Kiwi Farming, Planting, Growing & Harvesting

Kiwi farming is predominantly carried out in the USA, Japan, Italy, China, Chile, France, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand.  Kiwi is also known as Chinese gooseberry is an edible berry that has high medicinal and nutritional value. Kiwi is a deciduous vine fruit which is oval in shape and it is about the size of a Chicken’s egg.

The fruit grows on a vine that is as high as 30 feet tall and is woody. The fruit has fibrous, thin, tart, and fuzzy edible skin. The fruit is similar to grapes as it is also grown in clusters. Kiwi has light green or golden colour flesh inside and has tiny black edible seeds. Kiwi is soft-textured and has a unique flavour.

Kiwi is rich in Vitamin C and vitamin B and other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and potassium. Kiwi can be consumed fresh or can be mixed with other fruits in desserts and salads. The kiwi fruit is also used in the preparation of wines and squash. In India, Kiwi farming is done in Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya, and Jammu & Kashmir.

Health Benefits

Kiwi fruits are excellent antioxidants and anti-aging agent. Thus it aids in the improvement of the skin. The respiratory and cardiovascular system also benefits from the consumption of the fruit. The presence of serotonin is beneficial to treat sleep issues. Furthermore, the kiwi fruit also has antifungal and antibacterial properties.

Types of Kiwi Fruit

Hayward is a New Zealand variety that is grown globally. However, kiwi fruit is majorly available in three varieties: Hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiaarguta), Super-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidiakolomikta), and Grocery store kiwifruit (Actinidiadeliciosa).

Hardy kiwifruit is also known as ‘bowerberry’ and it grows on the trees that are as tall as 100 feet in Siberia, Korea, Japan, and China. This variety of kiwi fruit can tolerate low temperatures.

Super-hardy kiwi fruit is smaller but smooth-skinned. It can grow in temperature as low as -40°F. The fruit is also known as ‘arctic beauty kiwi fruit’.

Grocery store kiwi fruit is also known as fuzzy kiwifruit. This variety of kiwi is large in size and is the most common and edible variety.

The other types of kiwi fruit known are Tewi, Bruno, Monty, Tomuri, Elmwood, Saanicheton, Abbott, Chico, Gracie, Dexter, Matua, Allison, and Vincent.

Where do Kiwis Grow?

It is essential to cultivate a crop in a correct season and with ideal soil requirements. Kiwi fruit can be grown in well-drained, fertile, and moist soil. The presence of potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus is essential during the vegetative stage of the fruit.

The best pH range of the soil should be from 6.3-7.3 to get maximum yield from the crop. The ideal kiwi fruit farming weather is low temperatures. However, kiwi needs protection from moisture throughout the year. The fruit should also be shielded against frosts. The ideal temperature for growing kiwis is below 38°C. A temperature higher than 38°C can cause sunburn to the crop.

Kiwi fruits can be grown where almonds, citrus, and peaches are abundant. However, the leaves are more susceptible to cold in comparison to the peach or orange trees. The young plant of kiwi fruit can be harmed if the temperature falls below -1°C while the vines that are mature can handle the temperature lower than -12°C. It is essential to protect the young flowering shoots from wind as it can damage the crop easily.

How to Grow Kiwi from Seed?

To grow kiwi from the seeds or planting a kiwi from seed is not a hard job. The first step is to collect the seeds of the kiwi fruit from the available ripe fruit. The gooey membrane needs to be separated from the seeds and thus seeds have to be placed in water and then blended. With the help of the colander, wash the seeds in the sink. The cleaned seeds can then be transferred to the paper towel.

A plastic ziplock is used to store the paper towel containing the seeds. The ziplock is later placed into warm container. The sprouting process takes around 2-6 weeks. Once the seeds start the sprouting or germinating, the paper towel is split into small pieces. The seedlings are then transplanted into the pit made on the small pot for 2-3 months. Keep the kiwi vines in adequate sunlight as the plant requires light.

