What is Mango Farming all about – A Complete Guide

Do you know what is mango known as? Aam, as we call it in India is crowned with the title of King of Fruits. Mango Farming is the most dominant and money-making venture in the world. 

It is loved and relished for its taste, appearance, and low upkeep cost. The perk of cultivating mango is that it can be consumed at any stage. 

Like the raw mango has a delightful taste as chutney, Aam Panna, pickle, sauce. A full grown, mango can be consumed as shakes, juice, jelly, ice-cream, and desserts.

India exports a huge quantity of mangoes to the USA, Europe, and Middle-East. Mango farming is the most money extracting fruit grown in the Indian sub-continent. 

If you want to start your mango farm, you need to gather all relevant about its cultivation. Here, is an outline of important steps to be executed to ensure good mango production.

Types of Mangoes

Here is a list of mangoes with their place of origin. Let’s get a quick look through it:

  1. Alphonso- Ratnagiri, Maharastra
  2. Kesar- Junahgadh, Gujarat
  3. Dasheri – Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
  4. Himsagar and Kishan-bhog, West Bengal
  5. Chausa- Uttar Pradesh 
  6. Safeda -Andhra Pradesh
  7. Totapari
  8. Amrapali
  9. Langda

Sweetest mango variety

Sweetest mango varieties

For all the beginners and mango lovers, it is difficult to figure which the best variety of fruit among all. Carabao, the manilla mango is the best and sweetest mango in the world.

However, if we talk about Indian mangoes, Alphonso, the king of all is the best and sweetest mango among all. But don’t forget that mango itself is a sweet fruit loved by all. Every variety is sweet and unique in its way.

Requirements for mango farming

Mango can be planted through seeds or by vegetative propagation. The propagation is carried out through techniques like veneer grafting, epicotyl grafting, and inarching. 

Surely, vegetative propagation is a rapid process of germination. It should be carried out through grafting trees.

The spacing of mango trees

The spacing pattern of the trees should be 10 m * 10 m. This is the ideal pattern to be followed to ensure a good yield. 

The mango trees are tall and wide. So, they require adequate space to expand themselves. If you compromise with its space, the growth of the tree would be hampered.

As a result, you will be deprived of a desired and profitable yield.

Mango plants training

Training mango plants is an essential step to ensure the proper shape of the fruit. It becomes unavoidable in the case of low branched grafting.

The plant should attain a minimum height of 1 meter for training to be executed well. Regular trimming of branches and leaves ensures th healthy growth of the plant.

The plantation is disease-free and the energy of the plant is centered towards the growth only. Therefore, a continuous training process is maintained to get the desired fruit quality.

In mango farming, it is a mandatory step.

The season for mango plantation

For rain prone areas, the plantation is done in July-August, for irrigation-based areas it is carried out in February-March, and at the end of rainfall in rain prone areas.

Rainfall is a good factor to enhance the growth of the tree. As heavy water intake is needed for the thriving of mango trees.

Also Read: Custard Apple Farming Was Never So Fruitful – Read This Guide Till The End

Fertilization of mango trees

The process of fertilization is carried out in 2 doses. First one, immediately after planting, and the next in the young plants. A spread of urea (normally 3%) is advised in the case of sandy soil before the plant starts flowering.

Soil and light requirement for mango seeds

A mango seedling requires a good amount of sunlight but not direct sunlight. For nurturing the plant, a minimum of 6 hours of sunlight is required and 8-10 hours of sunlight will work wonders.

When planting mango seeds it should be kept in mind, that a good drainage system should be there. Like on watering the soil could flush out excess water.

In summers the plant needs water in excess, do remember excess doesn’t mean water overflow. The water should be well enough to keep the soil hydrated.

How to sprout a mango seed

To sprout a mango seed you need to remove the flesh from the fruit, the seed needs to be cleaned, to ensure that they are ready to plant. 

Now, with the help of a sharp knife, chop off the edges of the seed. Ensure the visibility of the pod inside.

Take a container of 11 liter capacity. Place some soil beneath the container providing an outlet at the edge. For settling the soil fill some water in it.

The container is ready to plant the seed inside placing the pointed side downwards. One-fourth of the pod should be popping out of the soil.

Keep watering the seed and place it in a warm place ensuring sunlight but not directly.

