Why Are My Spinach Leaves Turning Yellow

Spinach leaves turn yellow with age naturally. Spinach is succulent and has rich green leaves. However, if you observe yellowing at a young age in spinach leaves then it might be a problem. Growing spinach can be accompanied by various problems and spinach leaves turning yellow is also one of them and quite a common one. 

Generally, healthy spinach leaves are dark green. But yellow leaves in spinach plants can occur due to various reasons. These are discussed below in detail- 

Factors leading to yellowing of spinach leaves

There can be various reasons that can lead to yellow leaves in spinach. Situations leading to this problem can be diseases or unhealthy soil conditions. Too much heat and water can also cause the yellowing of leaves. Further, nutrient deficiency caused by lack of compost or fertilizer use also results in the same. It can be a little difficult at times to judge the problem and work on solutions with so many possibilities. Along with this, the temperature is also a yellowing causing factor. 

Symptoms of certain diseases can be the same as improper soil conditions. To add to this, boron deficiency and fusarium wilt disease cause the same symptoms in spinach plants. 

Fusarium wilt

Fusarium wilt also known as fusarium yellowing is a fungal disease. This disease causes the yellowing of spinach leaves. It also stunts the growth of plants. It infects the vascular tissues of the plant. Causing agents of this disease live in soil and can be carried easily by cucumber beetles. 

Nutrient deficiency

Various nutrient deficiencies can lead to the yellowing of leaves in spinach. Either insufficient amounts of nutrients or lack of nutrients can develop this situation. Nutrient deficiency can be due to low or high soil pH. Also, sometimes nutrients do not get absorbed due to damaged roots. Yellowing can be caused due to deficiencies of manganese, boron, magnesium, zinc, or nitrogen. 

  1. Iron- this deficiency is caused due to waterlogged soil. Veins remain green sometimes but leaves turn yellow. Yellowing in this case starts in younger leaves then moves to older leaves. 
  2. Magnesium- yellowing areas between veins of older leaves are observed in magnesium deficiency. 
  3. Nitrogen- all leaves become yellow in nitrogen deficiency. It first occurs in lower older leaves. Nitrogen present in plants moves to new young leaves thus causing old yellow leaves. 
  4. Boron- boron deficiency causes yellowing and stunted growth in spinach. 

Must Read: Why Are My Papaya Leaves Wilting

Spinach growing problems 

Spinach can be affected by various elements and problems can be caused by them. 

Growing crops in the wrong season can cause defective growth. The best time for the growth of spinach is early spring. Seeds should be sown a few weeks before summer. Next, late summer sowing can be performed for a cool fall harvest. 

  • Seedling not germinating- if seeds are sown too shallow then they do not get the required conditions and fail to germinate. Dry conditions and too high temperature can also lead to this condition. The soil must be moist and noncompact. 
  • Eaten or cut off leaves- Cutworms are found curled under the soil. They eat and damage stems, roots, and leaves. a 3-inch paper collar should be formed at the base of the plant to avoid this. 
  • Dark water-soaked stems- High humidity, cool and moist soil causes fungus growth. To avoid, the soil should be well-drained. 
  • Bolting- plants and flowers bolt before leaves are ready to harvest. Too much sunlight and warm temperature cause bolting. 
  • Leaf curling- deforming, yellowing, leaf curling can be caused by aphids. 
  • Round water-soaked spots- this is caused by a fungus known as anthracnose. It develops in highly humid conditions. Plants can die back and infected plants should be removed and thrown away to avoid further spread of disease. 

Why are my spinach leaves turning white?

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White rust on spinach leaves

Spinach leaves turning white can be a symptom of a disease called white rust. This disease is caused by Albugo occidentalis. Symptoms at the initial stage resemble downy mildew symptoms. It can be difficult to differentiate between the two. However, at further stages, you can distinguish between them. 

Chlorotic spots start appearing on the upper side of spinach leaves. These turn white eventually and give the appearance of white leaves. When the white blisters release spores, they turn reddish-brown. 

It Can cause wilting and death of plants in end. Fungicides can be used to prevent it. 

Prevention measures 

To prevent such a situation, you must take care of a few things mentioned here. Otherwise, you will continue to grow plants that are unfit for consumption. The soil must be well-drained and not compact. Loose and properly irrigated soil ensures the good growth of spinach plants. It would be rich in organic matter which contains necessary nutrients. The pH of the soil should be 6.4-6.8 for healthy growth. Yellowing or bolting can be caused at temperatures above 75 degrees. 

Also Read: How To Plant Spinach? Here Is Everything You Need To Know

You can avoid high temperatures by planting spinach in early spring or fall. Insect diseases caused by aphids can be prevented by using natural aphid predators like ladybugs and other insects. 

The fungal and viral disease can be caused by clean growth and usage of resistant varieties. 


You need to be aware of problems that lead to yellowing leaves in spinach first to cure them. In case of a pest attack, insecticidal soap can be used to remove pests. Fungicides can be used to treat the fungal disease like fusarium wilt. However, virus-infected plants should be removed and thrown away to stop the further spread of disease. 

If soil is too acidic, consider adding lime. And if the soil is too alkaline then you can add coffee ground or commercial acidifiers to make pH acceptable. 

Add compost to the soil to balance the pH of the soil. 

Organic compost or fertilizers can help overcome nutrient deficiencies. 

You must test the number of nutrients present in soil so that the proper amount of nutrients can be added manually. Adding nutrients vaguely can increase certain nutrients and affect plants negatively. 


Growing spinach can be accompanied by various problems but a little care and thought while growing them can prevent disease and such problems. Preventive measures are taken before can produce healthy and edible crops. 

How Long Does it take a Kiwi Plant to Produce Fruit

Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) is a berry fruit. It is mainly oval and with brown skin and green flesh. It also has tiny black seeds that are edible. Though it is a bit sour but doesn’t have citric acid in it. It has a sweet and tangy taste. This plant is mainly grown in the winter season as it requires a temperature of less than 7° C.

Kiwi farming is carried out in sandy and loamy soil. This soil should be rich and well-drained. Kiwi is grown at a depth of 800-1500 m. So now the question arises: How long does it take a kiwi plant to produce fruit? Fruiting mainly depends upon the age of vines.

However, the yield of the plant increases after 1 year. Kiwi has high nutritive values, it is rich in vitamins and minerals. It has vitamin c, vitamin k, fibers, and potassium. Hence kiwi farming is very profitable.

Mainly there are 3 types of kiwi fruit. It has several health benefits. These are the grocery store kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa), the next is a hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta ), the last type is (Actinidia kolomikta).  

Kiwi plantation: 

In this, first of all, one would require one male vine for eight female vines. These vines are vegetatively propagated so these vines will be made to reproduce when you buy. The growth of hardy kiwis is very very fast. 

Which type of soil is best for kiwi farming? 

The soil should be well-drained and should have a higher amount of organic matter in it. Sandy and loamy soil are best for kiwi farming. The pH of soil required is a little less than 6.9.

At this pH maximum yield has been reported however if the pH increases to 7.3 it can badly affect the yield. As the cropping starts, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium has to be supplied at regular intervals. 200kg of nitrogen, 55 kg of phosphorus, about 150kg of potassium are the doses required per hectare.

Suitable climatic conditions for growing kiwi: 

As told earlier a cool climate is preferable for kiwi plantation however they can grow in almost every climate. The vines require a cold climate to set fruit. Less than 45° F is suitable for kiwi. These plants need to be protected from strong winds and frost.

Hence kiwi has to be protected from wind, autumn, and spring frost. The soil needs to be rich in moisture throughout the year. About 150cm of Rainfall is enough per year and it should be well distributed especially during growth periods. 

kiwi plantation

During summer the temperature is more and the humidity is very low and this can cause scorching of leaves. Usually, heat stress and sunscald are the main problems in kiwi farming. 

How to prepare the land for kiwi fruit production

A steep land with rows is required for growing kiwis. The land should be prepared in such a way that enough sunlight falls towards the rows. The land has to be prepared thoroughly for the cultivation of kiwi.

The land should be plowed about 2 to 4 times and then followed by two harrowings. It is necessary to keep the soil free from any type of weeds otherwise the crop yield would be poor. While preparing pits for the kiwis, a mixture of farmyard manures and upper soil should be added to get high quality and productivity of the fruit.  

Planting a kiwi fruit: 

For kiwi plantation, it is very important to plant the fruit at correct distances and suitable methods have to be followed. 

When the kiwi is grown at a commercial level, that time grafting method is mainly used for propagation. If this crop is grown at a proper distance then one can attain maximum fruit production. The distance between each row should be at least 3.5m whereas the distance between each plant has to be 6m. Usually, 2 main methods are used for plantation.

These two methods are: T- bar training system and the other is the Pergola training system. In the T-bar system, the above-mentioned spacing is required. In the Pergola system, the distance between each row should be 6m and the distance between the plants should be 5 to 6 m. 

Also Read: Guide for Beginners of Kiwi Farming

Procedure to grow kiwifruit from the seed: 

The first step is to get some kiwi seeds from the available kiwi fruit. Then place all these seeds in water and blend them to separate the gooey membrane from the seed. After this use a colander to water the kiwi seeds. Then soak these seeds by placing them smoothly on a paper towel. The next step is to put them in a ziplock and place it in a warm place.

kiwi fruit seeds

When you notice sprouting in the seeds, split the paper towel into tiny pieces and transplant them in the prepared put or the pot. Therefore take proper care of your plant for good quality fruit. 

Irrigation in kiwi farming:

For a good quality crop, from time to time irrigation is a must. Like other crops, kiwi also needs regular water supplies. The hard variety of the kiwi fruit takes 3-4 years to become mature. Hence water has to be supplied regularly for 3 years of the plantation. But don’t overwater the plant as this may lead to mulch in the crop.

In hot and dry conditions water has to be supplied at regular intervals. At commercial level kiso farming, irrigating at intervals of 10-14 days is best for maximum production.

Application of manures and fertilizers: 

The application of manures and fertilizers is also very necessary for high productivity. From time to time enough dose of suitable manure and fertilizers has to be supplied for a good yield. So one should use soil rich in organic matter like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other micronutrients and macronutrients.

Other than this a dose of farmyard manure should be added before planting it in the main field. After 5 years of plantation, adding these manures and fertilizers have excellent results. A high amount of Cl is also necessary for the crop as its deficiency can cause adverse effects on the growth of the crop and even on roots and shoots. On the other hand surplus amounts of boron and sodium can be harmful to crops.

Pruning and training of kiwi crop: 

For better production of the crop, pruning and training are very important. In training Wooden, concrete, or iron pillars are used to provide support to the vines. Adjust these pillars 5 to 6 meters apart. The pillars should be 1.6 to 2.1 m long above the ground. Fence or wire can be used to provide support to the pillars. 

Pruning: Along with proper training, pruning is also very essential for high yield. It is very important to remove or cut off the unwanted and undesirable parts that may suck the essential nutrients from the plant.

Hence canes from the making part of the flower have to be removed along the excessive wood grown along with the plant. Also, separate off the extra tangles from the plant.

As kiwi is not a self-pollinating plant, hence there’s a need for good pollination also. 

Harvesting of kiwi

Mainly kiwi attains its full size after monsoons however it still may not be ready for harvesting. It could be ready to harvest in early winter as till then the seeds become black and sugar levels also rise however after harvesting the kiwi, the starch turns into sugar. And finally, the fruit is ready to eat.