Also Read: Strawberry Farming – A business that promises a “delicious” future

Steps of Kiwi Fruit Germination

  1. Separate seeds out of a ripe and organic kiwi and then clean them by water rinsing. The easy way is to place the seeds in the cup, add water and then swish them. Later on, remove the water out of the cup. This process has to be repeated multiple times for proper cleaning.
  2. The small container or cup is then filled with lukewarm water and the kiwi seeds are transferred to it. The cup or container hasto be placed in the warm environment such on the warm window sill, in front of heater, or on the top of the computer. The seeds are to be kept in water for about a week or until they start separating. The water present in the cup has to be changed daily to inhibit the bacterial growth.
  3. As soon as the seeds begin to open, they are ready to get transferred to mini greenhouse. The paper towel is soaked in lukewarm water and placed on the plate on which the seeds are distributed. The distributed germinating seeds are then covered with plastic container and placed in the area getting sufficient sunlight. It is recommended to make small holes in the container to allow the air to flow smoothly. This is the ideal condition for the seed to germinate faster. The kiwi seeds would be ready for planting only after 2 days in the greenhouse.
  4. Once the seeds are germinated properly, it is the right time for the planting process. But before planting it is mandatory to prepare the container or pot. The soil in the pot should contain sufficient moisture and this should be done by transferring the soil in a bucket and then mixing water to the soil until it is damp in nature.
  5. The container should be completely filled with the moist soil. An inch of space should be left below the rim of the pot.
  6. Now the seeds are ready to be planted. The pots are then sprinkled with the seeds keeping few inches distance from each other. It is advisable to plant each seed in a separate tiny pot to make the transplanting process easy and smooth. Once the seeds are in the pot, spread a thin layer of soil over them. The seeds should be planted at a depth of around two times their length.
  7. Once planting is done, water the seeds using can or squirt bottle. Transfer the pot in a warm and sunny area to get sufficient light. Take care of the seeds by watering and feeding them regularly.

Nutritional requirements and Fertilizers for Kiwi Plant

A dose of fertilizer consisting of 0.5 kg NPK mixture with 15% N and 20 kg farmyard manure is suggested every year for the plant.  High amount of chlorine is also required by the plant as its deficiency can negatively influence the development of roots and shoots of the plant.

Contrary, high level of sodium and boron can be very harmful to the plant. The two equal doses of nitrogen are applied. The young vines get the necessary nutrients of the fertilizer from the soil as the fertilizer is mixed to the soil. The entire soil surface is provided with fertilizer once the plant attains maturity.

Propagation in Kiwi Farming

On the commercial level, the crop is propagated by planting vegetative cuttings or via grafting technique.

Spacing in Kiwi Farming

Planting the crop at a sufficient distance is essential to get maximum yield out of the crop. The distance varies depending on the propagation method used. For the commercial plantation of kiwi, Pergola Training system or T-bar training system are used. In the Pergola system, the row to row distance is about 6m and the plant-to-plant distance is 5-6m. In case of T-bar training system, row-to-row spacing is 3.5m whereas plant-to-plant distance is approximately 6m.

To increase the pollination rate, male plants should also be planted in the garden and the ratio should be 1 male to 6-8 female plants. Insects are also a useful vehicle for pollination of the crop as this fruit plant aren’t self-pollinating plants.

Intercropping in Kiwi Crop

The initial kiwi farming can get the benefits if vegetables and leguminous crops are planted together with the kiwi crop.

Diseases and Pests in Kiwi Plants

Rots in the roots of the plant can be caused by Phytophthora soil fungi and majorly in the soil containing water. The humid conditions results in the development of Botrytis cinera rot that causes infestation in young fruit.

Irrigation in Kiwi Fruit Farming

Watering the plant at regular intervals is essential for the setting of crop as well as fruit. The complete growth cycle of the crop requires adequate amount of water. The hardy kiwi crop gets ready for harvesting in 3-4 years. Thus, this crop is in need of water for at least 3 yearsin the field.

However, it is essential not to over water the crop. Once the crop gets the necessary water content, it spreads its foliage to the surface of the soil resulting in the mulch formation. The process of mulching lowers the water requirement of the plant by reducing the evaporation rate. Mulching also aids in controlling the weeds.

A kiwi crop needs a regular water supply mainly during the drought and hot conditions. The commercial farming of kiwi requires irrigation in around 10-14 days’ interval is preferred for best yield. Providing the water as per the need of the plant is one of the best ways to get the maximum production. 

Harvesting and Yielding of Kiwi Fruit

The plant starts producing fruit after 4-5 years. The initial yield is small but it increases gradually as the plant attains maturity. The ripening season of kiwi fruit is September and October. If there is presence of frost, the plant needs to be harvested before the fruit ripens. The ripening process can be done in refrigeration. Once the skin of the kiwi fruit starts to turn brown in colour, it can be snapped from the stalk. The other method to check whether fruit is ready for harvesting is to observe black seeds in the sample kiwi fruit.

Due to the difference in temperature, the fruit matures later at high altitudes and early at lower altitudes. After the harvesting is done, the stiff hairs present on the surface of the fruit are removed by rubbing the fruit against coarse cloth.  The fruits that are hard are sent to the market and within two weeks they become edible.

The yield of the crop relies on various attributes such as method of irrigation, soil type, tree age, variety, and climatic conditions. On an average, approximately 100 kgs of fruit can be collected per harvesting season.

Storage of Kiwi Fruit

The harvested fruits can be stored in the cool place for approximately two months. This storage doesn’t require refrigeration.