Germination time of mango seed

The mango seeds germinate in a period of 2 to 4 weeks. A fully grown-up tree bears fruit in 5 years. These mango seeds germinate at a temperature range between 4-40 degrees.

mango seed germination

But a higher range of temperature is ideal for germination. Seeds restore water in them, dies when dry. All the favorable conditions facilitate the process of germination.

A small bunch of leaves shoots up and the roots start getting firm deep into the soil.

Planting mango seed

A suitable temperature, enough sunlight, and adequate water content is a perfect recipe for  healthy fruit. When you have all the necessities for mango farming, you can go for it.

You need to have a spacious place for the mango canopy. A mango tree has a stature of 90 feet with long leaves. So, it is recommended to plant them separately allowing proper space for them to thrive.

How long does it take a mango tree to grow?

This is the most common query among mango farming. Beginners are curious to know how long does it take a mango tree to grow? Before proceeding, this question needs to be answered.

From planting the seed in the soil to ultimately bearing fruits, it is a package of 5 years. It takes 5 years complete for a mango tree to produce your favorite mango fruit. 

But a lot of rigorous hard work is required to nurture the mango plantation in these 5 years. Regular pruning of branches and leaves is necessary. Plus, after bearing flowers the water intake of the tree is around 26 gallons per week.

This should be maintained to prevent the tree from drying. The proper spread of fertilizers should be done to curb the spread of diseases.

The resultant is the delicious, tasty, and lip-smacking mango fruit.

Diseases infecting mango farming

Mango farming is threatened by aphids, bugs, and mites. Infections prevailing in the plantation can be witnessed in the form of webs on the leaves, white residue, or insects crawling over the leaves.

These infections need to be curbed in, timely before they hinder the growth of the plantation.

mango infecting diseases

Mango farming is prone to anthracnose, a sort of fungal infection. They can be checked by the use of copper-based fungicide. It should be used after 14 days of planting.

How to take care of flowering mango tree

Some of the flowers are formed through the process of self-pollination. However, few of them are pollinated through fruit bats, humming birds, and bees. It must be noted that all the flowering trees don’t produce fruits.

Taking care of a flowering mango tree is a must. Proper care must be taken of those trees who produced heavily during the previous season. 

They should be trimmed regularly. And should also provide more fodder to ensure a better flowering and fruit production in the present season as well.

The much-branched inflorescence needs to be detached or trimmed compulsorily. It ensures better flowering and fruit production.

In the regions where the evening temperatures trips below 30 degrees, these white creamy flowers become steady. On reaching the temperature range back, they tend to bear fruits immediately.

Mango yield per acre

The mango yield per acre varies. This depends on the quality of seeds sown and the good upkeep of the mango farming. Ideally, the yield ranges from 2.5 to 3 tonnes per year. Exceptionally, it can reach 9-10 tonnes per year.

Mango yield per acre

A good spacing in the orchard, among the trees, and favorable climatic range shoots up the yield of a mango farm.

Mango farmers must adhere to these 2 most important factors apart from other upkeep necessities. A little extra care can make you earn higher profits.

When to harvest mango?

After flowering and bearing fruits, now the point arise when to harvest mangoes. The tasty tropical fruit of mango is grown in various parts of the world, favorable to mango farming. 

The harvesting of the fruit is directly proportional to the amount of care taken of the tree in the 5 years of the plantation.

On average a good harvesting time prevails after the completion of 100-150 days from the flowering stage. Generally, flowering ends up producing fruits and you can observe the fruit grow in shape and size.

harvesting mango

In 3 months, the fruits become ripe, this can be felt on touching the mango, as it becomes soft on ripening. The color turns into a proper yellow shade of the fruit.

Heavy fruit can be seen bulging downwards from the branches. This is an indication the fruit is ready to pluck.

Now, you have 2 ways to get the fruit down either shaking the tree or thrashing the branches to chop off ripen fruits.

Shaking tends to damage the roots and branches of the tree. Also, unripe fruits get disturbed as well. It is highly recommended to thrash the branches by the use of a rope or stick.

This the best way out to spank down your favorite mango fruit. The fruit is ready to explore the markets.

Must Read: Papaya Farming Ultimate Guide

Transporting mango to markets

Once you are done with mango harvesting, it is time to get a reward for the 5 years of hard work done. Proper steps should be taken to avoid any sort of damage to the fruit during the transit period.

mangoes in market

For transporting mangoes, the packaging is done in two ways either using a wooden crate or by using CFB boxes. However, for long-distance transit it advisable to store mangoes in CFB boxes as it is a perishable item.