Harvesting of Kiwi Plant

Also, a refractometer can be used to determine if the sugar level is optional and the kiwi is ready to harvest or not. About 6.5 percent or more is the optimal sugar level. Vine-ripened kiwi has the best Taste however cannot be stored for much time.

When the kiwi is grown at a commercial level, harvesting has to be done all at one time however if one grows it in a home garden then they can harvest it according to their need in the harvesting period but harvest the large-sized kiwi first and let others remain inside to grow more. Kiwi has to be handled with care during harvesting and the kiwi that has been damaged cannot be stored.

Diseases: Armillaria Root Rot (4/13), Bacterial Blight (4/13)

Bleeding Canker (4/13),

Botrytis Fruit Rot (6/16)

Crown Gall (4/13)

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot (6/16)

Water Staining, Juice Blotch, and Sooty Mold of Fruit (4/13) are some kiwi diseases whose symptoms are Vines may completely collapse; white mycelial mats may be present under bark close to the soil line,  there’s a change in the color of cortical tissue and white mycelial strands are also present; root-like rhizomorphs extend from roots into the soil.

These needed to be controlled as soon as possible. Make sure that land being used for new kiwi plantings is gotten rid of roots which have diameter greater than 1 inch; ensure kiwi vines are properly watered but not too much. Further, diseases can be controlled by avoiding injuries that lead a way for pathogens to enter the body. At this time, no chemical control strategies are available. 

Health Benefits of kiwi:

Kiwi has several health benefits and many nutritional values. Some of the benefits are as follows:

1. Kiwi is an incredible source of vitamin C, vitamin E, and antioxidants.

2. Kiwi fruit has anti-aging properties and is also very beneficial for the skin. It improves skin health.

3. Kiwi fruit also helps in enhancing the respiratory system of the body. 

4. Kiwi is very good for the eyes. It improves eyesight and is also helpful in protecting our eyes from several diseases.  

5. Kiwi fruit helps us to improve our digestive system from where a large number of disorders and diseases can happen if digestion is not proper. 

6. It is also very helpful in the improvement of cardiovascular diseases The kiwifruit possesses properties that lower blood pressure. By helping to maintain healthy blood pressure and providing a boost of Vitamin C, the kiwifruit can reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease.

7. Kiwi is a rich source of vitamin k that helps to make the bones strong. 

8. It has many antibacterial and antifungal properties. 

9. It helps with sleep disorders. 

10. Along with the fruit its roots also have good properties. 

It is also good for immunity asKiwi contains abundant amounts of Vitamin C, which stimulates the body’s immune response. The kiwifruit contains roughly 230% of the daily recommended intake of Vitamin C. This amazing fruit is loaded with immune-boosting nutrients in every bite.

In  kiwi fruit. high amounts of dietary fiber are present in skin as well as in flesh. Fiber aids reduction of constipation and  

 other gastrointestinal issues and discomfort.

Treatment of Asthma 

The presence of Vitamin C in kiwis has been proven to  reduce wheezing symptoms in some asthma patients. This is true in children, who are benefitted the most from the consumption of kiwis.

Ocular Health

The high levels of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids found in the kiwifruit may help in preventing eye disease and promote ocular health but only if it is consumed with other healthy and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. 


Kiwi is a very healthy profitable crop with high nutritive values. Kiwi is said to be a treasure of health benefits. 

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Why Are My Papaya Leaves Wilting

Papaya, also known as Carica papaya is herbaceous perennial. It belongs to family caricaceae. They are known to have originated in Caribbean in Central America. Papaya plants are generally grown in tropical or subtropical regions. They are native to Mexico and Southern America. In the USA,  they are grown in Florida, Texas,southern California and hawaii. Based on their region of growth, the colour of this fruit varies.

The papaya plant bears edible fruit called papaya. The plant is treelike and usually unbranched. Stem of the papaya plant is hollow along with the petioles. Leaves are palmately lobed and arranged spirally on the top.height of plant is 2-10 m and its life span is around 25 years. This plant is found as males, females and hermaphrodites too.

Papaya is a tropical plant that bears pear shaped or melon like fruits. It is a little difficult to grow it because of its sensitive nature. Also, they cannot bear too cold temperatures, high winds and shades. Plus, papaya plants are very susceptible to diseases. Shortage of water, disease and attack by nematodes can result in wilting of leaves in papaya plants. 

Male plants usually bear many flowers while female flowers bear either clusters of solitary flowers or very few flowers. Fruit of papaya is edible and is consumed by masses. It is a fleshy berry which has smooth skin on it. Skin of papaya is green and turns red, yellow or orange as it matures. Flesh of fruit is succulent and thick. Its colours vary from yellow,red to orange. Also, it contains numerous blackwrinkled seeds in it. 

Basics of Papaya Plant 

Plantation should be replaced every 3 years to ensure productivity to be maximum. Another name of papaya is pawpaw. 

They can be eaten fresh. Along with this,  people make jams, jellies, candies, and juice of papaya too. Young  leaves and green fruit of papaya can be cooked and consumed as a vegetable. 

Growth of papaya

papaya is a tropical plant. It grows very well in temperatures ranging from 21C to 33C. They require rainfall of at least 4 inches per month for proper growth. However, proper irrigation can also ensure undisturbed growth of papaya in dry areas. Avoid growing papaya plants in areas with risk of floods or waterlogged soils. They are also very sensitive to high winds and can easily get toppled in winds. Therefore, avoid their growth in windy areas. 

Seeds can be planted out in soil and areas which receive good sunlight. But they can also grow well in containers at the start. They are grown in sterilized soils in nursery to keep diseases at bay. You can sow 3-4 seeds in one container.

Once they reach a height of 20 cm, they are ready to be planted outside. They generally grow well on hills or ridges. This is because of these places aid drainage. In addition to this, space them 2-3 m apart to ensure proper development.

Care and maintenance of Papaya

First of all seeds of papaya plants must be sown properly in well-drained soil. Proper Water supply must be ensured. Proper watering is required to grow papaya successfully. If water is not provided in the required amount that results into dropping of leaves, fruits, or flowers. Small fruits of papaya have a very small sugar content and cannot be consumed raw. In later stages, the supply of water can be reduced. 

 They are highly susceptible to diseases and weeds. Keep the area clean and weed free. 

Mulch can be used to suppress weeds around papaya plants. Moreover, mulch has added benefits and retains moisture in soil. Regular use of fertilizer is advised to provide proper nutrition to plants. Giving required nutrients to plants helps is production of sweet and healthy fruits. 

Commercial plants can be fertilized for about 2-4 times in a year. While, plants grown for personal use in gardens can be fertilized with ¼ cup of  fertilizer every fortnight. When plants grow and reach the age of 7-8 months, fertilize them with 1-2 lbs of fertilizer every couple of months. 

Also, these plants do not require pruning. But you can remove dead leaves from the plant without worrying. 

Harvesting of Papaya

Harvesting takes around 22- 26 weeks for plants to mature. However, fruits can be picked anytime when ⅕ of fruit surface turns yellow. In addition to this, sweetness of fruit increases with time. Therefore, if you wish your fruits to have high sugar content, pick them a little later than usual. For removal of fruits, they can be either twisted or snapped. You can also use a knife to remove them. 

Common diseases and pests- papaya plants are very susceptible to diseases. There are numerous microorganisms and pests that can affect these plants badly. Some of the common diseases and pests of papaya plants are mentioned below.

  • Anthracnose and charcoal spot- This disease is caused by fungi named Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It causes light brown margins in circular lesions on plants. Also, small water soaked lesions are found on plants. Fungicide can be used to control the disease. 
  • Black rot- Mycosphaerella caricae is responsible for this disease. It causes black sunken rot on young fruits. Young fruits start withering and dropping from the plant. This disease can be controlled by proper use of fungicide. Alos, fruits can be dipped in 48C hot water for 20 min to kill the fungus. 
  • Black spot- This is also a fungal disease. It leads to formation of circular water soaked lesions. Centre of lesions becomes bleached in later stages. It can be controlled with fungicide. 
  • Powdery mildew- Infection of all tree parts is observed in this disease. White mycelial growth occurs on the upper leaf surface. Infected area on the plant becomes light green. For getting rid of infection, avoid sprinkler irrigation systems. Also, remove the infected part to avoid further spread. Fungicides can be applied in case of severity.
  • Pest called as Papaya mealybug feeds on papaya plant and destroys it. It also causes plant stunting, early leaf and fruit drop. Lady beetles can be used as a natural enemy against mealybug. However, usage of chemicals can kill lady beetles and result in an outbreak of mealybug. 

Cause Of Wilting Leaves In Papaya Plant 

The Main reason behind wilting of leaves is insufficient watering, attack of nematodes and diseases. 

Here are a few diseases mentioned that can result in wilting of papaya leaves. 

  • Apical necrosis-  this is a viral infection. In this disease,papaya leaves start curling downwards and wilt. Leaf margins turn brown and young leaves become small and have shortened petioles. As the name suggests, the disease basically begins at the top and infects other plant eventually. Gradually, it kills whole plant. Organism responsible for this deadly disease is still unknown and so is the cure. Diseased plant must be isolated to protect other plants from dying. 
  • Phytophthora blight- This disease is caused by fungi and is extremely destructive. It leads to the death of infected plant. Root, stem and fruit of plants begin to rot in such conditions. Rapid wilting is observed and the plant dies after that. Water soaked lesions are also observed on the stem. On fruits water soaked lesions appear with white fungal growth. Further, fruit shrivels and drops. In this manner, fungus comes in contact with ground and infects roots too. This fungus is spread by wind too. 

Fungicide for this disease is available but it requires good cultivation practice too. Ensure good draining soil to treat this disease. Remove destroyed or fallen fruits as fast as possible. Remove any afrucan snails from the planting site as they spread this disease. 

  • Nematodes – these organisms are microscopic worms that attack and lead to the formation of galls in the roots of papaya plants. Galls interfere with the ability of plants to take in water and nutrients. Therefore,this results in wilting of leaves, stunting, yellowing and reduced crop yield and death of plants eventually. 

These organisms can be present in any type of soil. Before planting,make sure to turn soil several times and leave it so that nematodes are exposed to sunlight.this practice results in death of nematodes. 

Crop rotation also helps in handling the disease. Remove Plant debris after harvesting. To add to this, usage of resistant varieties like cassava, taro and heatmaster of tomato can be helpful

  • Bacterial canker and decline- Angular water soaked lesions are seen on leaves. Wilting of leaves also occurs in this disease. Water soaked lesions and cankers on the stem are observed.

Why are my papaya leaves turning yellow

The reason behind yellowing leaves infection by lethal virus. The name of this virus is Papaya Lethal Yellowing  Virus (PYLV). It occurs only in Northeastern Brazil. 

It results in progressive leaf yellowing and growth  of greenish circular spots. The leaves wilt after becoming yellow and die. Whole plant dies eventually due to the infection. 

Must Read: Why are my Strawberry Leaves Turning Red

Virus that infects plants and causes this disease generally belongs to the genus Sobemovirus. Papaya plant species that are generally infected are C.papaya, Jacaratia heterophylla, V. monicca, J.spinosa, etc. 

This disease can be managed and avoided by using virus free certified plantings. Further, plants that are infected must be isolated. Usage of disinfectants to clean agricultural equipment is advised.  

How to identify male and female plant seeds?