How Long Does it take a Kiwi Plant to Produce Fruit

Kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa) is a berry fruit. It is mainly oval and with brown skin and green flesh. It also has tiny black seeds that are edible. Though it is a bit sour but doesn’t have citric acid in it. It has a sweet and tangy taste. This plant is mainly grown in the winter season as it requires a temperature of less than 7° C.

Kiwi farming is carried out in sandy and loamy soil. This soil should be rich and well-drained. Kiwi is grown at a depth of 800-1500 m. So now the question arises: How long does it take a kiwi plant to produce fruit? Fruiting mainly depends upon the age of vines.

However, the yield of the plant increases after 1 year. Kiwi has high nutritive values, it is rich in vitamins and minerals. It has vitamin c, vitamin k, fibers, and potassium. Hence kiwi farming is very profitable.

Mainly there are 3 types of kiwi fruit. It has several health benefits. These are the grocery store kiwi ( Actinidia deliciosa), the next is a hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta ), the last type is (Actinidia kolomikta).  

Kiwi plantation: 

In this, first of all, one would require one male vine for eight female vines. These vines are vegetatively propagated so these vines will be made to reproduce when you buy. The growth of hardy kiwis is very very fast. 

Which type of soil is best for kiwi farming? 

The soil should be well-drained and should have a higher amount of organic matter in it. Sandy and loamy soil are best for kiwi farming. The pH of soil required is a little less than 6.9.

At this pH maximum yield has been reported however if the pH increases to 7.3 it can badly affect the yield. As the cropping starts, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium has to be supplied at regular intervals. 200kg of nitrogen, 55 kg of phosphorus, about 150kg of potassium are the doses required per hectare.

Suitable climatic conditions for growing kiwi: 

As told earlier a cool climate is preferable for kiwi plantation however they can grow in almost every climate. The vines require a cold climate to set fruit. Less than 45° F is suitable for kiwi. These plants need to be protected from strong winds and frost.

Hence kiwi has to be protected from wind, autumn, and spring frost. The soil needs to be rich in moisture throughout the year. About 150cm of Rainfall is enough per year and it should be well distributed especially during growth periods. 

kiwi plantation

During summer the temperature is more and the humidity is very low and this can cause scorching of leaves. Usually, heat stress and sunscald are the main problems in kiwi farming. 

How to prepare the land for kiwi fruit production

A steep land with rows is required for growing kiwis. The land should be prepared in such a way that enough sunlight falls towards the rows. The land has to be prepared thoroughly for the cultivation of kiwi.

The land should be plowed about 2 to 4 times and then followed by two harrowings. It is necessary to keep the soil free from any type of weeds otherwise the crop yield would be poor. While preparing pits for the kiwis, a mixture of farmyard manures and upper soil should be added to get high quality and productivity of the fruit.  

Planting a kiwi fruit: 

For kiwi plantation, it is very important to plant the fruit at correct distances and suitable methods have to be followed. 

When the kiwi is grown at a commercial level, that time grafting method is mainly used for propagation. If this crop is grown at a proper distance then one can attain maximum fruit production. The distance between each row should be at least 3.5m whereas the distance between each plant has to be 6m. Usually, 2 main methods are used for plantation.

These two methods are: T- bar training system and the other is the Pergola training system. In the T-bar system, the above-mentioned spacing is required. In the Pergola system, the distance between each row should be 6m and the distance between the plants should be 5 to 6 m. 

Also Read: Guide for Beginners of Kiwi Farming

Procedure to grow kiwifruit from the seed: 

The first step is to get some kiwi seeds from the available kiwi fruit. Then place all these seeds in water and blend them to separate the gooey membrane from the seed. After this use a colander to water the kiwi seeds. Then soak these seeds by placing them smoothly on a paper towel. The next step is to put them in a ziplock and place it in a warm place.

kiwi fruit seeds

When you notice sprouting in the seeds, split the paper towel into tiny pieces and transplant them in the prepared put or the pot. Therefore take proper care of your plant for good quality fruit. 

Irrigation in kiwi farming:

For a good quality crop, from time to time irrigation is a must. Like other crops, kiwi also needs regular water supplies. The hard variety of the kiwi fruit takes 3-4 years to become mature. Hence water has to be supplied regularly for 3 years of the plantation. But don’t overwater the plant as this may lead to mulch in the crop.

In hot and dry conditions water has to be supplied at regular intervals. At commercial level kiso farming, irrigating at intervals of 10-14 days is best for maximum production.

Application of manures and fertilizers: 

The application of manures and fertilizers is also very necessary for high productivity. From time to time enough dose of suitable manure and fertilizers has to be supplied for a good yield. So one should use soil rich in organic matter like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other micronutrients and macronutrients.