Wooden crates can hold the mangoes for 8 days maximum. After that, they tend to perish.

When transporting to local nearby markets, wooden crates are the best open as they keep the fruit safe and fresh. And the fruit is ready to consume. 

Is mango farming profitable?

To find out the profit ratio of mango farming, let’s calculate the cost of production involved. The cost of the land stands on whether it is owned or rented.

Then comes the plantation cost. This comes to around 2 lakhs per acre per year. And it gives a normal yield of 2.5 -3 tonnes or even up to 9-10 tonnes.

It is a profitable deal. A deal with huge profits. It is one of the most profitable ventures in horticulture. Profitability has a direct relationship with demand for the product in the market.

Mangoes are high in demand. The reason for this is the limited availability and good taste. This fruit is relished by everyone.

This tropical fruit is an evergreen fruit and never will lose it’s charm. Nothing can beat the demand for mango fruit.

Yes, you can say it is a tedious job but the hard work is paid off well. Whether its appreciation in taste or money, a mango farmer lands in huge profits after selling his mangoes in the markets.

People wait for those delicious mangoes in the market every year for their limited availability. So, the idea of mango farming is a sure shot profit deal. Crack this deal and enjoy the benefits.

How to: Grow Strawberry Farming – Complete Guide

Strawberries farming is one of the best alternatives to traditional crop farming in the USA. A large number of farmers around the country are growing strawberries for commercial purposes, and are making decent money. But, unfortunately, a lot of them are also struggling to earn a livelihood, because they are doing it the wrong way.

If you also want to secure your finances through growing strawberries, you should follow this detailed guide at every step. This guide is an overview of all the aspects related to commercial strawberry farming.

The guide focuses on starting a strawberry farm in almost every region in the USA. All the points are collected from a publication in CIS 93, written by B. B. Davis, D. L. Barney, and J. K. Fellman, and published by the Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service of the University of Idaho.

Here are the most important points we’ve taken from the publication to make your strawberries growing efforts as fruitful as possible.

The economic importance of strawberries

As many as 76 countries produce strawberries for commercial purposes. China, the USA, Mexico, Turkey, and Spain are the top five producers, but the production is only increasing in various other parts of the world including Asia, Central, and North America, and North Africa. And the demand is getting larger and larger with every passing year too!

The development and of California’s strawberry industry is itself a story, and the rapid expansion of the industry at local levels in other parts including Central and South America, Australia, China, and the Mediterranean region is clearly visible to the global economy.

In short, if you are planning to start strawberries farming (you are most probably doing so, and that’s why you are here), your economic future is amazing! You’re going to make loads of money, of course, if you are determined enough to do the hard yards, especially in the beginning. So, let’s start with our guide.

Also Read: Cultivation of Custard Apple

Preparing the land for the strawberry plants

Most of the producers start preparing land for commercial strawberry farming in late August. Strawberry plants are actually perennial, but most of the farmers consider them as annual. The land is properly fertilized before farming and harvesting strawberries.

After fertilization, farmers focus on mounding soil into plateau-like rows, and then they cover the soil with black plastics.

Usually, the drip tape irrigation is also placed in the ground while covering with plastics. Experienced farmers use a specialized tractor-machine to accomplish all the tasks related to growing strawberries from scraps. The drip tape is very useful for watering and fertilizing strawberries throughout the growth period.

Perfect climate and soil for planting strawberries

The temperate climate is the best option for growing strawberries. It is considered as “short-day and long-evening” plant and needs 10 days of sun-exposure of not more than eight hours to initiate flowering.

Strawberry plants remain dormant throughout the winter. The plants continuously grow and flower during the spring season, when the days are longer than those of winter. Some varieties also grow in a subtropical climate and grow very slowly even in winter.

Based on their response to the light, strawberries are divided into two groups i.e.

  1. The overbearing varieties that give buds during both short and long periods of light.
  2. The varieties that are common for commercial purposes and develop buds in the presence of short-light periods only.

When we talk about soil, strawberries farming needs properly-drained soil with medium loam. The soil should contain a decent amount of organic matter and should be slightly acidic (with a pH from 5.7 to 6.5).