It is not possible to identify the gender of papaya seeds from naked eyes.DNA analysis is required to figure out the gender of seed. However, you identify male and female seeds once they turn into seedlings. 

Male seedlings produce single straight root but female seedlings produce 2 or more branched rootlets. 

Be careful while checking the gender of the seedling and avoid root damage. Just wait for plants to develop 1 or 2 true leaves and then check their rootlets. 

How to pollinate papaya flowers?

One way of pollinating papaya flowers is hand pollination.

Papaya Flower

Pollination generally occurs through wind or insects. 

Hermaphrodite plants have both male and female reproductive organs present in them. They do not require pollen from other plants to pollinate themselves. In other words, papaya plants undergo self pollination. 

Why is my papaya tree not fruiting?

Papaya plants in home gardens fail to bear fruits sometimes. A few other times, they bear fruits but drop them  as time passes. This situation can occur because of wrong pollination. Sometimes, male flowers get pollinated. But due to lack of ovary it does not bear any fruits. In rare conditions, male flowers start bearing fruit too but that fruit does not mature and drops off at a young stage. 

If a tree is a female, it requires pollen to bearfruits.in case, the female plant does not receive pollen then it does not bear any fruits. Pistils of such plants start turning brown and non functional after some time. 

In few cases, trees become summer sterile bisexual. Though they have both reproductive plant parts but hot weather in summer can lead to infertility. However, in cool months trees begin to function normally.

Insufficient water supply can result in a non- fruiting condition in plants. If a proper amount of water is not provided then plants cease to bear flowers and therefore there is no fruit formation too.

Excessive dryness in plants can lead to death eventually. 

If the tree looks perfectly fine from outside and a proper water supply is ensured with good soil drainage and still there are no fruits. This can be a sign that the tree is starving to death. Lack of nutrients is the cause of this problem.

Provide proper nutrition to plant to get rid of problem.

Pests and diseases can also lead to no fruiting in papaya plants. When the natural functioning of plants is disturbed, they fail to fruit. Diseases like mildew and root diseases lead to non fruiting. 

There are various conditions that can lead to problems and death in papaya plants. But the cure and treatment is also known to mankind. You can deal with diseases and make your plants healthy. Papaya is a herbaceous perennial and a little care of it will bring sweet fruits to you.

What do you feed baby Quail

Quail is a common name given to all the medium size birds of the order Galliformes. The old world quail belongs to the Phasianidae family, the newer ones are from the family odontophore.

So the question arises: What do baby Quail eat? Quails are omnivorous birds so they eat both plants based as well as animal-based food. Plant-based food includes leaves, seeds, and green vegetation. Animal-based food includes insects.

However, baby quails need finely crushed food as their beaks are soft. They can eat poppy seeds and small pieces of broccoli. Like other poultry farming, Quail Farming is also a very profitable business. Quail farming is very easy, entertaining, and profit-making.

This business can be started in any weather conditions. Eggs of the quail are very nutritious as compared to other poultry eggs. These eggs are rich in protein, phosphorus, iron, and vitamins like vitamin A, B1, B2. Quail farming can be carried out along with poultry Farming.  

Characteristics of quail: 

  1. Quail birds are very small in size.
  2. The weight of an adult quail ranges between 150-200 grams and the weight of the egg is about 7-15 grams.
  3. At the age of 6 to 7 weeks, the female quails start laying eggs and then lay an egg every day. 
  4. Quail lays 300 eggs during the initial year and the number of eggs laid decreases to half of the eggs in the initial year. Hence the production of eggs decreases gradually after the first year. 
  5. Eggs of quail are very beneficial for human health. The fat content is also very less as compared to chicken eggs 
  6. Quail eggs also provide aid in blood pressure and diabetes, pant, etc 
  7. Quail eggs are very colorful and beautiful.
  8. Quails do not incubate eggs themselves, hence one has to use an incubator to hatch the eggs. 

The lifecycle of quails:

The lifespan of quails is generally 3 to 4 years. The weight of an adult Quail is about 150 to 200 grams. The quail start laying eggs at age of 6 to 7 weeks and the eggs weigh between 7 to 15 grams.

The egg count is more than 300 in the first year however this number decreases with time. These are very beautiful eggs with different colors on them. Quails generally lay eggs during the afternoon and the eggs take almost 17 days to hatch.

The weight of the newly born quail chick is about 7 grams. One male quail is kept with about five female quails for breeding purposes. It takes about two weeks for baby quails to become strong as they are very sensitive in starting. When the eggs weigh around 9 to 11 grams and have a smooth and hard shell then it is said to be perfectly ready for hatching and producing quail chicks. 

Quail farming business:

It is very easy to establish a quail farm due to the small size of these poultry birds. One should have a proper business plant for quail farming before starting anything. This business plan has to include breeds, housing, feeding, care, marketing work, and so on. If one makes and follows the planning properly then one can earn a lot of profit from this business. 

  • Selecting the quail breed:  

Presently there are 18 species of quail available for quail farming. These species are worth it as they are very profitable. As per their production, quails are divided into two categories, that are: broilers and layers. 

The broilers quail breed includes: 

  1. Bobwhite 
  2. White-breasted 

The layers of the Quail breed include:

          1 Tuxedo

          2. British range 

          3.English white

          4. Manchurian golden


Housing and caring of quails:

This step of quail farming is comparatively simple and easy. As these birds are very small in size so they can be adjusted with the other small birds. They don’t require much space due to their size. These organisms are nice pets. They serve a great company as they are lovely to watch. 

One can even have these quail birds in their gardens. There are many reasons that people keep these quail birds. 

  1. They are small in size hence easy to handle and don’t need a large space or area. 
  2. They have a different and wonderful look.

The only thing is that one should know how to take proper care of quail. 

Initially one has to make a suitable house for your bird. But as told earlier that quail is small in size, they need less space.

Must Read: Quail Farming: Business Starting Plan For Beginners

However they have to be protected from predators, rats can be a threat to them so one needs to do the needful to protect the quail. Their house should have a proper ventilation system as the dropping of these birds has high ammonia in it if one has rabbit hutches, which can also be used as a quail house. The rabbit hutches are big enough to provide shelter to half a dozen quail however chicken houses cannot be preferred for quails.

Special care has to be provided to quails in winters and summers. It is important to provide bedding to quails in the winter season. For this purpose, many different things like grass pellets, sand, pine shavings, newspaper pellets, Timothy, fir wood chips, etc. can be used. This action can encourage them to lay eggs and they may even want to have eggs.

Housing is very essential in quail farming. Some important instructions that need to be followed while making the house are given below:

  1. Both litter and cage systems can be used for quails. However, the cage system is more suitable as compared to litter as management is easy in this system and this system is less prone to diseases.
  2. The house should be well ventilated for air and light flow.
  3. For about 50 quails a cage with measurements length 120 cm, 60cm breadth, and 25cm hight would be suitable 
  4. Along with protection from predators, it also has to be protected from other wild. 

Other special equipment: To keep the quails happy, some special equipment can be used. The list of these types of equipment is given below: 

  • Water container: Water is a basic requirement for everyone and so is for quails. Small water containers should be preferred for Quails due to their small size so that they can easily have water. Bigger water containers do not allow easy access and even there’s a danger of drowning. Every time fill the container with clean water.
  • Feeder: Sufficient number of feeders should be kept according to the number of birds. But again one should keep in mind the size of feeders so that quails have easy access to them.
  • Small spots: Quails love different types of plants so growing a couple of plants in their cage or house can make them very happy but do verify that the plants are not toxic to them. 
  • Hiding spots: Quails love hiding spots. So if your pocket allows then you must arrange large hamster huts and put them in a cage 
  • Sand tub: A dust bath is essential for quails. They usually love sand baths daily. The sand bath helps in preventing parasites like mites. Make sure that you keep the sand tub away from the water containers as this may cause a mess. 

Some important management practices:

  • Cleaning cage: You must clean the cage after every 1 or 2 weeks. This will prevent the quails from bacteria, mites, and other diseases. You must properly dispose of the waste and rinse the feeders and water containers properly. Fill it with fresh water and food. Also, renew the sand in the sand tub.
  • Lighting: Proper lighting is also important as quails need light for about 15 hours every day otherwise they can’t sleep. To stay healthy, quails need sufficient sleep. This also helps them to remain active. So after spending sufficient time in light, either turn off all the lights or place them in a completely dark room so that they can have sufficient sleep. 
  • Keep the environment calm: Maintain calmness around the Quails. Keep the other dangerous and noisy pets away from them in another room. A calm environment is important for them as noise can cause stress and disturb the quails.
  • Collect the eggs daily: For fresh eggs collect the eggs daily once every day. Especially during hot days of summers, collect the eggs daily otherwise they may get damaged. You can either put the eggs in the fridge or egg cartons. If you store them in the fridge, they will remain fresh for a longer time. The female quail will produce 5-6 eggs every week. 

Checking on the health of the quail: 

Checking your quail’s health is very important. If the quail is acting a bit different than usual or not eating properly then your quail is not well. However, some small problems can be fixed easily on your own. For example, if you see that all the quails are all together at one corner, this may be due to cold so you can either place the cage where it is not cold or shift the Quails into a warm cage.

Quail chicks in a brooder box. (Photo courtesy of David Herrington)

On the other hand, if your bird is ill then you need to take it to a vet but never ignore the symptoms as there may be some major problem. Also if any quail is wounded then must keep it separate until it is completely healed. When the temperature is very high then shift the quails to a cooler room as they cannot tolerate high temperature.

  • Taming: Taming can be a difficult job in the case of fully grown quails. However, if you are handling them from a younger age then taming would not be that difficult. You need to hold them and play with them for some time, so you can offer them food with your hands. You just need to be gentle with them and visit them often. 
  • Clipping: Quails are very great flyers and fly very high when they are frightened. So once a quail flies it is almost impossible to catch them again. So to avoid this you can clip their wings so that they don’t fly away. 

Special care tips:

Besides the above-mentioned points, some more important tips need to be kept in mind. These tips are: 

  1. Keep the quails of almost the same age in a cage but don’t mix them. Either keep all the adult quails or keep all the young quails in one cage. 
  2. First, raise the young quails and then the elder ones. 
  3. Clean the water containers and feeders at regular intervals. It should be at least once a week.
  4. Do not use moldy feeds to feed your birds.
  5. Keep enough water containers and feeders so that each one of them gets sufficient food and clean water.
  6. Keep a check on insects and also protect them from predators.
  7. You also need to keep a security check for example if a quail dies then immediately remove it from the cage and if any bird is injured then keep it in a different cage until it is healed.

Feeding Quails ( what do baby Quails eat and drink ? ):

This business can only be profitable if you feed your birds sufficiently. You have to feed them well-balanced food rich in nutrients. As we know that these birds are small in size, so they need small amounts of food daily. The baby Quails eat crushed boiled eggs. Quails Mainly drink water.

An adult Quail eats up to 20 to 30 grams of food every day. Mainly the Quail starts laying eggs earlier than the other poultry birds and lay about 300 eggs in a year, but to get this production, you need to provide proper nutrition to them. They require more protein in their diet.

A good diet not only helps to achieve high production but also prevents them from several diseases. These are not greedy and hence eat only the quantity that they need.


Quail farming is a very easy, entertaining, and profitable business. It just needs proper care and sufficient time. By keeping all the small things in mind that are mentioned above, you can earn a great profit from this business.