Other than this a dose of farmyard manure should be added before planting it in the main field. After 5 years of plantation, adding these manures and fertilizers have excellent results. A high amount of Cl is also necessary for the crop as its deficiency can cause adverse effects on the growth of the crop and even on roots and shoots. On the other hand surplus amounts of boron and sodium can be harmful to crops.

Pruning and training of kiwi crop: 

For better production of the crop, pruning and training are very important. In training Wooden, concrete, or iron pillars are used to provide support to the vines. Adjust these pillars 5 to 6 meters apart. The pillars should be 1.6 to 2.1 m long above the ground. Fence or wire can be used to provide support to the pillars. 

Pruning: Along with proper training, pruning is also very essential for high yield. It is very important to remove or cut off the unwanted and undesirable parts that may suck the essential nutrients from the plant.

Hence canes from the making part of the flower have to be removed along the excessive wood grown along with the plant. Also, separate off the extra tangles from the plant.

As kiwi is not a self-pollinating plant, hence there’s a need for good pollination also. 

Harvesting of kiwi

Mainly kiwi attains its full size after monsoons however it still may not be ready for harvesting. It could be ready to harvest in early winter as till then the seeds become black and sugar levels also rise however after harvesting the kiwi, the starch turns into sugar. And finally, the fruit is ready to eat.

Harvesting of Kiwi Plant

Also, a refractometer can be used to determine if the sugar level is optional and the kiwi is ready to harvest or not. About 6.5 percent or more is the optimal sugar level. Vine-ripened kiwi has the best Taste however cannot be stored for much time.

When the kiwi is grown at a commercial level, harvesting has to be done all at one time however if one grows it in a home garden then they can harvest it according to their need in the harvesting period but harvest the large-sized kiwi first and let others remain inside to grow more. Kiwi has to be handled with care during harvesting and the kiwi that has been damaged cannot be stored.

Diseases: Armillaria Root Rot (4/13), Bacterial Blight (4/13)

Bleeding Canker (4/13),

Botrytis Fruit Rot (6/16)

Crown Gall (4/13)

Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot (6/16)

Water Staining, Juice Blotch, and Sooty Mold of Fruit (4/13) are some kiwi diseases whose symptoms are Vines may completely collapse; white mycelial mats may be present under bark close to the soil line,  there’s a change in the color of cortical tissue and white mycelial strands are also present; root-like rhizomorphs extend from roots into the soil.

These needed to be controlled as soon as possible. Make sure that land being used for new kiwi plantings is gotten rid of roots which have diameter greater than 1 inch; ensure kiwi vines are properly watered but not too much. Further, diseases can be controlled by avoiding injuries that lead a way for pathogens to enter the body. At this time, no chemical control strategies are available. 

Health Benefits of kiwi:

Kiwi has several health benefits and many nutritional values. Some of the benefits are as follows:

1. Kiwi is an incredible source of vitamin C, vitamin E, and antioxidants.

2. Kiwi fruit has anti-aging properties and is also very beneficial for the skin. It improves skin health.

3. Kiwi fruit also helps in enhancing the respiratory system of the body. 

4. Kiwi is very good for the eyes. It improves eyesight and is also helpful in protecting our eyes from several diseases.  

5. Kiwi fruit helps us to improve our digestive system from where a large number of disorders and diseases can happen if digestion is not proper. 

6. It is also very helpful in the improvement of cardiovascular diseases The kiwifruit possesses properties that lower blood pressure. By helping to maintain healthy blood pressure and providing a boost of Vitamin C, the kiwifruit can reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease.

7. Kiwi is a rich source of vitamin k that helps to make the bones strong. 

8. It has many antibacterial and antifungal properties. 

9. It helps with sleep disorders. 

10. Along with the fruit its roots also have good properties. 

It is also good for immunity asKiwi contains abundant amounts of Vitamin C, which stimulates the body’s immune response. The kiwifruit contains roughly 230% of the daily recommended intake of Vitamin C. This amazing fruit is loaded with immune-boosting nutrients in every bite.

In  kiwi fruit. high amounts of dietary fiber are present in skin as well as in flesh. Fiber aids reduction of constipation and  

 other gastrointestinal issues and discomfort.

Treatment of Asthma 

The presence of Vitamin C in kiwis has been proven to  reduce wheezing symptoms in some asthma patients. This is true in children, who are benefitted the most from the consumption of kiwis.

Ocular Health

The high levels of antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids found in the kiwifruit may help in preventing eye disease and promote ocular health but only if it is consumed with other healthy and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. 


Kiwi is a very healthy profitable crop with high nutritive values. Kiwi is said to be a treasure of health benefits. 

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