If the soil is highly acidic, there won’t be proper root formation in strawberry plants. And soil rich in calcium makes strawberry leaves yellow, which is not a good sign at all. And, runner formation is also very good in light soil which is rich in organic matter.

You should prefer manured green land for proper growth and timely budding of plants. Don’t even think about alkaline soils or soils that are infected from nematodes.

Different varieties of strawberries

There is a wide range of strawberries available around the USA. Some of the varieties introduced from California like Solana, Tioga, and Torrey, etc. are very good for farming. For hilly areas, Dilpasand, Srinagar, and Sovereign varieties from India and neighboring countries are perfect.

For strawberries farming in warmer areas of the USA, you should choose from Blackmore, Premier Florida-90, Klonmore, Missionary and Klondike, etc.

Propagation of Strawberry plants

Runners that are prepared after the blooming season are used for propagation. Multiple runners are used for successful propagation. The target should be to use every plant with a good root system to successfully set the plantation. If properly nurtured and cared for, a single plant can give up to 18 runners.

Best season for planting strawberries

In the hills, September to October is the best time to plant crowns and runners. And for plain areas, January to February is the perfect window for planting. If planting happens too early, the overall quality and quantity of fruits are expected to be affected.

And if it is too late, runners start developing in March, and the crops are usually not very good. So, depending on the atmospheric temperature and other climate factors, August to October is the perfect strawberry growing time.

You should give priority to uprooting runners from the nurseries. Keep them into bundles before planting in the field. Keeping them in cold storage before transplanting is also a great option. You should irrigate the soil regularly to reduce the stress of water in the leaves.


Before planting, the land should be properly prepared by harrowing after deep plowing. There should be enough amount of organic manure in the soil before planting. Flatbeds, hill rows, and matted rows, all are suitable for planting strawberries. But in irrigated areas, you should plant on ridges.

The distance between the two plants varies according to the variety of plants as well as the type and area of the land. Usually, strawberry farmers follow a standard spacing of 30 cm. X 60 cm. In an ideal “strawberries growing condition”, a population of 22,000 plants per acre with the spacing if 30 cm. x 30 cm. is followed.

The plants should be planted in the soil with roots in a straight position. There should be enough air in the soil for healthy growth. The growing point is usually just above the surface of the soil. Plants should be decently irrigated at the beginning with no dry spots on the surface.

How to ensure proper care of plants

The straight roots of the strawberry plants spread closer to the surface. Therefore, you will have to maintain decent moisture in and around the soil. Young plants should be free from weeds, and there should be light and regular hoeing.

Horticultural practices related to the strawberry crops

Strawberry Farm

Farmers prefer covering the soil with mulch throughout the winter to protect roots from cold injury. The mulch protects fruits from the soil, conserves moisture of the soil, and controls the decaying of fruits. And for strawberries farming, straw mulch is the most preferred one. Black alkathine mulch is also used, especially before and after the winter.

Requirement of irrigation

Strawberry is a shallow-rooted plant, and less amount, but more frequent watering in each irrigation. Excessive irrigation usually converts into increased incidents of Botrytis rot, and growth of excessive stolons and leaves at the expense of flowers and fruits. Strawberry plants are also very susceptible to drought, so insufficient watering can also damage the plants completely.

In the case of newly planted runners, you should irrigate frequently after planting. Otherwise, plants will start dying, even before their proper growth. During September and October, especially if there is no rain, you should irrigate the plants

A couple of times in a week. In December and January, irrigation once in a couple of weeks is ideal. The frequency of irrigation is usually increased once the fruits appear on the plant to ensure larger fruits in a decent number.

How many strawberries per plant?

Well, it depends entirely on a lot of factors including conditions, rain, soil, variety of strawberry plants, care, irrigation, etc. On average, a healthy plant yields 150 to 400 grams of strawberries.

Using fertilizers and manures for strawberry plants

A fertilizer dose of 25 to 50 tonnes manure, 75-100 kg. N, 40-120 kg. P205, 40-80 kg. K20/ha. maybe needed depending on the variety of plant(s) and soil type.

Intercultural operations

Harrowing and plowing are the two methods through which strawberry crop is kept free from weeds during the first season. Applying plastic sheets and herbicides are also preferred in some regions.

How to protect strawberry crops from different pests and diseases?