How to Germinate Chilli Seeds

Chillies are so versatile and easy to grow at the same time. It is full of flavor, heat, and colours. These bright-colored chilies can be delicately mild or fiercely hot depending on their variety. They can be easily grown in home gardens and even in sunny windows by your kitchen. Containers can easily hold chilli plants

It is very commonly grown in houses and the main thing that people talk about is the starting. And starting refers to the question, how to germinate chilli seeds? 

If you want to plant chillies at home, first you must be aware of popular varieties of chilli seeds. A variety of chilli seeds can be rated based on their hotness. 

Chillies contain capsaicin, a material that determines the hotness in chillies. They get their characteristic pungency from capsaicin. Capsaicin stimulates nerve endings in mucous membranes in the body of organisms. That is the reason why it feels hot when you bite chillies. 

The amount of heat in a chilli varies with different varieties. Further, it is also affected by maturity and growing conditions. Few varieties of chilli seeds are sizzling hot while few can be very mild or delicate. 

The heat of chillies can be measured by the Scoville scale. In 2017, a welsh fruit grower named Mike Smith grew the hottest variety of chilli, accidentally. The value of hotness on the Scoville scale was 2.48 million. The name of that variety is ‘Dragon’s Breath’. One bite of this chilli variety is enough to give the person an anaphylactic shock. 

Few varieties of chilli seeds are mentioned below- 

  • Big Bomb F1- it has medium heat and is round in shape. It is great for stuffing and baking. 
  • Jalapeno M- Medium heat is observed in this variety. It is great for salsa and toppings on pizzas. 
  • Padron- these chillies are generally picked when they are small and green. It is because greener chillies are at lower stages of hotness. To obtain hotter and red chillies, you can wait for some time and then pick them. It is great for stir-fries. 
  • Hardware improved mix- these beautiful looking chillies are hot and ornamental too. 
  • Demon red – they are hot and dwarf chillies. They are bred for making them suitable to grow on windowsills and containers. 
  • Tropical heat- this variety is extremely hot. It is a mixture of red and orange Caribbean and yellow and red Scotch Bonnet. 

Bright color combinations in chillies make them ornamental. These beautiful looking plants can be a perfect decorative piece.

Varieties like black pearl pepper and bishop’s crown pepper are beautiful and can be used for decorative purposes. 

Now that you are aware of what variety suits your needs, you need to be aware of further steps. 

So, January and February are the best months for sowing seeds of chillies. They grow best in hotter climates. 

You can easily sow them indoors in Jan and Feb. It gives your plants plenty of time to mature before the end of summer. Longer growing periods make chillies hotter and spicier.

How to germinate chilli seeds?

It is very easy to grow chillies and begin their growth at home too. 

The first step is to use well-drained and fertile soil for the best chillies. Place soil in a seed tray or a 10cm small container. The main point of planting seed indoors is to give them plenty of time to ripen before hotter months end. in colder months, yield decreases dramatically. 

Soil can be mixed with moist compost to increase its nutritional value. Sow seeds on top of the soil and cover them with a layer of vermiculite in compost.

Now, you must know that the germination of chilli seeds occurs best at warm temperatures. Therefore, either place them in a propagator with temperatures ranging between 18-25C or can cover pots with polythene to retain heat. 

It takes around 7-10 days to germinate chilli seeds. Warmer climate fastens the germination process. Germination time for chilli plants can be as long as 6 weeks depending on the variety of chillies. 

Jalapeno takes 1-3 weeks for germination. However, habanero seeds take 6 weeks to germinate.

When it germinates and grows into a seedling, you can keep them in a sunny window and give your chilli plants a dose of sunlight every day. 

The soil used should not be too wet or too dry. Ensuring proper moist soil for chilli plants is appreciable. 

Chilli seeds not germinating. 

Here are a few reasons why your chilli seeds are not germinating. 

  • Poor seed quality- As seeds age, their ability to germinate quickly decreases. After 3 years or more, seeds become almost useless.
  • Lack of moisture- water is necessary for seeds to sprout. If you do not provide water to them regularly then do not expect any germination. 
  • Very Hot weather- very high temperatures can kill seeds. 
  • Very cold temperature- cold temperatures do not let seeds germinate. 

Heat and moisture requirement for germinating seeds

Heat and moisture are the basic two things which if changed can damage seeds and even kill them. Therefore, creating optimum conditions is necessary. 

The germination temperature for chilli seeds is 27-32C. As we are opting for germination indoors, keep them on the airing cupboard or top of the fridge to provide additional heat. More Heat will fasten the time of germination. But keep in mind that increasing temp above 38C will damage them severely. 

Must Read: Chilli Flowers Dropping Off – Plant not flowering

You can also buy a heating pad for your chilli seeds. 

Moisture makes the pods soft and sprouting easier. It speeds the process of germination. Do not add too much or too little water to seeds. Both Of these conditions can lead to the death of seeds. 

Get a mister or spray bottle for watering seeds. 

Germination of seeds using a towel

You can also germinate chilli seeds with the help of paper towels. This way if germination is functional and simplest at the same time. It speeds the process of germination. 

Process of seed germination-

  • First, take a damp paper towel. You take a clean and dry one and then spray it with water. Do not just dip it in water, it will make the whole process useless.
  • Scatter seeds on a damp paper towel and then place another one at the top of it. The damp paper provides enough moisture to seeds for completing germination easily.
  • Seal the paper towels in a plastic bag with a zip lock to seal them.
  • Leave them from 2-5 days in a warm place with temperatures from 23-30C.
  • If you are performing in this warm climate, you can even leave them outdoors. 
  • After germination is completed, take seeds and place them in seed trays or pots with compost filled in it. Avoid using garden soil. It contains pests and fungus and causes diseases. Fertile and good quality compost is preferred. 
  • Further, spray it with water or use a mister for the same. 

Transplantation of chilli seedlings and growth

Before transplanting, you must be sure about the condition of the plant. You can transplant chilli seedlings when they are strong enough to handle and do not break when touched. 

Make sure the temperature conditions must be favorable for their growth. Frost can harm chilli seedlings. Therefore, waiting till frost ends can be better. 

You can place seedlings in pots or grow bags too. Before directly planting seedlings into the ground, you should give them a taste of outdoor conditions daily by placing them outdoors for at least an hour for a few days. 

Now when they are completely prepared for outdoor conditions you can place them in a field or your home garden. Make soil fertile by the addition of compost or fertilizers. Soil should be moist and well-drained. Loamy soil is not suitable for growth of chillies.

Next plant them 50 cm apart from each other. Overcrowding can lead to stress in chilli plants and it also affects crop yield. 

In the growing season, regular watering should be ensured. However, when they mature, you keep them a little dry to make chillies a little hotter. Further, the addition of potash tomato fertilizer is preferred weekly after the appearance of chillies on the plants. 

Tip- tips of the first flowering shot should be pinched to promote branching. Moreover, it also makes crops better and more flavourful. 

To add to this, staking of taller plants is advised. Weeds can challenge plants and be competitive. Therefore, use a mulch to suppress weeds near plants. Plus, mulch retains moisture in the soil and this is beneficial for chilli plants. 

If you are practicing chilli farming indoors then keep windows open for sometime in a day. First, plants love air circulation and moving a little every day. Opening windows will cater to their need for wind. Second, it will attract insects and ensure pollination. 

Next, you can also perform hand pollination from flower to flower by yourself. You can use a painter’s brush and brush flowers a little to collect and transfer pollen from one to another. 

Harvest of chilli plants

Chilli plants must be harvested before colder months. Chilli Plants favour long sunny days for better growth. Cold temperatures can spoil hotness and the whole crop in total. 

Early sowing in January or February gives plenty of time for chillies to mature before cold seasons arrive. You can sow them directly into the soil in March or early summers.

In the UK, sowing late is not good because summer does not last long. If your region experiences a short summer too, then plant in Jan and Feb. 

Chilli plants are ready for harvesting in July. You can pick chillies whenever you wish and wait for your chilli plants to grow more of them. Isn’t that amazing. You will be surprised by how much crop yield you get with this method. 

Further, if you want dry and hotter chillies, then leave them for more time on chilli plants. Let them turn red and wait. In this way, they will mature and produce more intense flavours.

If the colder season arrives and your crop does not ripe, transfer them into pots and take them indoors. Place them in warmer conditions like sunny windowsills or the greenhouse for good results.

Harvesting can be done by picking chillies or cutting them using secateurs. 

How to store chilli seeds?

You can follow two steps for storing chilli seeds. Either dry them out or freeze them. 

  • Drying chillies- take a thread and pass it through stems of chillies. Make a chain of it and hang them in a warm and ventilated place. Leave them there for 4-5 weeks. During this time, they will dry completely. Then, place them in containers or bags and use them as you wish. 
  • Freezing chillies- freezing chillies can preserve them without loss of flavour. Though it will lead to softened flesh flavour and taste stay intact. Put chillies in plastic bags and close them properly, then place them in the freezer and use them when necessary. 

Health benefits if chillies

Chillies contain a lot of nutritional components and are rarely harmful. Red chillies contain large amounts of vitamin C. Provitamin A beta carotene is present in other species of red chillies. 

Vitamin B6 is also found in chillies. 

Next, they help treat nerve disorders and alleviate pain in arthritis, psoriasis, and diabetic neuropathy. 

Cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels can also be controlled with the help of it. Also, it increases our ability to dissolve fibrin. Fibrin leads to clotting of blood and that can even lead to a heart attack or death. 

Next, the spiciness of chillies can help clear mucus secretions from stuffed up nose or congested lungs. 

The high content of vit A and C can help in increasing immunity in organisms. 

Eating hot chillies takes energy which forces you to burn calories. So it can be a great way to lose some weight. 

Therefore, it is evident that eating these spicy and hot chillies won’t go in vain. 

Planting and growing these versatile chillies is so fun and an easy process. Who knew one could find peace in looking at these beautiful plants grow. Growing chillies is interesting and easy at the same time. Getting benefits for harvest can’t be matched. So do not wait and start planning. These chillies will make your home garden look more beautiful than ever. 

How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

How Long Does Sugarcane Take To Grow

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum ) is a widely grown crop and is the main source of sugar. It is a well-known cash crop that is of great commercial importance. It has also provided employment to a large number of people directly or in an indirect way hence contributes to the national economy.

Sugarcane is mainly a tropical plant and hence it runs across all the seasons whether it’s raining, summer or Winters.

Before knowing how long does sugarcane take to grow, check out the essentials that you must know about for sugarcane plantation.

Different requirements for sugarcane plantation

  • Suitable climatic conditions : As we know sugarcane is able to grow throughout the seasons, but they best grow in tropical hot sunny areas. 

A long warm growing season with high frequency of solar rays and sufficient amount of moisture can be said to be the ideal conditions for proper growth of this crop. For ripening it requires a cool but frost free season. 

  • Soil type : sugarcane can be grown in different varieties of soil such as alluvial soil or the red volcanic soil or the soil that is a mixture of  silt , sand and clay particles along with some organic material can be the perfect soil for sugarcane plantation. This crop needs a well drained soil for which the land is ploughed and left to weather for some time before subsoiling. 

The pH range of the soil for sugarcane cultivation should be from 6.5 to 7.5 pH. The minimum depth of the soil should be 45 cm and the soil should have an adequate amount of nutrients. 

