turn brown and young leaves become small and have shortened petioles. As the name suggests, the disease basically begins at the top and infects other plant eventually. Gradually, it kills whole plant. Organism responsible for this deadly disease is still unknown and so is the cure. Diseased plant must be isolated to protect other plants from dying. 
  • Phytophthora blight- This disease is caused by fungi and is extremely destructive. It leads to the death of infected plant. Root, stem and fruit of plants begin to rot in such conditions. Rapid wilting is observed and the plant dies after that. Water soaked lesions are also observed on the stem. On fruits water soaked lesions appear with white fungal growth. Further, fruit shrivels and drops. In this manner, fungus comes in contact with ground and infects roots too. This fungus is spread by wind too. 

Fungicide for this disease is available but it requires good cultivation practice too. Ensure good draining soil to treat this disease. Remove destroyed or fallen fruits as fast as possible. Remove any afrucan snails from the planting site as they spread this disease. 

  • Nematodes – these organisms are microscopic worms that attack and lead to the formation of galls in the roots of papaya plants. Galls interfere with the ability of plants to take in water and nutrients. Therefore,this results in wilting of leaves, stunting, yellowing and reduced crop yield and death of plants eventually. 

These organisms can be present in any type of soil. Before planting,make sure to turn soil several times and leave it so that nematodes are exposed to sunlight.this practice results in death of nematodes. 

Crop rotation also helps in handling the disease. Remove Plant debris after harvesting. To add to this, usage of resistant varieties like cassava, taro and heatmaster of tomato can be helpful

  • Bacterial canker and decline- Angular water soaked lesions are seen on leaves. Wilting of leaves also occurs in this disease. Water soaked lesions and cankers on the stem are observed.

Why are my papaya leaves turning yellow

The reason behind yellowing leaves infection by lethal virus. The name of this virus is Papaya Lethal Yellowing  Virus (PYLV). It occurs only in Northeastern Brazil. 

It results in progressive leaf yellowing and growth  of greenish circular spots. The leaves wilt after becoming yellow and die. Whole plant dies eventually due to the infection. 

Must Read: Why are my Strawberry Leaves Turning Red

Virus that infects plants and causes this disease generally belongs to the genus Sobemovirus. Papaya plant species that are generally infected are C.papaya, Jacaratia heterophylla, V. monicca, J.spinosa, etc. 

This disease can be managed and avoided by using virus free certified plantings. Further, plants that are infected must be isolated. Usage of disinfectants to clean agricultural equipment is advised.  

How to identify male and female plant seeds?

It is not possible to identify the gender of papaya seeds from naked eyes.DNA analysis is required to figure out the gender of seed. However, you identify male and female seeds once they turn into seedlings. 

Male seedlings produce single straight root but female seedlings produce 2 or more branched rootlets. 

Be careful while checking the gender of the seedling and avoid root damage. Just wait for plants to develop 1 or 2 true leaves and then check their rootlets. 

How to pollinate papaya flowers?

One way of pollinating papaya flowers is hand pollination.

Papaya Flower

Pollination generally occurs through wind or insects. 

Hermaphrodite plants have both male and female reproductive organs present in them. They do not require pollen from other plants to pollinate themselves. In other words, papaya plants undergo self pollination. 

Why is my papaya tree not fruiting?

Papaya plants in home gardens fail to bear fruits sometimes. A few other times, they bear fruits but drop them  as time passes. This situation can occur because of wrong pollination. Sometimes, male flowers get pollinated. But due to lack of ovary it does not bear any fruits. In rare conditions, male flowers start bearing fruit too but that fruit does not mature and drops off at a young stage. 

If a tree is a female, it requires pollen to case, the female plant does not receive pollen then it does not bear any fruits. Pistils of such plants start turning brown and non functional after some time. 

In few cases, trees become summer sterile bisexual. Though they have both reproductive plant parts but hot weather in summer can lead to infertility. However, in cool months trees begin to function normally.

Insufficient water supply can result in a non- fruiting condition in plants. If a proper amount of water is not provided then plants cease to bear flowers and therefore there is no fruit formation too.

Excessive dryness in plants can lead to death eventually. 

If the tree looks perfectly fine from outside and a proper water supply is ensured with good soil drainage and still there are no fruits. This can be a sign that the tree is starving to death. Lack of nutrients is the cause of this problem.

Provide proper nutrition to plant to get rid of problem.

Pests and diseases can also lead to no fruiting in papaya plants. When the natural functioning of plants is disturbed, they fail to fruit. Diseases like mildew and root diseases lead to non fruiting. 