Cutworms and red spider mites are the most common pests related to strawberry plants. You can control spider by using 0.25 percent water-soluble sulfur with 0.05 percent monocrotophos. And a dusting the soil before plantation with 5 percent chlordane or heptachlor can control cutworms.

Blackroot rot and red stale are the two major diseases affecting strawberries farming. Fungus Phytophthora fragariae is responsible for both of them.

Black root rot can be controlled by increasing the resistant variants like stelemaster, and red stale can be managed by maintaining the vigor of the plants and rotating the strawberry crops with other crops like beans, legumes, and peas, etc.

Virus diseases like crinkle, dwarf, and yellow edges also affect strawberries crops. And raising the crop in hilly areas is the best way to avoid these diseases. Strawberries are known for throwing various chlorotic plants, which usually results from genetic segregation – and should not be confused with virus infections.


When the half to three-fourth of each strawberry fruit starts changing its color, you should get the indication that the harvesting time has arrived. Depending on the growth and weather conditions, you can do the picking every second or third day – prefer morning hours for picking. Small baskets and trays are preferred for harvesting at the end of strawberries growing season. To avoid damage due to excessive heat, keep those baskets or trays in a shady place.

February to April is the best time for the ripening of strawberries grown in plains. And May and June are suitable for harvesting in places with higher elevations. If you want to transport them in distant markets, try to harvest when fruits are still light in color. For transporting them in local markets, harvest them when they are fully ripe.

Post-harvesting care

Strawberries are perishable fruits. Therefore, they are packed in shallow, flat containers of different types including bamboo, cardboard, trays, and papers, etc. with not more than two to three layers of fruits. Avoid washing them, as it causes bruises and makes them lustreless – and of course, can completely derail your marketing strategies.

Yielding also depends on various factors including varieties, conditions, care, and rain, etc. If you yield 20 to 25 tons of fruits per hectare, you’ve grabbed the jackpot! But if the conditions are ideal, even 50 tons of fruits per hectare have been reported.

  • Grading: Grading is also an important aspect of a successful strawberries farming strategy. Factors like size, color, weight, etc. are considered before proper grading.
  • Storage: You can store strawberry fruits in cold storage at 32 degrees Celsius up to 10 days. If you are planning to transport them to distant markets, don’t forget to pre-cool them at 4 degrees Celsius within the first two hours of harvesting. After pre-cooling, you can ship them in refrigerated vans.
  • Packing: Packing is done based on grading and transportation distance. Perforated cardboard cartons with paper cutting as cushioning material are preferred for first-grade fruits. And low-grade fruits are packed in trays or baskets.
  • Transportation: Road transport by lorries or trucks is the easiest mode of transport because you will find it easy to travel from orchards to the market.
  • Marketing: Most of the farmers, especially the new ones prefer contacting trade agents at local levels to get a decent price. We recommend this to you as well!

To be honest, strawberries growing is not the easiest of options to start your business. But if you are determined enough to do the hard work in the beginning, there is a lot to take.

Strawberry farming is considered as one of the most profitable farming in the world. It does demand a lot of hard work, care, grit, and determination.

But, once you successfully go through the first season of farming, you will find it considerably easy in the subsequent seasons. It is full of fun, taste, tang, and a lot of profit. So, keep delivering the delicacy, keep growing strawberries, keep growing fruits! Happy farming!

Guava Farming – Planting, Spacing, & Cultivation Guide

Guava fruit is well known for its good flavor and aroma. Its scientific name is Psidium guajava. Guava is also called the ‘apple of the tropics’. Guava is rich in vitamin c and minerals. It is also rich in antioxidants. Guava has many health benefits. Guava is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions.

Guava Farming is a very profitable business. Guava helps in curing many diseases. Guava is also helpful in losing weight. In 2019 the production of guava all over the world was 55 million tonnes. Guava trees start fruiting after 3-4 years of plantation. Guava is mainly grown from seeds or by vegetative propagation. Guava trees are very productive and adaptable.

Guava Farming: 

  • Description of the guava plant:

Guava tree has smooth, thin, and brown bark that peels off and reveals a greenish layer below it. The maximum height that a guava tree can reach is 33ft or 10m with a trunk of 10 in (25cm).