  • Seed Quality: Accessibility of good quality cane seeds is must for good crop yield. Firstly the seed is grown in the nursery  for 10-11 months and then that nursery crop is planted in the field. After that some other chemical treatments need to be provided to the seed which are 0.05% Bavistin, 2.5%KCl , 2.5% urea KCl +Urea etc. After the above chemical treatments , a hot water treatment is also given for prevention of seed borne diseases. 
  • Land Preparation for Sugarcane plantation:  Every single time a new crop is grown , it becomes necessary that soil should be brought to a properly cultivated land for proper germination of seeds and good root growth.

There are some  reasons behind land Preparation which are:

  1. Land Preparation includes the preparation of seedbeds that allows optimal soil water relations.
  2. This activity also provides good physical conditions for early root proliferation and penetration.
  3. It is also helpful in destroying weeds and hibernating pests.It also helps to knock down the diseases causing organisms.
  4. It also helps the land to absorb the previous crop residue and organic manures.
  5. Land preparation also  facilitates proper soil chemical and microbial activities.

Tillage is an important operation under land preparation. Tillage is basically agricultural preparation of the soil with the appropriate tools or implements to loosen the surface soil layer.

The main function of tilling is to mix up the organic matter into your soil properly , break down the crusted soil, and loosen up the tiny areas for plantation. Anything in excess is never good and so is tilling, excess tilling can also cause more damage to the soil.

The best time for tilling is the spring season but can also be done in autumn for cool weather crops. However tilling must be avoided when the soil is wet as it can cause damage to soil structure.

Plantation methods of sugarcane:

Mainly, there are a few different methods for plantation of sugarcane described below- 

Must Read: How To Plant Sugarcane – A Complete Beginner’s Guide

Ridge and furrow method:

It is one of the most common methods for sugarcane plantation. In this method the ridges and the furrows are opened with the help of a ridger by maintaining a distance of 120cm between the furrows in the heavy soils and and a distance of 105cm in the light and medium soil. After this step, the main and sub irrigation channels are opened at suitable distances.

Initially the sets are laid on the end of the top ridge and later on these are planted in furrows by dry and wet method. 

Dry method :

This method is adopted for heavy soils to avoid pressing of the setts very deep into the soil. These sets are arranged in the furrows  end to end by

 facing eyes buds on the sides and sheltering it with a layer of soil. After completing the steps of plantation, the field is ready for irrigation.

Wet method :

This method is adopted for light to medium soil. In this method of plantation the field is irrigated initially before planting the setts. Then the sets are planted at the depth of 2.5 to 5 cm in the furrows with hands or feet. These sets are placed end to end in such a way that they face the bus on the sides. 

Flat bed method:

Flat bed method is another method for sugarcane plantation. In this method firstly the land is ploughed, harrowed and then leveled and then flat beds are prepared. After that the cane stes are laid down in the flat beds in end to end rows. A distance of 60-90cm is maintained between the rows depending on the soil type.

Afterwards they are pressed into the soil with the help of a hand or foot , about 2.5-5 cm deep and then it is covered with a layer of soil. During the plantation by this method one must keep in mind that the buds should face on the sides otherwise it would not be possible for lower buds to germinate. This method of cane plantation is usually adopted in the areas where there is abundant moisture.

Rayungan Method:

This method of plantation is usually adopted for adsali sugarcane plantation. Rayungan Method is followed in Riverside fields or in the areas with heavy rainfall. In these areas the cane fields are usually prone to floods during the rainy season which affects the germination of the seeds and in such conditions the sets cannot be directly planted in the main fields.

So firstly the single bud sets are planted in the nursery in a vertical manner which are prepared in a high lying area of the farm in summer. After about a period of 6 weeks the sets that have been sprouted are shifted in the main field when the danger of floods is over. 

Trench or the Java method:

In this method trenches ( a type of deep and wide depression in the ground) are made that depth is about 22-30cm and maintained at a distance of 90-120cm. The deeper soil is loosened and mixed up with manures. Then the sets are placed in the middle of  these trenches and then covered with a layer of soil.

After the completion of planting irrigation is carried out. Large clumps of cane are produced  in this method that do not lodge  when tied together. The danger from wild animals is least.

Manures and fertilizers: Sugarcane is a long durational crop, as well as a heavy feeder thus the requirement of manures is quite high.

During the land preparation about 25-50 tonnes of  FYM/ha has been used. 

It is recommended that different sugarcane fertilizers have to be used according to the planting season, it even varies from growing track to track. So basically for Adsali 250:115:115 is used and for pre seasonal  340:170:170kg nitrogen , phosphorus and potash respectively are suggested.


The water requirements for sugarcane generally range from 2000 to 2500 mm depending upon some factors like soil type, duration, and climatic conditions etc. Irrigation of sugarcane crops has been done during the different phases like  the germination phase, tillering phase, grand growth phase and the final maturity phase.

So firstly during the stage of germination, the soil needs sufficient moisture for better germination however water logging can result in rotting of sets. In this phase irrigation can never be done at intervals of a week however these intervals can be of 10 days in tillering phase.

Next comes the grand growth phase which is known to be a critical stage for water demand. This also needs to be irrigated at intervals of a week. It takes 12-14 months for sugarcane to grow. Now finally in the maturity phase, the irrigation has to be done fortnightly and has to be stopped about 15 days before harvesting.

Intercultural operations: These include mulching, hoeing, tying of the cane and earthing up.

In the initial period, spreading the paddy straw or sugarcane trash on the field can help to prevent more evaporation and hence the demand for water supply will also be less.

Hoeing and weeding is necessary in the first 3-4 weeks after plantation  for high yield and improved quality of sugarcane. After the germination phase two to three more hoeing and weeding may be required during the first three months depending upon the field conditions and frequency of irrigation.

The final earthing up has to be done before the monsoon rains and should be synchronized with the implementation of the last dose of fertilizers. This operation is helpful in keeping down the weeds.

Tying of canes is said to be a very desirable activity that prevents the canes to sway during wind. Bringing together the stalks from the adjacent rows and tying them all together along with their own trash and the old leaves  is considered as the best way of tying the cane.q

Sugarcane diseases:

There are a few plant diseases that can be controlled or cured with some simple methods. First comes the red rot disease which is a fungal disease. It’s symptoms are drying of top leaves, the leaves start withering, red lesions on the midrib of the leaves.

One should uproot and destroy all the clumps if you notice the above symptoms. Use diseases free and heat treated setts for plantation.

The next disease is whip smut which is also a fungal disease and the symptoms can be noticed before 1 month of harvesting season and to prevent this , diseases free and heat treated sets should be used.


When the lower leaves start withering up and leaving progressively, and fewer green leaves are left at the top, it can be marked as the maturity phase. Even a maturity testing device call a refractometer can be used to test the maturity stage. If the hand refractometer shows a reading of 20 , it can be said that the cane has reached the maturity level. 

The harvesting of sugarcane generally begins in early winters as is continued for about 150 days. Nowadays the harvesting and cutting of sugarcane is done after receiving the cutting orders from factory authorities and these cutting orders are issued depending upon the date of planting of which the records are maintained. Harvesting of sugarcane is done with the bog machines that contain rotating knives which cut the sugar cane from the base of the stalks.

How long does it take sugarcane to grow:  

sugarcane takes quite a long time to grow, we can say that it grows through the entire season. Sugarcane plants produce several stalks and each one of them can grow well over ten feet and this usually takes 12- 14 months. The best time to plant cane crops is in early Winter so that the sprouting can happen in early spring. These os basically one harvest of the primary crop and then 3-4 harvests of the regrowth.

Yield: The average yield of the cane crop under the commercial cultivation of170 tonnes per hectare for Adsali  and 120 tonnes per hectare in the case of pre seasonal sugarcane and 100 tonnes per hectare for suru 


Farmers that grow sugarcane want their farms to be sustainable and by using sustainable practices Farmers can keep the farms and crops healthy.

Why are my Strawberry Leaves Turning Red

Strawberries are a staple for numerous home gardens. These fleshy, sweet berries are so delicious to eat and are so versatile too. They can be used to prepare jams, sauces, desserts, and much more. Growing strawberries ourselves and then eating them bring so much pleasure. Even if you need them for business, it brings profit then too. But sometimes, diseases can effect growth of strawberries dramatically. If you are here, you might be thinking, Why my strawberry leaves are turning red. 

Yes, it is something that you need to pay attention to. Here we have all the reasons for strawberry leaves turning red along with preventive measures and solutions for you. So, do check these out. 

Strawberries have natural red pigment in them. The occurrence of red stems in strawberry plants is due to their genetic expression. Moreover, it is considered completely normal. However, in case leaves of your strawberry plant start turning red, you need to worry about them. Redness of leaves is a sign of a plant being affected by a disease or some nutrient deficiency. Whatever the reason might be, the redness of leaves is a disastrous condition. It basically implies that your plant is dying. 

Below we have mentioned all the possible reasons of reddening of leaves- 

Diseases in Strawberry plants 

There is not a single disease or ailment that results in red leaves in strawberry plants. Various diseases can lead to such conditions. In order to deal with ailment, you must be aware of what problem you are going through. Given below is the list of diseases which lead to red or purple leaves in strawberry plants. Match symptoms and figure yours out. 

1. Red Stele Root Rot

This is a very potential disease and is commonly seen in strawberry plants. 

  • Causing agent 

Red Stele Root Rot is caused by a pathogen named Phytophthora fragariae. This pathogen resides in soil. The soil which makes home to this pathogen is generally moist, poorly drained and clay laden. 

This pathogen generally spreads through planting equipment or soil like pot soil etc. The planting equipment gets contaminated and when it is used on strawberry plants, they get infected as well. 

  • Occurrence

This disease usually occurs in early spring, late winter and late fall. At these times of year, soil is more conducive to growth of this pathogen. Generally, this fungus is attracted to either poorly drained conditions or overly wet soil.

  • Symptoms

Strawberry plants get affected by this disease dramatically. Early symptoms include stunted growth and lack of shiny luster in strawberry plants. Further, leaves start turning red, yellow, blue in plants. 

Older leaves start turning yellow or red in plants. Also, they begin to wilt and die eventually. Rust coloured roots are also observed in plants. In advanced stages,fungi can kill the whole plant.

You can easily check if your strawberry plants are also suffering from this disease. First, dig out the roots of the plant. Then cut the root into two halves. If the centre of the root is dark reddish, it conveys that the stele of the plant has turned red. Therefore, it confirms that the plant has been infected by Phytophthora fragariae. 

  • Treatment 

Soil fumigation is an effective measure to remove fungus completely from the growing site.However, such a measure is difficult to carry out in a home garden. Metalaxyl fungicides can control this disease. But you need to follow proper cultural practices for better results.

Diseased parts of infected plants can be removed or pruned. 

For further growth of strawberry plants, you can purchase highly resistant plants from a good nursery. In addition to this, grow future plants in another area of garden for minimal risk of infection.

  • Prevention

This species of fungi is quite persistent. They can easily survive in soil for years even without host plants. Due to its nature, it is a little difficult to grow strawberry plants in such conditions. Red steel root rot occurs in most common and is very destructive for plants. 

Soil chosen for growing strawberry plants should be well drained, light and also not compacted so that diseases stay at bay. 

2.Black Root Rot

Black root rot is a disease seen in strawberry plants that results in redness of leaves. You can check these symptoms given below to check out if your plants are suffering from the same. 

  • Causing Factors

This disease is also caused by fungi. The reasons behind this can be- 

  • Over fertility 
  • Microscopic soil nematodes
  • Inconsistent irrigating
  • Damage due to frost 

These reasons can lead to black root rot in strawberry plants. 