There are various conditions that can lead to problems and death in papaya plants. But the cure and treatment is also known to mankind. You can deal with diseases and make your plants healthy. Papaya is a herbaceous perennial and a little care of it will bring sweet fruits to you.

How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum ) is a widely grown crop and is the main source of sugar. It is a well-known cash crop that is of great commercial importance. It has also provided employment to a large number of people directly or in an indirect way hence contributes to the national economy.

Sugarcane is mainly a tropical plant and hence it runs across all the seasons whether it’s raining, summer or Winters.

Before knowing how long does sugarcane take to grow, check out the essentials that you must know about for sugarcane plantation.

Different requirements for sugarcane plantation

  • Suitable climatic conditions : As we know sugarcane is able to grow throughout the seasons, but they best grow in tropical hot sunny areas. 

A long warm growing season with high frequency of solar rays and sufficient amount of moisture can be said to be the ideal conditions for proper growth of this crop. For ripening it requires a cool but frost free season. 

  • Soil type : sugarcane can be grown in different varieties of soil such as alluvial soil or the red volcanic soil or the soil that is a mixture of  silt , sand and clay particles along with some organic material can be the perfect soil for sugarcane plantation. This crop needs a well drained soil for which the land is ploughed and left to weather for some time before subsoiling. 

The pH range of the soil for sugarcane cultivation should be from 6.5 to 7.5 pH. The minimum depth of the soil should be 45 cm and the soil should have an adequate amount of nutrients. 

  • Seed Quality: Accessibility of good quality cane seeds is must for good crop yield. Firstly the seed is grown in the nursery  for 10-11 months and then that nursery crop is planted in the field. After that some other chemical treatments need to be provided to the seed which are 0.05% Bavistin, 2.5%KCl , 2.5% urea KCl +Urea etc. After the above chemical treatments , a hot water treatment is also given for prevention of seed borne diseases. 
  • Land Preparation for Sugarcane plantation:  Every single time a new crop is grown , it becomes necessary that soil should be brought to a properly cultivated land for proper germination of seeds and good root growth.

There are some  reasons behind land Preparation which are:

  1. Land Preparation includes the preparation of seedbeds that allows optimal soil water relations.
  2. This activity also provides good physical conditions for early root proliferation and penetration.
  3. It is also helpful in destroying weeds and hibernating pests.It also helps to knock down the diseases causing organisms.
  4. It also helps the land to absorb the previous crop residue and organic manures.
  5. Land preparation also  facilitates proper soil chemical and microbial activities.

Tillage is an important operation under land preparation. Tillage is basically agricultural preparation of the soil with the appropriate tools or implements to loosen the surface soil layer.

The main function of tilling is to mix up the organic matter into your soil properly , break down the crusted soil, and loosen up the tiny areas for plantation. Anything in excess is never good and so is tilling, excess tilling can also cause more damage to the soil.

The best time for tilling is the spring season but can also be done in autumn for cool weather crops. However tilling must be avoided when the soil is wet as it can cause damage to soil structure.

Plantation methods of sugarcane:

Mainly, there are a few different methods for plantation of sugarcane described below- 

Must Read: How To Plant Sugarcane – A Complete Beginner’s Guide

Ridge and furrow method:

It is one of the most common methods for sugarcane plantation. In this method the ridges and the furrows are opened with the help of a ridger by maintaining a distance of 120cm between the furrows in the heavy soils and and a distance of 105cm in the light and medium soil. After this step, the main and sub irrigation channels are opened at suitable distances.

Initially the sets are laid on the end of the top ridge and later on these are planted in furrows by dry and wet method. 

Dry method :

This method is adopted for heavy soils to avoid pressing of the setts very deep into the soil. These sets are arranged in the furrows  end to end by

 facing eyes buds on the sides and sheltering it with a layer of soil. After completing the steps of plantation, the field is ready for irrigation.

Wet method :

This method is adopted for light to medium soil. In this method of plantation the field is irrigated initially before planting the setts. Then the sets are planted at the depth of 2.5 to 5 cm in the furrows with hands or feet. These sets are placed end to end in such a way that they face the bus on the sides. 

Flat bed method:

Flat bed method is another method for sugarcane plantation. In this method firstly the land is ploughed, harrowed and then leveled and then flat beds are prepared. After that the cane stes are laid down in the flat beds in end to end rows. A distance of 60-90cm is maintained between the rows depending on the soil type.