The leaves of this tree are evergreen. These leaves are oval and long, having a short petiole. These leaves are leathery in texture and when guava leaves are crushed, they have a nice aroma. The white flowers grow independently in the leaf axils. These flowers have 4 to 5 petals. 

  • Description of guava fruit:

The skin color of the fruit ranges from light yellow to pale green or sometimes pink. When you peel off the skin of guava, a layer of sweet flavor full and tangy flesh is present. The color of flesh can be white, yellowish, light pink, dark pink, red.

When the fruit is immature, it is very hard and astringent. When guava ripens, some of its varieties have custard-like consistency however the others are crispy. Mainly the central pulp is of the same color even if the surrounding flesh is lighter or darker. It is very juicy and has hard yellow seeds in it. 

  • Different types of guava fruit:

Guava fruit has many different varieties. Some of these common varieties are given below:

  1. Ruby supreme: This variety of guava is oval. It has a medium to large size. It has a pungent smell. Its flesh is thick and sweet. Comparatively fewer seeds are present in this variety. Ruby supreme guavas are excellent to eat fresh. This variety has good productivity.
  2. Red Indian: red Indian guavas are round in shape and have medium to large size. This variety has a strong odor. It has a sweet flavor and its flesh is red. It also has good productivity. 
  3. Beaumont: The fruit of this variety is large. Its color is either green or light yellow and has pink flesh. Beaumont guava fruit can weigh up to a pound. 
  4. Red Malaysian: This variety has very unique foliage and flowers that are deep red. These flowers are also used for decoration. This variety is frequently grown for ornamental uses. 
  5. Mexican cream: It is our next variety of guava fruit. These guavas have yellow skin and cream-colored flesh that is a bit spicy. It is mainly medium-sized. 
  6. Safeda: In this variety, the skin of the fruit is very thin however the flesh is thick and white. Fewer seeds are present in this variety. This is a very famous variety and grown widely. However, branches of safeda are brittle and can break continuously. 
  7. Bangkok apple: These fruits are large-sized and have thick flesh. It has fine color and taste.
  8. Lucknow: It is medium-sized fruit and round shaped. It has creamy white soft flesh with a sweet and pleasant flavor. It is a good quality fruit and has fewer seeds.

Propagation of the guava plant: 

Propagation of guava depends on the variety of fruit, the fertility of the soil, and the available irrigation provisions.

At what distance the trees should be planted?

A distance of 5to 8 m should be maintained between the trees. Standing spacing between them should be 6 × 6 m where 112 trees could be planted in one acre. High-density planting can lead the branches to grow towards the sky. This results in long compact trees that give a high yield in the initial years. 

Usually, seed propagation for guavas is not much preferred as the juvenile phase of seeds is very long. Seed propagation gives lower yields and poor quality of fruit.

However, if seeds have to be used for propagation, then these seeds should be sown immediately after it’s extraction from the ripened fruit. Soaking these seeds in water for 12 hours a day or soaking them in hydrochloric acid for 3 minutes gives 90% of germination. After one year the seeding is ready for budding.

Inarching is another way for the propagation of guava but this method gives a limited number of plants from the mother plant. Though budding is a very successful method of propagation it needs a large amount of labor. Another successful method is layering but again the condition is that a limited number of plants can be produced from a mother plant. 

The easiest and pocket-friendly vegetative method for the propagation of guava is marcotting. In this method, the parts of the hardened shoots of a selected variety are dragged. After this step, a mixture of moist earth, compost, rooting hormones is gathered at the spot. If this method is successful, roots will appear in 3 weeks. Seedbeds are also a good method for vegetative propagation of guava 

Must Read: How Long Does it take a Kiwi Plant to Produce Fruit

Fertilization of guava trees:

Different fertilizers are used in different regions. Fertilizers have to be provided regularly to produce high-quality flowers and fruit. Regular fertilization also helps the plant to grow faster. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium in the ratio of 6:6:6:2 are applied to the guava tree. 

Pruning of guava plants: 

Pruning of the plants is very important at younger stages as this helps to build a strong framework and avoid week crotches. Pruning if fruiting trees is important to prevent overcrowding. The plants are aimed as low headed trees as this makes the hand picking of fruits easy. Pruning is also helpful in increasing the size of the fruit and yield as well. 

Pest and diseases: 

Pest control is very important for good productivity and disease-free plants. Mainly fruit flies, stem borers, nematodes, thrips, mealy bugs, scale insects, and some more are the pests found in the guava field. These pests can be controlled by chemical spraying or using pesticides. 