  • Symptoms 

In this disease,black roots are seen clearly. Also, leaves turn red or purple in colour and growth is stunted. 

  • Treatment 

Improved cultural conditions can help in treating this infection and save our strawberry  plants. Furthermore, mulch is considered really effective in this condition. It retains moisture in the soiland is very beneficial for plants. 

3. Leaf Scorch 

  • Causing agent 

Leaf scorch is caused by fungus diplocarpon earliana. This fungus causes the appearance of dark brown, disk shaped lesions on the upper surface of leaves.

  • Symptoms 

As stated above, disk shaped lesions are seen commonly on the upper surface of leaves. There is an appearance of dark spots at first. These spots give a sense of burned look. The spots can be around ¼ inch in diameter. As these spots grow in size, they resemble small droplets of tar. It is due to production of minute, black fungal structures in abundance. 

When infection hikes up, leaves appear all red. They dry up and appear scorched. These lesions can also be seen on other plant parts like flowers or young fruits. Petioles, runners, fruit stems can also get infected in this condition.

  • Management

Strawberry plants should be grown in proper air circulation and good sun exposure. Treatment can be carried with fungicide in the flowering period, during late summer and late fall. Keep the level of moisture low and avoid providing too much water supply. 

4. Nutrient Deficiency

Giving proper nutrition to strawberry plants is necessary for proper growth of plants. Nutrients such as potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus are responsible for various processes being undertaken in plant physiology. In case the levels of these nutrients are compromised so does plant health. It leads to purplish or red color in the leaves of strawberry plants. 

Along with the redness of leaves, fruit yield is also compromised in strawberry plants by one third due to deficiency of nitrogen. 

If potassium is supplied in minimal amounts to plants then red color appears on the margins of the leaves of plants. Strawberry leaves turning red at edges should also be treated to avoid complications.  Further, runner number and fruit production decreases dramatically. 

Control Measures for reddening of leaves in strawberry plants 

  1. Use disease resistant cultivars for growth of healthy and disease free strawberry plants. Resistant varieties are extremely resistant to various types of diseases. These  varieties require minimal effort and can be grown easily to produce delicious fruits. 
  2. Start your gardening with certified plants only. Do not just get them from any place you find them. But purchase certified and healthy strawberry plants from a renowned nursery of your area. Taking this step at start will ensure great results and fruits at the same time.
  3. Plant them in areas which receive good quality sunlight for maximum hours. Air circulation should also be very good in the gardening area. 

Prevent The growth of weeds by using chemical methods or cultural practices. In addition to this, space runner plants in matted row cultures. Overpopulation should be strictly abandoned in strawberry plants. It affects growth and stresses plants. Also, it has an obvious effect on fruit production. 

  1. You can apply nitrogen fertilizers at the time of renovation. Use a spray to cover a larger area with less amounts of products. These plants are very prone to fungi diseases. Using a fungicide is really helpful to keep those diseases at bay. 

Fungicide controls fruit roots and leaf diseases. Set a proper schedule for spraying. For June cultivars, starting fungicide should be sprayed at a gap of 7 to 10 days. After the primary fruiting period is over, gaps can be hiked upto 2 to 3 weeks. 

  1. Application of fungicide should be on all plant parts present above the ground. Leaf scorch is commonly seen on the surface of leaves so cover leads with fungicide carefully and properly. 

As Spray lasts longer and is more effective that dust so choose it for your plants. 

Also Read: Strawberry Farming Guide for Beginners


You can prevent your plants from.catching these deadly diseases by taking care of small things. You do not need to run any hard operations to fulfil the task. Small steps can ensure you healthy strawberry plants that give healthy and delicious fruits. Various ways for preventing are mentioned below- 

  • Soil must be drained properly with water. Water is essential for all living organisms and strawberry plants are not an exception. However, too much water can deteriorate the quality of plant and fruit yield. Therefore, use your judgment and provide a required amount of water to plants regularly. Inconsistent irrigation can lead to diseases such as black root rot as mentioned earlier. 
  • In case too much water is added to plants, then shallow roots suffer a lot. As plants get all of their food through roots therefore all of the plant will suffer from detected roots. 
  • Plants must be placed in a spacious area. Overcrowding can cause stress in strawberry plants and effect growth negatively. Plants must be placed 15 inch apart for best results. 
  • Air circulation should be properly taken care of. Due to air circulation, plants do not stay wet or moist and as a result occurrence of fungal disease can be avoided. This is because fungus grows in moist conditions. Dry leaves will ensure a non fungus and healthy environment. 
  • Strawberry plants grow best in bright and sunny locations. California, Florida and North Carolina are regions in the USA where strawberry growing conditions are very favourable. Kent, Sussex and Wales have the most suitable climate for strawberries cultivation. 
  • Use fertilizers to provide plants with required nutrients. 

You can even prepare fertilizers at home using organic materials. Such fertilizers are much more useful and safe for strawberry plants.

How to Make Homemade Fertilizers 

Homemade fertilizers are full of vital nutrients. They ensure overall good growth in strawberry plants. Preparing fertilizers at home is easy and requires you to take a few steps. Check out fertilizers mentioned below which you can create at home and are best for plants. 

  • Fertilizer Tea

All purpose liquid fertilizer can be prepared from organic compost and is called fertilizer tea. To make fertilizer tea, you need a large container and well aged manure or organic compost. Add material to the container and fill 5 parts of water in it. Keep the mixture away for 7 to 10 days to brew it. Once it’s brewed, pour into a spray pump and cover strawberry plants from top to bottom with this liquid. 

  • Fish Waste fertilizer 

Fish emulsion is highly enriched with nitrogen. Using this can help in proper growth and healthy fruit yield. It also repairs pale green leaves in strawberry plants. 

You can prepare this homemade fertilizer by adding 1 part of fish waste to 2 parts of water. Keep the mixture away for several weeks. Spray it on the ground in quantities of 3 gallons on 100 square feet.  

  • Plant based fertilizer

Plant based homemade fertilizers can be prepared from seaweed, nettle or chamomile.  Seaweed is enriched with mannitol. Mannitol is proven to increase nutrient absorption in soil. Add seaweed in 5 gallons of lukewarm water. Soak it in there for around 3 weeks. Cover it loosely with a lid. After 3 weeks, spray it onto the strawberry plants. In case of nettle or chamomile, take 5 gallons of water and put plant texture in  it. Rest it for 3 weeks and then spray onto plants. 

  • Manure 

NPK value varies ik cow, horse, rabbit and poultry pasture. After 4 weeks of planting, June bearing adds 8 pounds of cow or horse manure to plants. If you are using rabbit or poultry manure lower it down to 2 pounds only.

Strawberry plants can be affected by various diseases that lead to symptoms like reddening of leaves. But it doesn’t mean that those diseases cannot be recovered or prevented. All you need is to be careful while buying plants and at the growth or cultivation practices. Prevention and control measures described above provide you much needed insight. 

Chilli Flowers Dropping Off – Plant not flowering

Chilli is one of the most used spice crops in the world. There is no better way to provide the harsh and bitter taste in your food than using chilli. It is an absolute delight to use chilli to bring out the flavour of your food and make it worth it. Indian have always been very excited about their rich spices, and they never lagged behind in this. The Indian chillies are worldwide known and are amazing to taste.

Chilli is a part of the botanical family Solanaceae. The flowers seen on the plant are small, white ones, and they often are downward facing. Even the chilli fruit which grows on the plant is similarly growing downward, and hence they hang beautifully from the main plant.

But this transformation of the flower to the main fruit depends on a number of factors. The fruit bears seeds and without this, it is not possible to have the next growth. There can be a number of reasons why a situation of chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen. It is really hard to get close to perfection and then later losing the result of the fruit.

Flowers growing into fruit depends on a number of factors such as the intensity of the sunlight, humidity, water content, air, and many other such things. Chilli drop is a usual event, but a situation where chilli flowers dropping off is seen as very tragic.

Why does such a thing happen?

The gardeners very easily face this problem of chilli flower drop in their plants. It’s also a natural phenomenon as these shrubs do drop the flowers for giving a balance to the plant.

The main stem of chilli is so weak that due to excess flowering, it is seen that the plants do shed their flowers. It’s very normal for a healthy chilli plant, but there can be many other reasons for having this “blossom drop.”

Optimal temperature matters-

This factor really plays a lot for flowering and fruiting. The chilli plant is very limited in the temperature range. They are very sensitive to high temperature, and due to this factor, the gardeners face problems in maintaining the crop.

The morning temperature ranges from 20-10 degree celsius in the daytime. The plant drops the flower as an option to survive. This is a typical case of chillies flowering but no fruit. There can be other temperature-related facts, but you will have to see and analyze exactly which part of your plant gets damaged by the heat variation.


Another big point in chilli flower dropping off is the misuse of fertilizer. Many gardeners don’t get the entire concept of fertilizing, and hence they often think that using extra fertilizer is beneficial, but it is completely a myth. It can just backfire, and hence one needs to have a clear and keen analysis of the type of fertilizer, and the quality of fertilizer one should use. A better way would be consulting an expert for this—one who can analyze and work in detail.

Water Content-

Water plays a very unique role in plants. When you analyze the situation and see how it can work, you can observe the fact that both extreme water and low water can be harmful to the chilli plant. Both of them can cause chilli flowering but no fruit. When the water content gets lowered up in the soil and eventually in the plant, the chilli plant goes for an option to save the water from transpiration so that the water can be there for useful processes involving its life.

Flowers have their own water requirement, and also the surface area of the flower gives more surface for the water to escape; hence one can see chilli flowers dropping off. Similarly, in the case where water is in excess, the plant becomes heavy. Even the flower becomes loaded up with water, and the stem is full of water. In such a case, the flower can drop easily. The weight is a big factor in chilli plants, and hence they can’t make it easy if the plant gets full of water. It can even break the main stem.

Also Read: How to Grow Lavender with Maximum Productivity


It is a process in which the male spores from the male plant are transferred on the stigma of the female to form a zygote and later a seed. This process in chilly does happen via an agent. It can be air, water and many other such things. In the chilly plant, pollination is mainly via an insect.

Garden bees are a very common vector for this transfer. It is amazing to notice that lack of these vectors can cause the stoppage of pollination. Most of the gardeners aren’t aware of this fact. It will eventually lead in the death of the flowers.

The flower without being pollinated gets dried up, and hence the flower sheds off the plant. In such conditions, the flower needs to be pollinated by artificial means so as to make the flower stay on the plant. Even the gardener can do such a thing by using a cotton brush and artificial techniques.

Improper and incomplete pollination

Basically, even if anyone of the given conditions doesn’t match with a compatible pollination environment, then the process could be a complete failure. Any type of poor air circulation and improper agents can lead to such a situation. The life span of these flowers on the plant is very short, and even with a small change in the complete process, the pollination misses. This leads to Chilli Flowers Dropping Off the chilli plant after being dried up. The solution to such problems is easy, and a g can easily take some of these.

How to increase pollination?

It’s not very hard to increase the pollination rate in chilli plants. In chilli growing in gardens, the main pollinator is bees. This bee is one of the most amazing organisms in nature. To attract bees, you can plant many colorful flowers in the main garden or field where you are growing the main chilli.