Afterwards they are pressed into the soil with the help of a hand or foot , about 2.5-5 cm deep and then it is covered with a layer of soil. During the plantation by this method one must keep in mind that the buds should face on the sides otherwise it would not be possible for lower buds to germinate. This method of cane plantation is usually adopted in the areas where there is abundant moisture.

Rayungan Method:

This method of plantation is usually adopted for adsali sugarcane plantation. Rayungan Method is followed in Riverside fields or in the areas with heavy rainfall. In these areas the cane fields are usually prone to floods during the rainy season which affects the germination of the seeds and in such conditions the sets cannot be directly planted in the main fields.

So firstly the single bud sets are planted in the nursery in a vertical manner which are prepared in a high lying area of the farm in summer. After about a period of 6 weeks the sets that have been sprouted are shifted in the main field when the danger of floods is over. 

Trench or the Java method:

In this method trenches ( a type of deep and wide depression in the ground) are made that depth is about 22-30cm and maintained at a distance of 90-120cm. The deeper soil is loosened and mixed up with manures. Then the sets are placed in the middle of  these trenches and then covered with a layer of soil.

After the completion of planting irrigation is carried out. Large clumps of cane are produced  in this method that do not lodge  when tied together. The danger from wild animals is least.

Manures and fertilizers: Sugarcane is a long durational crop, as well as a heavy feeder thus the requirement of manures is quite high.

During the land preparation about 25-50 tonnes of  FYM/ha has been used. 

It is recommended that different sugarcane fertilizers have to be used according to the planting season, it even varies from growing track to track. So basically for Adsali 250:115:115 is used and for pre seasonal  340:170:170kg nitrogen , phosphorus and potash respectively are suggested.


The water requirements for sugarcane generally range from 2000 to 2500 mm depending upon some factors like soil type, duration, and climatic conditions etc. Irrigation of sugarcane crops has been done during the different phases like  the germination phase, tillering phase, grand growth phase and the final maturity phase.

So firstly during the stage of germination, the soil needs sufficient moisture for better germination however water logging can result in rotting of sets. In this phase irrigation can never be done at intervals of a week however these intervals can be of 10 days in tillering phase.

Next comes the grand growth phase which is known to be a critical stage for water demand. This also needs to be irrigated at intervals of a week. It takes 12-14 months for sugarcane to grow. Now finally in the maturity phase, the irrigation has to be done fortnightly and has to be stopped about 15 days before harvesting.

Intercultural operations: These include mulching, hoeing, tying of the cane and earthing up.

In the initial period, spreading the paddy straw or sugarcane trash on the field can help to prevent more evaporation and hence the demand for water supply will also be less.

Hoeing and weeding is necessary in the first 3-4 weeks after plantation  for high yield and improved quality of sugarcane. After the germination phase two to three more hoeing and weeding may be required during the first three months depending upon the field conditions and frequency of irrigation.

The final earthing up has to be done before the monsoon rains and should be synchronized with the implementation of the last dose of fertilizers. This operation is helpful in keeping down the weeds.

Tying of canes is said to be a very desirable activity that prevents the canes to sway during wind. Bringing together the stalks from the adjacent rows and tying them all together along with their own trash and the old leaves  is considered as the best way of tying the cane.q

Sugarcane diseases:

There are a few plant diseases that can be controlled or cured with some simple methods. First comes the red rot disease which is a fungal disease. It’s symptoms are drying of top leaves, the leaves start withering, red lesions on the midrib of the leaves.

One should uproot and destroy all the clumps if you notice the above symptoms. Use diseases free and heat treated setts for plantation.

The next disease is whip smut which is also a fungal disease and the symptoms can be noticed before 1 month of harvesting season and to prevent this , diseases free and heat treated sets should be used.


When the lower leaves start withering up and leaving progressively, and fewer green leaves are left at the top, it can be marked as the maturity phase. Even a maturity testing device call a refractometer can be used to test the maturity stage. If the hand refractometer shows a reading of 20 , it can be said that the cane has reached the maturity level. 

The harvesting of sugarcane generally begins in early winters as is continued for about 150 days. Nowadays the harvesting and cutting of sugarcane is done after receiving the cutting orders from factory authorities and these cutting orders are issued depending upon the date of planting of which the records are maintained. Harvesting of sugarcane is done with the bog machines that contain rotating knives which cut the sugar cane from the base of the stalks.

How long does it take sugarcane to grow:  

sugarcane takes quite a long time to grow, we can say that it grows through the entire season. Sugarcane plants produce several stalks and each one of them can grow well over ten feet and this usually takes 12- 14 months. The best time to plant cane crops is in early Winter so that the sprouting can happen in early spring. These os basically one harvest of the primary crop and then 3-4 harvests of the regrowth.