Some other cultural practices can also be adopted to avoid fruit from getting destroyed. For example, removing the infected fruit or plant part so that it doesn’t infect the whole plant.


Some of the diseases of Guava plants are fruit canker, will, fruit rot, anthracnose, grey leaf spot, or more. More details about the diseases are given below:

Guava wilt:

The symptoms of this disease are: in the early monsoon, light yellow foliage starts appearing and loss of turgidity and epinasty can also be noticed. Later on, plants can show unthriftiness along with this, premature shedding and defoliation can also be seen.

Some of the small branches can become bare and may stop producing new leaves and flowers and eventually dry up. Fruits on all these affected branches are left underdeveloped, hard, and Stony. And finally, the plant dies at the end. In this disease, the roots also get rotted from the basal region. The bark also gets weak and can be easily removed. Discoloration can also be noted. 

How is it spread? This can be spread from the sick soil in Virgin areas. It can also be spread from water. Any root injury also promotes wilt diseases.

Fruit rot:

Symptoms of this disease can be mainly seen in the rainy season. White cotton-like growth can be noticed on the affected part that develops very fast. This pathogen can cover the entire surface within 3 to 4 days. When the humidity is very high, at that time the fruits that are near the soil get affected very easily. Below the white covering, the skin of the fruit becomes very slushy and its color becomes light brown to dark. 

How does it spread? This disease is mainly spread through wind or rain. It is also spread through pathogens. It can be also spread from the infected plant material like soil etc.

Fruit canker:

The symptoms of fruit canker can be seen mainly on the green fruit and rarely on the leaves. At first, brown-colored or rust like unbroken circular and harmful patches can be seen on the fruit that leads to infection. The crater-like thing can also be noticed. In some severe cases, a large number of cankerous stops can also be seen. The infected fruit doesn’t develop completely and is very hard. Sometimes tiny rusty spots can also be noticed on the leaves. 

How do fruit cankers spread? This disease is mainly spread through Pathogens. Anyone infected or injured by fruit or plant part can also be responsible for this. 

Also Read: How to Nurture the Dragon Fruit –An Exotic Tropical Fruit

Alga leaf and fruit spot: 

In this, the algae infect the Immature fruit and in this small brown velvety lesions can be seen on the leaves or leaf tip. The spots on the leaves may vary in size, there may be small tiny spots or big patches. The color of the fruit can change to dark green, black, or brown. In this, the size of fruit enlarges 

How does this disease spread? This disease is an air-borne disease and hence air and rain can be the carrier of the disease. Pathogens are another carrier of this disease. 

Stylar end rot:

The main symptom of this disease is a change in the color of the region lying just below and adjoining the persistent calyx. Such areas gradually increase in size and turn dark brown.

Afterward, the affected part becomes slushy. Despite these all symptoms of the discoloration of the pericarp, the mesocarp tissue also shows the change in color, and the diseased area is marked by being pulpy and light brown in color in contrast to the bright white. 

How does the disease spread? Again pathogens are responsible for this disease and these are spread through the wind. 

Irrigation if guavas: 

Usually, no irrigation is needed during the monsoon months unless and until there are long spells of drought. In the initial year when the plants are very young with a shallow root system, they should be irrigated even at 2 to 3 days interval in the dry season. Trees in the age group of 2-5 years should be irrigated at intervals of 4 to 5 days. 

How to harvest guavas? 

Fruiting starts after about 2 to 3 years of plantation. However, the yield of the fruit depends on the age of the trees, or how the trees are planted ( pattern ), and other cultural practices. The proper yield can be seen after 10 years. After 10 years 100 to 150 kg of yield can be seen every year. Guavas can be harvested at any time in the year. However if one wants the best taste, flavor, and aroma it can be obtained when the fruits are ripened. 

When these guavas are grown at a commercial level, the ripening can be noticed when the fruit starts turning yellow. If the fruits are to be transported to some faraway place, then they should be harvested when they are light yellow and yellow can be harvested for locals. 


Guava farming is a profitable business but it needs a lot of hard work and time. 

With harvesting possible at any time of year, it can bring profits to you for a lifetime. All you need to do is beware of the necessities of guava plants and then you can get fruits whenever you wish.