Bees easily get attracted to the fragrance and sweet smell. Also, the big attractive looking flowers are very pleasing to the bees, and they like to come around these. This will accidentally help in the pollen transfer so moreover a great technique. But, you can never be sure of the success story. It is a complete case of hit and trial, and luck only can make the pollination better. If you are in an area with poor aeration or less attractiveness to pollination agents and if the pollination is the reason for Chilli flower dropping off, then you have nothing to do rather wait.


yes, don’t be surprised to know that the gas which is found the most in the atmosphere is one among the deficiencies responsible for chilli flowering but no fruit. The main reason behind this is the presence of nitrogen in free form in the soil in which the plant can use it. The nitrogen is very much important for the proper growth of chilli flowers.

Being one of the most essential macronutrients Nitrogen is very important for the blossom to remain perfect and later to transform into the chilli you want. Not only a deficiency but also an excess is very much harmful to the plant. In any case, if you took a chance to increase the nitrogen level much above the optimum, then the consequence could be a crop full of foliage bosom, and eventually, it costs in the toxicity of the land. There can be a shocking drop in the number of flowers in chilli plants, so be very strict in maintaining the appropriate amount of nitrogen for proper growth.


not only nitrogen but also air is a reason for such events. There can be many points on how air can affect the plants. The first case is itself the pollination rate. Chilli pollen is also travelled by air currents in the atmosphere which gives you an option of air pollination.

Unavailability of this airflow can reduce the pollination, dry up the flower, and then shed the flower. The second is the air content in the soil. Aeration is important for the roots. Due to tight soil, the air cannot get inside, and the roots don’t get the proper air. Further, this may lead to a lowering in the number of flowers. Even if the plant will grow, but the chilli plant flowering but not fruiting is seen.


The density or the area in which each plant is placed on the field is also a determining factor. If there are any plants on the field and the spacing is a problem, then the consumption of air and the circulation becomes weak. This may lead to chilli flowers dropping off. Sensity can be another factor by which the number of flowers can variate. The lesser the distance between pants, the lesser the growth is seen.

Humidity is very dangerous-

This plant likes to grow in dry areas. Proper and moderate humidity is required for easy and quick pollination. If the moisture content in air increases, the stickiness of the pollen also increases. The humidity is also a very important reason that can make the flowers heavy. This might be a very good cause for chillies flowering but no fruit. The content of the air is very determining, and hence small plants such as chillies do need the optimum condition. The blossom drop is very much significant in the areas with high moisture content.

Watering in the soil-

The water in the soil is important. If the water on the land where chilli is growing then it completely vanishes the fruiting in the plants. If the water level goes down the situation can be very stressful for the chilli plant. Due to such harsh conditions, the flowering might drop.

Water is very important for the overall growth, when overall is hampered the fruit is destroyed automatically. The chilli flowers dropping off can be seen in such situations, and water is something that can be really managed well. Even if the water is very much in the soil, it creates a lump. The aeration further decreases.

How to prevent this drop?

There are many factors for all these situations, and a gardener always wants a solution to it. So here are some of the things you can do to take of the problem-

  • You cannot change the environment, and hence it’s not on your choice, but you can select the area where you are going to cultivate chilli. Even some solutions such as artificial heating and greenhouse gases are beneficial, and one can try using these artificial techniques for getting the plants back on track.
  • Fertilization- it is very much sensitive in chilli plants. Most of them provide ammonia to the soil and hence are great with fixing nitrogen and providing other ions for the growth. Try providing a good amount of fertilizer just enough to support the flowerings.

 Here is a key point with fertilizers.

Excess of fertilizers on your plant is very much more harmful than less content or no fertilizer. One has to be very specific with the amount.

  • Try providing good water to the plant. Chilli is very sensitive to water. If they don’t get a good amount of water, the growth degrades a lot. Chilli flowering but no fruit is a very basic thing seen on the plant due to water.
  • Sometimes there are many growth factors in the plants responsible for fruiting. One can easily get these chemically synthesized chemicals from the market and use these for use. Cytokines, Auxin and other chemicals are growth initiating hormones.

Dropping of flowers from the main plant is a very common phenomenon and sometimes it is even very natural. Chilli is so sensitive that even a tinge of variation in the conditions and your fruits are spoiled. The best a person can do is to make the situations favourable and more worthy for the plant.





Why My Eggplant Leaves Turning Yellow and Curling

Eggplant is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world. It is a delight for vegetable lovers. The tangy taste of Eggplant has it all. Even vegetables contain many important minerals and vitamins which can be beneficial for human growth.

These plants go through a very special process in which the fruit comes out and grows very slowly. It needs good care and technique for maximum output. A gardener gives a lot to see this magical moment of growth, but sometimes due to one or the other mistake defects such as Eggplant leaves turning yellow and Eggplant leaves curling are seen.

What can be the problems?

Yellow eggplant leaves are really a matter to worry. The fruit can vary in colors and hence that is not that a serious matter but the leaves indicate problems related to the entire plant. It can be there due to hundreds of reasons.

The most common reason can be infection by an outside host. Species such as spider mites are very harmful to the eggplant leaves. They like to feed on the plant’s leaves and hence can leave yellow spots on eggplant leaves. They can be so harmful that they produce such situations in which the plant gets destroyed by the absence of the required number of leaves.

However, these days we have tons of solutions to deal with such problems. Even other pests can be very harmful as they find these leaves to be an interesting food material. It eventually hits up the fruit and later if left without sorting out the problem then the plant will die eventually.

Also Read: Why Are Bottom of Tomatoes Turning Black: Blossom End Rot

Another good reason is the lack of nitrogen. Nitrogen is a very important gas when it comes to planting growth. It provides an important source to start numerous reactions in the plant necessary for its smooth functioning. Most of these reactions occur in the cells of the leaves. If there is a deficiency in the nitrogen content, you can easily observe eggplant leaves turning yellow and curling. Nitrogen does play a very important role in fixations, so even the soil sometimes lacks the number of ions required.

Water content in the soil and in the plant can also affect the leaves. On a very hot and sunny day, you can easily see the eggplant leaves curling. This is a protective mechanism to stop extra evaporation of water from the leaf surface. This is also a reason Why eggplant leaves turn yellow. When water is not present in a sufficient amount, the basic cellular activity of the leaves cell gets degraded. Further, the cells start dying, leaving yellow spots on eggplant leaves.

Many other cells on the leaves of the Eggplant are very sensitive to turbidity, and hence other ions are also very important in the wilting and curling. Many times you can have different conditions of the leaves depending on the weather and the time of day. In the morning, it is a very frequent experience to see the leaves rolled out due to extra water content.

Verticillium Wilt

This one of the most common diseases seen in plants and shrubs. Eggplant easily has the influence of this fungal disease. The fungal pathogen lives in soil and finds its ways to the plants leaves through the root. It is one of the most frequently seen reasons for Eggplant leaves turning yellow and curling and eventually wilting.

The problem with the detection of this disease is mimicry. It mimics many environmental effects on the plant. This makes the detection delayed by a good amount of time. The yellowing starts in the lower regions of the plant and eventually gets spread in the entire plant. After a span of time, one can see yellow spots on eggplant leaves. It mainly takes the vascular system for its spread. Hence it’s very hard to stop the spread.

Another disease which might be the reason Eggplant leaves turning yellow can be Early blight. It’s very important to notice this that the fungus Alternaria solani can infect Eggplant too. It was a misconception that the disease is seen in potatoes and tomatoes, but it readily infected Eggplant. The most common symptom is yellow spots on the eggplant leaves. It spreads on the different parts and stems of the plant and further, the leaves start curling. Not just yellow but brown spots are also seen. Brown rings over yellow are very common in the early blight. It is also a circulatory spread fugal hence hard to deal with.

Both these diseases are very harmful to the plant as these fungal diseases find no stoppage easily. They get inside the main vascular and circulatory system, and hence you cannot get proper treatment for such problems. PretreatmentsPretreatments are possible when detection is early but then also the chances of curing the disease is very low.

Yellowing is just a common symptom which should be enough to start the pretreatment. The most effectiveness is seen in the process of crop rotation. If you rotate the crop according to the pathogen expected and plant a crop immune to the pathogen, it might work miracles. The pathogen cant gets its host, and later it dies due to lack of food, it dies.

Coming up the next is the Eggplant virus. The most harmful virus for Eggplants. The thing to notice here is the complete incurability of the virus. All the diseases have some of the other prevention and cure up to a limit, but this virus once is there in your plant, the leagues will curl and deep yellow spots on eggplant leaves are seen which gets worsen up further. The best option to deal with this is to take the plant out from the field to stop spreading to others.

The main thing to focus on here is the fact that you cannot have a complete cure or turn back in most of the yellowing and curling of the leaves. There are some methods that we will discuss in the next section that can help you in protecting your eggplant leaves from turning yellow, but the best option if the plant is infected by an organism is to go harsh on the plant and uproot it, stopping the spread.

So now we can talk on the section,

How to prevent yellow spots on eggplant leaves?

There can be many methods to stop the effect on the plant. The basic thinking of any farmer is not eventually stopping the leaves but is protecting the fruit, which actually does matter. Loss in the fruit due to such problems can be very dangerous financially for the one growing it. Especially when it’s done on a large scale, it turns out to be a hell of a problem.

Eggplant leaves curling

The first case is deficiency leading to eggplant leaves turning yellow, and Eggplant leaves curling- you expect to provide the plant what it is missing. There are many fertilizers and other microbes that can be useful in doing so. Even the Nitrogen-fixing method can be useful. Ammoniation and other such techniques on the root provide the plant, useful substance. But you have to be specific in this case.

Every plant does react to different chemicals and methods in different ways. A thorough analysis of your soil is needed. It could be done in a laboratory. You can get the exact number of missing nutrients your plant needs which are the cause of the yellowing leaves of the Eggplant. Accordingly, an agriculture expert can give you the best option.

Never overuse any type of fertilizer or chemical, especially those containing ammonia and other such stuff. It can cause a toxification of your Eggplant. This will kill the plant or will do harm to the harvest of the plant. The fruit not only becomes harmful for the plant but also is very harmful for human consumption.


The water-absorbing capacity and even the retention by the leaves can be boosted. This will help the drainage to improve and later help you with getting back your normal leaves. There are colloids and other chemicals boosting different root absorption.

When provided with such substance, one can get the perfect turgidity and circulation. There are many organic matters and other homemade therapies and techniques to increase the water retention and aeration of the soil. Even many ions and minerals get transport through the water with the Xylem in the roots, and hence it becomes even more important. Any loss of such an ion can cause things such as yellow spots on the eggplant leaves.


It is a very complicated thing to use. There are a number of bugs and spiders that like to enjoy the feast upon the leaves of Eggplant, leasing to loss of the plant and necrosis. The problem in using these chemicals is the surface they are sprayed upon.

All the others are not directly applied to the edible parts of the plant, but insecticide is very different. It tremendously harms the fruit and quality of the Eggplant. The bugs and other such pests can be prevented up to a limit. Overuse has a great loss here. It is seen that insecticide is very limited to its usage over time and generations. Many organisms have turned immunes in the next generations giving you no other option than letting them destroy your crop.

pH plays a role

Sometimes the yellowing of the leaves or the yellow spots on eggplant leaves is because of the acidity of the soil. The plant depends a lot on the soil, and therefore the pH or the alkalinity or basicity of the plant is another determining factor.