Yield: The average yield of the cane crop under the commercial cultivation of170 tonnes per hectare for Adsali  and 120 tonnes per hectare in the case of pre seasonal sugarcane and 100 tonnes per hectare for suru 


Farmers that grow sugarcane want their farms to be sustainable and by using sustainable practices Farmers can keep the farms and crops healthy.

Chilli Flowers Dropping Off – Plant not flowering

Chilli is one of the most used spice crops in the world. There is no better way to provide the harsh and bitter taste in your food than using chilli. It is an absolute delight to use chilli to bring out the flavour of your food and make it worth it. Indian have always been very excited about their rich spices, and they never lagged behind in this. The Indian chillies are worldwide known and are amazing to taste.

Chilli is a part of the botanical family Solanaceae. The flowers seen on the plant are small, white ones, and they often are downward facing. Even the chilli fruit which grows on the plant is similarly growing downward, and hence they hang beautifully from the main plant.

But this transformation of the flower to the main fruit depends on a number of factors. The fruit bears seeds and without this, it is not possible to have the next growth. There can be a number of reasons why a situation of chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen. It is really hard to get close to perfection and then later losing the result of the fruit.

Flowers growing into fruit depends on a number of factors such as the intensity of the sunlight, humidity, water content, air, and many other such things. Chilli drop is a usual event, but a situation where chilli flowers dropping off is seen as very tragic.

Why does such a thing happen?

The gardeners very easily face this problem of chilli flower drop in their plants. It’s also a natural phenomenon as these shrubs do drop the flowers for giving a balance to the plant.

The main stem of chilli is so weak that due to excess flowering, it is seen that the plants do shed their flowers. It’s very normal for a healthy chilli plant, but there can be many other reasons for having this “blossom drop.”

Optimal temperature matters-

This factor really plays a lot for flowering and fruiting. The chilli plant is very limited in the temperature range. They are very sensitive to high temperature, and due to this factor, the gardeners face problems in maintaining the crop.

The morning temperature ranges from 20-10 degree celsius in the daytime. The plant drops the flower as an option to survive. This is a typical case of chillies flowering but no fruit. There can be other temperature-related facts, but you will have to see and analyze exactly which part of your plant gets damaged by the heat variation.


Another big point in chilli flower dropping off is the misuse of fertilizer. Many gardeners don’t get the entire concept of fertilizing, and hence they often think that using extra fertilizer is beneficial, but it is completely a myth. It can just backfire, and hence one needs to have a clear and keen analysis of the type of fertilizer, and the quality of fertilizer one should use. A better way would be consulting an expert for this—one who can analyze and work in detail.

Water Content-

Water plays a very unique role in plants. When you analyze the situation and see how it can work, you can observe the fact that both extreme water and low water can be harmful to the chilli plant. Both of them can cause chilli flowering but no fruit. When the water content gets lowered up in the soil and eventually in the plant, the chilli plant goes for an option to save the water from transpiration so that the water can be there for useful processes involving its life.

Flowers have their own water requirement, and also the surface area of the flower gives more surface for the water to escape; hence one can see chilli flowers dropping off. Similarly, in the case where water is in excess, the plant becomes heavy. Even the flower becomes loaded up with water, and the stem is full of water. In such a case, the flower can drop easily. The weight is a big factor in chilli plants, and hence they can’t make it easy if the plant gets full of water. It can even break the main stem.

Also Read: How to Grow Lavender with Maximum Productivity


It is a process in which the male spores from the male plant are transferred on the stigma of the female to form a zygote and later a seed. This process in chilly does happen via an agent. It can be air, water and many other such things. In the chilly plant, pollination is mainly via an insect.

Garden bees are a very common vector for this transfer. It is amazing to notice that lack of these vectors can cause the stoppage of pollination. Most of the gardeners aren’t aware of this fact. It will eventually lead in the death of the flowers.

The flower without being pollinated gets dried up, and hence the flower sheds off the plant. In such conditions, the flower needs to be pollinated by artificial means so as to make the flower stay on the plant. Even the gardener can do such a thing by using a cotton brush and artificial techniques.

Improper and incomplete pollination

Basically, even if anyone of the given conditions doesn’t match with a compatible pollination environment, then the process could be a complete failure. Any type of poor air circulation and improper agents can lead to such a situation. The life span of these flowers on the plant is very short, and even with a small change in the complete process, the pollination misses. This leads to Chilli Flowers Dropping Off the chilli plant after being dried up. The solution to such problems is easy, and a g can easily take some of these.