In cases the pH gets imbalanced, the plant is seen in great trouble. This pH allows the passage of different ions in the plant, and the concentration once gets dis balanced it will get very worse for the leaves. It is not something which you can just look at and tell, so it needs good sample testing. After the report, try getting the soil back to normal in most of the cases as seen the plant does get the proper pH via different chemicals leading to getting the leaves again green and back to a healthy state.

Pre Treatments for fungal treatments

This is a very new technique; hence you might need an expert. The first problem is the detection of the disease. These fungal pathogens are very clever species, and they mimic environmental factors deficiency. There are chemicals such as chlorothalonil useful in getting these diseases treated.

Many other forms of fungal disease do exist in Eggplant. Pretreatment doesn’t give assurance of eradicating the virus from the plant or so, but it can also be a preventive measure. These treatments help to gain the plant an immunity boost to fight with the possible fungi. But one needs to provide a specific amount of these.

Virus anyhow still doesn’t have a proper solution in eggplants. They are the most amazing organisms working in nature, and they have the finest capacity to hide from nature. They are very brilliant in mutating and hiding from the treatments and chemicals, so it’s better to let a plant die rather letting it infect all the other plants.

Environmental conditions

The last we have here is Environmental conditions- many a time the environment can make a change in the leaves of the plant. Eggplant leaves curling is one of the most commonly observed changes in an eggplant due to overheating weather or when the temperature of the surrounding is too high than the optimum.

Many times plants don’t get accurate sunlight, so the process of photosynthesis can be disturbed. This might be a cause of the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaves and further getting the yellow spots on eggplant leaves. Many other environmental conditions can prevail and change the leaves, and the only solution to this is trying to provide weather artificially. Greenhouse arrangements are one among such arrangements.


What we made you go through in the article is a very small part of the reasons and factors eggplant leaves can turn yellow. There are hundreds of other possibilities, but the above listed are the top ones.







Why Are Bottom of Tomatoes Turning Black: Blossom End Rot

If you are worried about why your tomatoes are rotting on the bottom then you have come to the right place. Let us discuss this issue of tomatoes turning black that many people are facing nowadays, and let us provide you the best solution to this problem.

The classic symptom of blossom-end rot is a water-soaked spot at the tomato fruit blossom ends. This relatively common issue with the garden is not a disease but rather a physiological condition induced within the plant by a calcium imbalance. It can occur in fruits such as pepper, squash, cucumber, and melon, and tomatoes.

When the growing season starts wet and then becomes dry and the fruit is set, then the ‘blossom-end’ rot is most common. Damage occurs first when fruits are around half their full size. The water-soaked areas enlarge and turn dark brown and leathery. Eventually, these areas may start to rot, so the fruit should be picked and discarded.

My tomatoes have black bottoms but why?

Several factors can restrict a plant’s ability to absorb enough calcium for correct development. These include soil moisture variations (too wet, dry), soil nitrogen abundance, cultivational damage to the root, soil pH too high, soil pH too thin, salt cold, and high soil.

How to prevent and control this problem?
  • Keep constant soil humidity levels throughout the growing season. Water once or twice a week, when the weather is dry, to damp the field to a depth of 6 inches or less.
  • Prevent Tomato Rot Avoid calcium deficiency.
  • Enable soil to warm before seeding in cold climates; cold soils restrict the intake of nutrients.
  • Keep soil pH at or close to 6.5.
  • We are using nitrogen-free and phosphorous-high fertilisers like our GSC Organic Tomato Fertilizer.
  • To get water down to the root field, use watering cones (Aqua Cones).
  • To mitigate evaporation and to maintain consistent soil moisture, add mulch, such as Red Tomato Mulch.
  • Keep your garden records: Some crop varieties are more receptive than others to blossom-end red.

Whether it’s just minute black spots in the field or if it’s even worse, it makes your tomatoes look like rotting, the name of this disease is ‘blossomed tomatoes and red’.

It’s a disease that is not caused by some kind of pathogen, despite its pretty scary name; It is caused by a lack of calcium primarily because the nutrient does not enter the fruit even though the plant has enough calcium. Only by applying calcium fertilizer to the soil, this issue can be fixed in serious cases. Preventing blossom end rot on tomatoes can give you a tough fight. 

We’re going to take a look at the root cause (no pun intended) of the problem in this post, in reality, there are three potential causes, each of which is very easy to address. Therefore, within minutes of reading this post, you can stop any additional blossom end rot in your tomatoes.

If you know for a fact that one of the following three conditions affects your tomato plant, you can skip to the related section to learn more about it:

Get to identify the cause of the issue

We’re going to take a look at the root cause (no pun intended) of the problem in this post, in reality, the three potential causes, each of which is very easy to address. Therefore, within minutes of reading this post, you will stop any additional blossom end rot.

If you know for a fact that one of the following three conditions affects your tomato plant, you can skip to the related section to learn more about it:

What is the main causes of blossom end rot in tomatoes?

This condition is induced during its growth and development by a lack of calcium that enters the fruit. For the nightshade family, calcium is an essential micronutrient that includes, among others, tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, and okra. You might also face blossom end rot on tomatoes in containers. 

Must Read: Planting and Growing Okra Step by Step

It plays an essential part in the epidermis, that is, the fruit’s surface. There is no protective covering that can be formed when the fruit does not receive its due number, and the fruit grows without this cover and thus becomes black and hard. This occurs at the bottom of the plant, as the plant develops outward from the tip in this family.


Moisture plays a vital role in creating this problem, excess or less of moisture can affect the plant and thereby cause blossom end roots.

Soil too Cold at Planting –

Cold soil will interfere with nutrient absorption to the plant, which is more of a concern for northern gardeners.

Root damage from cultivation –

The roots can be harmed by vigorous digging around your plants (for weed control, for example). It will also conflict with the taking up of nutrients.

Soil pH too high or too low –

Any extreme pH will make your tomatoes difficult to thrive

Susceptible varieties –

Some tomatoes varieties are more resistant to blossom end rot than others.

Too much Nitrogen –

Dump a load of fresh manure onto your tomatoes, and you can be rewarded with loads of green growth and black bottomed berries. The nitrogen salts can make the tomatoes less accessible to the calcium in the soil.

Also, you can try water cones or soaker hoses to offer slow, steady water supply. If caught in heavy rain, drain the trench away from the tomatoes (if possible). Fresh roots above the sodden ground may also be promoted by heaping compost around the tomato plant’s foundation. (When the soil is too saturated, roots will drown.)

Pot grown plants in particular, due to difficulty keeping the soil moist enough, may be more vulnerable to end rot in bloom. Try the self-watering containers in your jar or water the spikes.


Tomato plants love the sun and prefer temperatures above 65 ° C (18 ° C). If you plant your crop late in the season, the soil will probably drop below this temperature during the fruiting time of your plants. They are not performing at their best at lower temperatures, and their roots do not absorb nutrients very well from the soil.

For plants in a greenhouse, painting with straw or leaves will reduce the temperature, thus putting black plastic sheets around your plants will help to warm the area and preserve the heat compared to the exposed soil. This is beneficial if your plant is late and the temperature has dropped.

If you have black container plants, you can paint them white to absorb less heat or instead cover them in aluminium to reflect the sun’s rays. As in a greenhouse, you’ll want to use a mulch to hold moisture and not lose it because of the sun.

The way of watering

Watering abnormalities is the most common cause of the blue end of your tomatoes. Perfect water conditions in containers are extremely difficult. The field needs to be moist enough and not damp until a few centimeters below the soil. This helps the plant to retain water when transpiring and thereby retain nutrients in the soil so that they are able to grow and spread around the plant.

If the roots become too dry, calcium, in this situation, will not absorb nutrients. The roots do not work as they cannot respire while the soil is soaking. The roots can also start to rot in prolonged cases.

Stress from other sources

The other reason the plant should be stressed is the chemical composition of the soil, other than temperature. Overfertilization or calcium deficiency in tomato plants causes a lot of stress on the plant and roots may totally stop the lockout of absorbing nutrients so that concentrated nutrients which could destroy a plant are not absorbed.

A lack of nutrients is not the cause of blossom end rot even though it is a concern unless it is due to a very rare situation of lack of calcium in the soil. You’ll have to have your soil tested, to know for sure. Using any calcium fertiliser in small amounts does not cause any damage.

A lack of enough calcium results in weaker cell walls that can cause the fruit to crack until it is completely ripened. You can try adding calcium to tomato plants for a better blossom. 

If you are considering the addition of fertilisers, other than the above points, it is helpful to know at this stage of growth, what kind your plant should use. You should read my manual on fertilising tomatoes to learn more about this.

High nitrogen consisting fertilizers are the reasons

behind your tomatoes suffering from blossom end rot. It will take some time before you can fix this problem because calcium takes time to climb up to the entire plant system.

Does adding calcium to tomato plants help?

There are two separate tissues in plants, the xylem, and the phloem. The first is for the transport of water and nutrients, while the second is for the transport of molecules of food or energy produced during photosynthesis.

Also Read: Growing Tomato for Your favorite Cuisines

Leaves do not have xylem tissue, and calcium is an essential resource that is picked from the soil and passes through the xylem tissue and not through the phloem. This calcium would not move to the fruit if sprayed on the leaves.

Unlike the leaves, the fruit has no stomata (used during transpiration to exchange water and air) and thus has no real openings for something sprayed to get into the plant and pass through it.

More about blossom end

As Blossom end rot (BER) occurs, you can notice some dark spots on the bottom of the tomato as it grows. Gradually it starts becoming leathery and black and may even cover the entire bottom of the fruit. 

Blossom end rot is often attributed to a lack of calcium in tomatoes, either due to exhausted, poorly drained soil or simply of displacement due to transpiration, especially when plants are under stress. Technically this lack of calcium causes brown spots on blossom end rot tomatoes. For this reason, it is always recommended that you add calcium to the soil or substitute, the calcium in the plant with a foliar application will help to fix the issue. But it’s rare for calcium to be absent from soil. Instead, there may be a variety of other environmental causes of end rotting of the tomato bloom, from uneven watering due to drought, heavy rainfall, or overcare of a gardener.

It is also crucial to provide sufficient and even quantities of water for tomato plants. While keeping the soil and plant roots insulated, the addition of mulch will help maintain moisture. Although it may or may not be effective, and is a widely debated topic, it may not necessarily hurt to add crushed eggshells, limestone, or calcium carbonate to the soil, but it may not help much either.

Quick tips for a great blossom

  • Try to apply calcium to the soil before planting the plants in the field or containers, using lime or gypsum. When Blossom End Rot occurs on the fruit, Calcium nitrate, water-soluble lime, hydrated lime, and very fine lime can be applied (top-dress and light raking) to help correct potential fruit from being affected. 
  • Increase timely irrigation to establish healthy soil moisture. Apply mulch to tomatoes which will help to preserve soil moisture.
  • Do not overfeed the plants, particularly with a fertiliser high in nitrogen.
  • Use all-purpose garden foods that are lower in N and higher in potassium and phosphorus, and other nutrients, including calcium, that are required.
  • Verify the levels of its pH. –
  • The movement of calcium/water into the plant and fruit would also be influenced by cold temperatures (soil and air). Another good excuse for not planting tomatoes in the season too early! When temperatures get colder, plant them.


At some point of time in the entire life-span of the tomato plant, it does go through blossom end rot, no matter which variety of plant it is. Although when the weather condition starts changing, this disease in the plant will clear up on its own. And yet if you find a plant deteriorating due to blossom end roots disease, then simply pluck and discard it. 

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