How to increase pollination?

It’s not very hard to increase the pollination rate in chilli plants. In chilli growing in gardens, the main pollinator is bees. This bee is one of the most amazing organisms in nature. To attract bees, you can plant many colorful flowers in the main garden or field where you are growing the main chilli.

Bees easily get attracted to the fragrance and sweet smell. Also, the big attractive looking flowers are very pleasing to the bees, and they like to come around these. This will accidentally help in the pollen transfer so moreover a great technique. But, you can never be sure of the success story. It is a complete case of hit and trial, and luck only can make the pollination better. If you are in an area with poor aeration or less attractiveness to pollination agents and if the pollination is the reason for Chilli flower dropping off, then you have nothing to do rather wait.


yes, don’t be surprised to know that the gas which is found the most in the atmosphere is one among the deficiencies responsible for chilli flowering but no fruit. The main reason behind this is the presence of nitrogen in free form in the soil in which the plant can use it. The nitrogen is very much important for the proper growth of chilli flowers.

Being one of the most essential macronutrients Nitrogen is very important for the blossom to remain perfect and later to transform into the chilli you want. Not only a deficiency but also an excess is very much harmful to the plant. In any case, if you took a chance to increase the nitrogen level much above the optimum, then the consequence could be a crop full of foliage bosom, and eventually, it costs in the toxicity of the land. There can be a shocking drop in the number of flowers in chilli plants, so be very strict in maintaining the appropriate amount of nitrogen for proper growth.


not only nitrogen but also air is a reason for such events. There can be many points on how air can affect the plants. The first case is itself the pollination rate. Chilli pollen is also travelled by air currents in the atmosphere which gives you an option of air pollination.

Unavailability of this airflow can reduce the pollination, dry up the flower, and then shed the flower. The second is the air content in the soil. Aeration is important for the roots. Due to tight soil, the air cannot get inside, and the roots don’t get the proper air. Further, this may lead to a lowering in the number of flowers. Even if the plant will grow, but the chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen.


The density or the area in which each plant is placed on the field is also a determining factor. If there are any plants on the field and the spacing is a problem, then the consumption of air and the circulation becomes weak. This may lead to chilli flowers dropping off. Sensity can be another factor by which the number of flowers can variate. The lesser the distance between pants, the lesser the growth is seen.

Humidity is very dangerous-

This plant likes to grow in dry areas. Proper and moderate humidity is required for easy and quick pollination. If the moisture content in air increases, the stickiness of the pollen also increases. The humidity is also a very important reason that can make the flowers heavy. This might be a very good cause for chillies flowering but no fruit. The content of the air is very determining, and hence small plants such as chillies do need the optimum condition. The blossom drop is very much significant in the areas with high moisture content.

Watering in the soil-

The water in the soil is important. If the water on the land where chilli is growing then it completely vanishes the fruiting in the plants. If the water level goes down the situation can be very stressful for the chilli plant. Due to such harsh conditions, the flowering might drop.

Water is very important for the overall growth, when overall is hampered the fruit is destroyed automatically. The chilli flowers dropping off can be seen in such situations, and water is something that can be really managed well. Even if the water is very much in the soil, it creates a lump. The aeration further decreases.

How to prevent this drop?

There are many factors for all these situations, and a gardener always wants a solution to it. So here are some of the things you can do to take of the problem-

  • You cannot change the environment, and hence it’s not on your choice, but you can select the area where you are going to cultivate chilli. Even some solutions such as artificial heating and greenhouse gases are beneficial, and one can try using these artificial techniques for getting the plants back on track.
  • Fertilization- it is very much sensitive in chilli plants. Most of them provide ammonia to the soil and hence are great with fixing nitrogen and providing other ions for the growth. Try providing a good amount of fertilizer just enough to support the flowerings.

 Here is a key point with fertilizers.

Excess of fertilizers on your plant is very much more harmful than less content or no fertilizer. One has to be very specific with the amount.

  • Try providing good water to the plant. Chilli is very sensitive to water. If they don’t get a good amount of water, the growth degrades a lot. Chilli flowering but no fruit is a very basic thing seen on the plant due to water.
  • Sometimes there are many growth factors in the plants responsible for fruiting. One can easily get these chemically synthesized chemicals from the market and use these for use. Cytokines, Auxin and other chemicals are growth initiating hormones.

Dropping of flowers from the main plant is a very common phenomenon and sometimes it is even very natural. Chilli is so sensitive that even a tinge of variation in the conditions and your fruits are spoiled. The best a person can do is to make the situations favourable and more worthy for the plant.